In EU, heating systems built under the skirting board appeared relatively recently. In European countries, they have been used for a long time as the main or additional heating of rooms. Many are interested in what are the advantages and disadvantages of these heating schemes. Let’s analyze the pros and cons of electric infrared and warm water skirting boards, the features of their installation.
All about the heating baseboard
How it works
Types of heater
Advantages and disadvantages
How to choose a system
— Electrical diagram
– Water heating
How does a warm baseboard work?
The design of the heater is quite simple. It is a metal box fixed at the bottom of the wall. It is small: thickness is about 3 cm, height is from 10 to 24 cm. Heating elements are installed inside the case. They can be electric or water. In the first case, this is a heating element, in the second — pipes inside which the coolant moves.
The principle of operation of the baseboard heater is significantly different from the usual radiator circuits. Radiators use convection. When the flow of cold air warms up near the battery, it rises. From there, it displaces the next cold stream, and the process repeats. As a result, a kind of “thermal cushion” is formed under the ceiling, while at the floor level the temperature will always be lower.
With low ceilings, after some time, relatively comfortable conditions are formed inside the room. This does not happen in rooms with high ceilings. In any case, there is no need to talk about uniform heating. To warm the air in the room, high heating temperatures of the radiators are needed, which must be maintained for a long time. Heat losses in this case are about 50–70%, that is, no more than 30% of heat is spent on heating.
The heating baseboard works differently. He heats first the lower part of the wall, and then all of it up to the ceiling. The heated surface gives off radiant energy, effectively and evenly heats the entire room. The principle of such infrared heating is similar to the sun’s rays and is considered the most favorable for humans.
As a result of the operation of the heater, a kind of “thermal curtain” is obtained, which cuts off any cold streams from all sides. It is suitable for installation under panoramic or French windows, reliably protects from the cold. The temperature at all levels is the same, which is very comfortable. Strong heating of thermal elements is not necessary. It is enough to heat up the wall only up to 37–38˚С. In this case, heat loss is about 4–5%.
Types of equipment
Depending on the type of heating element inside the housing, there are two types of heating equipment. Let’s characterize both options.
Operates according to the principles of standard water heating. Two tubes made of cross-linked polyethylene are laid inside the case. A coolant moves through them. It can be water or antifreeze. The heated liquid is fed through the upper pipe, and the cooled liquid is discharged through the lower pipe. To ensure the normal speed of movement of the coolant, a circulation pump is installed. It pushes the liquid through the distribution manifold and further down the pipes.
For the arrangement of joints and corners, special shaped elements are produced. They provide the necessary tightness. System manufacturers produce designs with a length of no more than 12.5 m, rarely 15 m. Schemes of greater length are inoperative. If this length is not enough, a circuit is assembled from two or more circuits.
Water systems are adjustable. You can set the desired temperature manually or install automation with thermostats and distribution valves with servomotors. Such a scheme is more complicated and more expensive in design and arrangement than an electrical one. It requires the supply of a heated coolant, which is easy to organize in a private house where the boiler is installed.
In apartment buildings this is not always possible. Requires permission from the heating company to connect. In addition, the coolant supplied from the centralized line is too hot. To cool it down, heat absorber plates are additionally installed or thermal valves are installed in the areas where the circuit is connected to the riser. All this further complicates the installation. That’s why
A warm electric skirting board is more in demand than a water one. Structurally, it is a copper heater consisting of two parallel tubes. At the bottom is a low-temperature heater, at the top there is an electric cable. Plates are installed on top of the tubes to improve heat transfer. The whole structure is covered with an aluminum case.
Both of these metals conduct heat well, therefore they provide the maximum possible heat transfer of the heating element. The electric heater is adjustable. As with the water variety, manual control is possible, which is not very convenient, or automatic. In the latter case, the settings are as accurate as possible. They allow you to maintain a comfortable temperature in the room and at the same time save energy. Automatic heaters can be programmed for a specific temperature cycle per day, week or month.
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Pros and cons of a warm skirting board
Let’s list the advantages of the heating system.
- Uniform and simultaneous heating around the entire perimeter of the room.
- The walls accumulate heat, so they always remain dry. They do not deteriorate from moisture, fungus or mold does not settle in them.
- Radiation heating is carried out — the most beneficial for human health.
- The temperature is the same throughout the room. No cold or hot zones.
- Compatible with any type of floor finish.
- Compact equipment can be installed in any room. At the same time, bulky batteries will not spoil the view of the room.
- Minimum heat loss, which can significantly save resources. Especially for systems with automatic control.
- High cost of components.
- Low prevalence, which affects the possibility of purchasing a heater. This is especially true for small towns.
- Restriction on the length of the contour for a warm water plinth. This must be taken into account when designing the system.
- It is undesirable to install electrical systems in wet rooms. For them, it is best to choose products with increased moisture protection.
How to choose a heating system
First you need to determine how much heat is needed to heat the room. It is worth focusing on average norms, according to which 600–1,000 watts are needed for heating a square meter for the middle band. For the southern regions, this number decreases, for the northern, respectively, increases. The selected indicator is multiplied by the area of u200bu200bthe room. It turns out the amount of heat that needs to be received from heating. A small “margin” within the range of 10–15% is always added to the calculated value.
After that, proceed to the calculation of the length of the plinth. The easiest way to do this is for electric models. Their packaging indicates heat transfer from a linear meter. The previously calculated required amount of heat is divided by this value. Similarly, the length of the water circuit is calculated. Only in this case it is necessary to take into account the thermal head of the system. If it is difficult to do it yourself, you should seek help from a sales consultant.
Features of installing a warm plinth
If desired, you can install heating equipment yourself. Let’s analyze the approximate sequence of actions for both varieties.
They connect electrical equipment directly to the shield, that is, they output a separate line for it. It must be equipped with an automatic. This is necessary for safe operation. If you plan to equip several heating circuits, separate lines are equipped for each of them. It is important to choose the right cross-section of wires so that they can withstand a significant load. Usually choose 2.5 mm and above.
An important point. Install the housing so that there is a gap of at least 10 mm between it and the floor. This is necessary for natural protection against overheating. To automatically control the temperature regime, a thermostat is installed in each circuit, a temperature detector is mounted in the room.
- Lay thermal insulation in the areas where you will install the equipment.
- Mark the location of the body.
- Install and fix the base of the plinth to the wall.
- Attach the heat exchanger to the base.
- Make a parallel connection of electrical wires. Carefully insulate these areas.
- Carefully inspect the resulting contour for non-isolated fragments. They shouldn’t be.
- Install the front bezel.
- Connect the system to the thermostat and electrical panel.
- Test the functionality of the equipment.
A mandatory element of such a system is a collector, which is connected to a coolant source. Most often it is a boiler that runs on any type of fuel.
- Install the distributor.
- Lay thermal insulation in the area where the warm baseboard is to be installed.
- Fix the base plate of the equipment case. Its lower edge should be at least 10 mm above the floor level.
- Install two rows of pipes. Fix the elements securely. Connect them together with compression fittings.
- Connect the assembled circuit to the manifold.
- Conduct a test run. Inspect the pipes carefully. There should be no leaks or dripping connections.
- Install the decorative panel.
It is important to remember that the length of the water circuit is limited. If it exceeds 12.5 or 15 meters, it is different for all manufacturers, it is necessary to divide the heating skirting board into several circuits. Each is mounted according to the scheme described above.