Types and functions of fans for solid fuel boilers


It is dif­fi­cult to imag­ine mod­ern heat­ing tech­nol­o­gy with­out var­i­ous mech­a­nisms and devices. Thanks to tech­no­log­i­cal progress, it was pos­si­ble to equip the sol­id fuel boil­ers famil­iar to us all with addi­tion­al electro­mechan­i­cal devices. It became pos­si­ble to reg­u­late the inten­si­ty of com­bus­tion in auto­mat­ic mode, improve the tech­no­log­i­cal capa­bil­i­ties of ven­ti­la­tion. A spe­cial place in the automa­tion of the main process­es is occu­pied by a fan used to oper­ate a sol­id fuel boil­er. Almost the most impor­tant stages in the func­tion­ing of the entire heat­ing sys­tem are asso­ci­at­ed with this device.

What is a fan for? Its main features

A sol­id fuel boil­er in the usu­al view is a heat­ing device, where the main work is car­ried out by burn­ing fuel. In the pres­ence of draft and nat­ur­al air flow, the inten­si­ty of com­bus­tion is weak, respec­tive­ly, low heat trans­fer. An exam­ple is a fire­place. The nat­ur­al flow of air does not allow the flame to flare up strong­ly in the fur­nace, so this heat­ing device has lim­it­ed tech­no­log­i­cal capa­bil­i­ties.

It is a com­plete­ly dif­fer­ent mat­ter when the super­charg­er is turned on. An addi­tion­al vol­ume of air is pumped into the fur­nace of the heater. The com­bus­tion becomes intense, the fuel burns out com­plete­ly, giv­ing off the max­i­mum num­ber of kilo­calo­ries.

There­fore, for mod­ern mod­els of sol­id fuel boil­ers, of almost all types and types, the fan is one of the most impor­tant ele­ments of the con­trol sys­tem. Usu­al­ly, the automa­tion kit for heat­ing appli­ances today includes a blow­er, a smoke exhauster and a con­trol unit. Prop­er and cor­rect instal­la­tion of such devices and devices on boil­er equip­ment will ensure reli­able and bal­anced oper­a­tion of your unit.

On a note: the com­bus­tion process is 90% depen­dent on the oper­a­tion of the super­charg­er. Thanks to the action of this device, air is inject­ed into the com­bus­tion cham­ber, the inten­si­ty of com­bus­tion increas­es, and the effi­cien­cy of heat­ing equip­ment increas­es accord­ing­ly.

To date, domes­tic and for­eign indus­try pro­duces a huge num­ber of house­hold fans (cool­ers), spe­cial­ly designed for instal­la­tion on heat­ing appli­ances. When choos­ing a blow­er for your unit, you need to focus on the pow­er of the boil­er and your own house­hold needs. The sol­id fuel unit with fan is a high-tech and effi­cient heat­ing machine. All process­es, from the extrac­tion of flue gas­es to the best oper­a­tion of the com­bus­tion cham­ber, depend on the oper­a­tion of the fans.

In oth­er words: there are exhaust fans installed in the chim­ney and blow­ing devices spe­cial­ly designed to blow air into the fur­nace of the heater. Typ­i­cal­ly, an air blow­er is used when work­ing with dif­fi­cult-to-ignite fuels. Coke, char­coal or wet wood burns bad­ly at the very begin­ning. There­fore, for bet­ter com­bus­tion in this sit­u­a­tion, a pres­sur­iza­tion device is used. Oth­er types of fuel, such as pel­lets, bri­quettes and dry fire­wood, need con­stant air blow­ing. By installing fans on the boil­er, you will be able to achieve eco­nom­i­cal fuel con­sump­tion for a sol­id fuel boil­er, and the safe­ty of boil­er equip­ment will increase sig­nif­i­cant­ly. There is no more rea­son to wor­ry about the qual­i­ty of com­bus­tion in the fire­box and wor­ry about the oper­a­tion of the hood.

