warm walls

Mod­el VPNS (Ther­mic)
Mod­el Ori­en­tal (Cinier)
Mod­el Dualis Plus (Zehn­der)
At the ISH-2007 exhi­bi­tion in Frank­furt, Run­tal ther­mal pan­els attract­ed the atten­tion of vis­i­tors. Look spec­tac­u­lar, for exam­ple, mod­els with ceram­ic inserts (a) and the image of a giraffe (b)
Mod­el African (Cinier)
The assort­ment of the Ital­ian com­pa­ny Calei­do includes water ther­mal pan­els with an unusu­al front sur­face fin­ish. For exam­ple, for the Hon­ey mod­el (a) it resem­bles a hon­ey­comb, and for Skin (b)- sim­i­lar to the scales of a fairy drag­on
Elec­tric ther­mal pan­els dec­o­rat­ed with glass are in high demand. They can be used for heat­ing rooms for var­i­ous pur­pos­es.- bath­rooms, kitchens, bed­rooms, liv­ing rooms
The solaris elec­tric ther­mal pan­el has a black glass radi­ant sur­face. The device is equipped with brack­ets for dry­ing tex­tiles. Your tow­els will always be dry and warm
Tubu­lar pan­el Arbo­nia with a mir­ror insert (a) and a Neher heat­ed tow­el rail mir­ror (b)
Mod­el Nova Mir­ror (Zehn­der)
Ther­mal pan­els Wall (a) and Flo­ra (b) from Calei­do are “dressed” in trendy “dress­es” made of col­ored plas­tic
Avant-garde Maku­ra (AD hoc) (a) and Karotherm (Arbo­nia) (b)
cinier Noirot­Elec­tric ther­mal pan­els main­tain the set tem­per­a­ture with a high degree of accu­ra­cy and sto­ical­ly endure mains volt­age fluc­tu­a­tions

When using ther­mal pan­els, hot air accu­mu­lates under the ceil­ing less inten­sive­ly than when using con­vec­tors. There­fore, ther­mal walls are espe­cial­ly effec­tive in heat­ing the halls of cot­tages, the low­er tiers of two-sto­ry apart­ments, as well as oth­er rooms with high ceil­ings. Due to the low inten­si­ty of con­vec­tive air cur­rents- the main car­ri­ers of house dust- these devices can be used where aller­gy suf­fer­ers live.

Ther­mal pan­els allow, if nec­es­sary, to reduce the tem­per­a­ture in the room by 1–2 C. At the same time, a per­son will still have a feel­ing of com­fort, since the cold snap will be com­pen­sat­ed by the so-called radi­a­tion sup­ple­ment, absorbed direct­ly by the human body. The heat­ed space must be with­in the range of the infrared heat flux emit­ted by the pan­els, so the devices should be placed in a vis­i­ble place (under or next to win­dows, on walls near doors andt.and not cov­ered by fur­ni­ture or cur­tains. Get advice on the ther­mal pow­er of appli­ances (usu­al­ly the choice is made at the rate of at least 100–120W per square meter of space), their quan­ti­ty and lay­out can be in any design and instal­la­tion com­pa­ny spe­cial­iz­ing in res­i­den­tial heat­ing sys­tems.

Ther­mal pan­el Fan­taz­ja (Instal Pro­jekt) is per­fect for high-tech inte­ri­ors. Its front sur­face is dec­o­rat­ed with a per­fo­rat­ed steel screen. There are four steel tow­el hold­ers. The device can heat var­i­ous rooms and dry wet tex­tiles

Cur­rent and heat

Elec­tric ther­mal pan­els heat the room by con­vert­ing elec­tric­i­ty into heat. ATthey are most often used in a city apart­ment in addi­tion to an exist­ing cen­tral heat­ing sys­tem. They pro­vide a com­fort­able tem­per­a­ture in autumn and spring (when the sup­ply of hot coolant to the bat­ter­ies has not yet begun or has already been com­plet­ed, while it is cool out­side), as well as in win­ter, in severe frosts, if the pow­er of cen­tral heat­ing radi­a­tors is not enough. Appli­ances in a splash-proof hous­ing allow you to quick­ly warm up the bath­room. Some mod­els of elec­tric ther­mal pan­els can be installed in chil­dren’s rooms, since their sur­face tem­per­a­ture does not exceed 40 FROM.