The device device and types of fans

Accord­ing to their func­tion­al char­ac­ter­is­tics and para­me­ters, fans are divid­ed into three types, each of which is deter­mined by the design of the engine. The elec­tric motors used for these pur­pos­es can oper­ate both from alter­nat­ing cur­rent and from direct cur­rent. The advent of elec­tron­ic equip­ment cre­at­ed the pre­req­ui­sites for the active use of AC motors. Unlike DC motors, AC motors are vir­tu­al­ly devoid of dis­ad­van­tages. The sim­ple and unpre­ten­tious design of elec­tric motors made it pos­si­ble to mass-pro­duce a wide vari­ety of electro­mechan­i­cal devices. Most of the fans are equipped with just such elec­tric motors.

Today on the mar­ket you can find the fol­low­ing types of fans:

  • devices in elec­tro-com­mu­tat­ed motors (EC);
  • prod­ucts equipped with syn­chro­nous motors;
  • blow­ers with asyn­chro­nous motor.

All prod­ucts have their clear advan­tages and dis­ad­van­tages. In the case of an elec­tri­cal­ly com­mu­tat­ed motor, we can talk about one qual­i­ty. The device itself is able to change the num­ber of rev­o­lu­tions, receiv­ing the appro­pri­ate sig­nal from the con­trol unit. Here we can talk about a wide range of fan con­trol. How­ev­er, the device has a sig­nif­i­cant draw­back — the device is not com­pat­i­ble with most domes­tic tem­per­a­ture con­trollers. In addi­tion, this tech­nique is expen­sive.

Speak­ing about fans with syn­chro­nous elec­tric motors, we can focus on the fol­low­ing: the devices are quite cheap and easy to man­u­fac­ture. How­ev­er, this type of equip­ment has cer­tain dis­ad­van­tages. Such devices have a min­i­mum torque dur­ing the start, and a small range of speed adjust­ment.

For ref­er­ence: usu­al­ly fans with syn­chro­nous motors are installed to con­stant­ly force air mass into the com­bus­tion cham­ber. The syn­chro­nous motors that the devices are equipped with are quite large in size. Usu­al­ly the super­charg­er motor is tak­en out in a sep­a­rate block. When run­ning at low speeds for syn­chro­nous motors, over­heat­ing of the wind­ing is fre­quent.

As for the speed range, the val­ues ​​u200bu200bare not great here. On some mod­els, the range is adjustable with­in 30–70%, and from 90 to 100%. This fea­ture is char­ac­ter­is­tic of a syn­chro­nous motor. Accord­ing to experts, it is not rec­om­mend­ed to equip domes­tic sol­id fuel boil­ers with fans with syn­chro­nous elec­tric motors. Micro­proces­sor tem­per­a­ture con­trollers are poor­ly com­pat­i­ble with a device in which the num­ber of rev­o­lu­tions is lim­it­ed and the pow­er is with­in a strict frame­work.

The last, third type of fans used in mod­ern heat­ing sys­tems has a num­ber of advan­tages. Asyn­chro­nous elec­tric motor allows you to eas­i­ly adjust the num­ber of rev­o­lu­tions. On some mod­els there is even a reverse. The main advan­tages of such a device are as fol­lows:

  • Such fans are sim­ple and easy to use;
  • Have a reli­able design;
  • Con­ven­tion­al con­trol scheme;
  • Sup­port­ed by all cur­rent­ly exist­ing MRI.

The only draw­back that is char­ac­ter­is­tic of asyn­chro­nous motors is high start­ing cur­rents.


Sol­id fuel boil­ers, which are now mas­sive­ly equipped with fans, are becom­ing more auto­mat­ed heat­ing devices. It used to take a lot of patience to endure the roar of the com­pres­sor pump­ing air into the com­bus­tion cham­ber. Today, most boil­er hous­es, large and small, are equipped with low-noise and high-per­for­mance devices.

Thanks to the design of the fan (improved aero­dy­nam­ics of the blades), the per­for­mance has increased sig­nif­i­cant­ly. The vol­ume of sup­plied air was dou­bled by chang­ing the con­fig­u­ra­tion of the blades. Due to the wide range of the num­ber of rev­o­lu­tions, it was pos­si­ble to achieve good flex­i­bil­i­ty in the oper­a­tion of the elec­tro­mo­tive group. You can adjust the rota­tion­al speed, refer­ring to the slight­est tem­per­a­ture changes.


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