FROMwith the help of ther­mal pan­els it is pos­si­ble to pro­vide the main heat­ing of a coun­try house. It is log­i­cal to do this where there are no inter­rup­tions in the sup­ply of elec­tric­i­ty (or they hap­pen extreme­ly rarely) and a suf­fi­cient­ly pow­er­ful cable is con­nect­ed to the build­ing. Most often, how­ev­er, they are used to heat rarely used premis­es, to which it is eco­nom­i­cal­ly or tech­ni­cal­ly imprac­ti­cal to con­duct pipes with coolant from the boil­er room. The key to suc­cess­ful adap­ta­tion of elec­tric ther­mal pan­els to a spe­cif­ic room- the pres­ence of wiring in it, designed to con­nect pow­er­ful elec­tri­cal appli­ances. No addi­tion­al ther­mo­sta­t­ic devices most often need to be pur­chased- pan­els are sold with a built-in ther­mo­stat, which pro­vides tem­per­a­ture con­trol in the range of 5–30 C. Mul­ti­ple pan­els can also be con­trolled by one remote ther­mo­stat.

The front sur­face of Nat­u­ray Bains (Noirot) elec­tric ther­mal pan­els is made of vol­canic lava (a). BUTwater mod­el Geo Ver­ti­cal (Jaga) the emit­ter is formed from light gray nat­ur­al stone gran­ules (b)

Euro­pean man­u­fac­tur­ers pro­duce elec­tric ther­mal pan­els in the form of small rec­tan­gu­lar plates mount­ed on walls. The case, which has a box-shaped design, is made of sheet steel, cov­ered with white pow­der paint. Inside, a nichrome thread is laid on the heat insu­la­tor, which even­ly warms up the front sur­face of the device. The pow­er of domes­tic pan­els is 100–700Tue Dimen­sions- 500400 or 700400mm, body thick­ness- about 50mm. The heat­ing tem­per­a­ture usu­al­ly does not exceed 90 C. Such, for exam­ple, are the mod­els “Thermik‑S” (“Mr. Hit”) and ERGNT (“Teplo­fon”). The cost of these heaters- 700‑1450rub. for 1 piece

Import­ed pan­els are often made of glass. So, per­haps the first ther­mal pan­els that appeared in EU,- prod­ucts of the Safir series (Nobo, Nor­way). Their body con­sists of two glass plates con­nect­ed to each oth­er. Between them is a thin elec­tri­cal­ly con­duc­tive lay­er that gen­er­ates heat when cur­rent pass­es through it. Safir pan­els are pro­duced for hor­i­zon­tal and ver­ti­cal instal­la­tion. Instru­ment length- 1400mm, height- 400, 500 or 600mm, and pow­er- 750, 900 and 1110W respec­tive­ly. Price- 13–210 $. for 1 piece Appli­ances with a front glass sur­face for liv­ing rooms, bed­rooms, kitchens and bath­rooms are man­u­fac­tured by Fondis (France, Solaris trade­mark). The capac­i­ty of Solaris prod­ucts is 450‑1500Tue Height and width vary with­in 450‑1500mm. Mod­els are avail­able for ver­ti­cal and hor­i­zon­tal instal­la­tion. The cost of devices is approx­i­mate­ly 35–600 $. for 1 piece

Cinier (France) elec­tric ther­mal pan­els made of Oly­cale stone look impres­sive. Each pan­el is hand­craft­ed at the fir­m’s fac­to­ry and dec­o­rat­ed with Egypt­ian, Greek or African sculp­tures. The cus­tomer can choose any of ten stone col­ors and eight tones of enam­el coat­ing for paint­ing the pan­el sur­faces. For dec­o­ra­tion use ceram­ics, chrome-plat­ed met­al, col­ored glass. The devices are equipped with a dou­ble-insu­lat­ed heat­ing cable and a ther­mo­stat that receives sig­nals from a sen­sor built into the pan­el and main­tains the tem­per­a­ture of the stone at a safe lev­el. The height of these prod­ucts - 1200–2200mm, width- 400–800mm, body thick­ness- around 30mm. Ther­mal pow­er of one of the mod­els (2000700mm) is 1.4 kW. Mass of heaters- about 100kg. Price- up to 1300$. for 1 piece

ATelec­tric ther­mal pan­els, which are a hybrid of a radi­a­tor and a con­vec­tor, are also on sale. For exam­ple, elec­tric heaters of the Verlys Evo­lu­tion series (Noirot, France) are equipped with two heat­ing ele­ments that trans­fer heat into the room in the form of infrared radi­a­tion and through con­vec­tion. Con­vec­tive heat exchange takes place between the air enter­ing the case and the RX Silence Plus mono-met­al heat­ing ele­ment, and the out­er ther­mal pan­el emits IR radi­a­tion. An elec­tron­ic ther­mo­stat con­trols the two heat­ing ele­ments. Ther­mal pow­er of devices- 0.75–2 kW. Instru­ment length- 600, 800 and 1000mm, body thick­ness- 75mm, height- 480mm. Price- 12.5–18.90 $. for 1 piece

Final­ly, many heaters designed to work in water heat­ing sys­tems can also be turned into elec­tric ther­mal pan­els. To do this, it is nec­es­sary to mount a spe­cial heat­ing ele­ment (elec­tric car­tridge) into one of the pan­el col­lec­tors and fill it with propy­lene gly­col or anoth­er non-freez­ing liq­uid so that the sur­face of the heater is even­ly heat­ed.

So, for exam­ple, Karowatt KW ther­mal pan­els (Arbo­niaSwitzer­land- Ger­many) are equipped with an elec­tric car­tridge. A sim­i­lar Karotherm KT mod­el (only with­out this heat­ing ele­ment) is installed in the heat­ing sys­tem. AtKarowatt KW can be select­ed from four heat­ing lev­els. To auto­mat­i­cal­ly adjust the heat trans­fer of the pan­el, a remote con­trol unit is used (it is pur­chased sep­a­rate­ly), which allows you to set a dai­ly and week­ly heat­ing pro­gram, as well as turn on the dry­ing mode. ATmod­els with a capac­i­ty of 500‑1200 are on saleTue Instru­ment body thick­ness - about 72mm, height- 1060–2060mm, width- 500–900mm. Cost of Karowatt KW pan­els- 40–910 $. for 1 piece

Water, water, all around water…

Water ther­mal pan­els heat up due to con­tact with the heat car­ri­er of the heat­ing sys­tem or with hot water from the DHW sys­tem. It is expe­di­ent to use these devices for the main heat­ing, and also as heat­ed tow­el rails. ATIn the lat­ter case, devices equipped with shelves, hooks for tow­els and tex­tiles, etc. are cho­sen. Almost all com­mer­cial­ly avail­able mod­els are equipped with ther­mostats. Water ther­mal pan­els are sup­plied (how­ev­er, as well as elec­tric ones) com­plete with fas­ten­ers- brack­ets, plugs andt.P.

ATautonomous heat­ing sys­tems of cot­tages water ther­mal pan­els are usu­al­ly intro­duced with­out prob­lems and “live” in them for a long time, reg­u­lar­ly trans­fer­ring the heat pro­duced in the boil­er room to the house. BUTtheir “sym­bio­sis” with the heat­ing and hot water sys­tems of typ­i­cal high-rise build­ings, alas, too often turns out to be short-lived. Mod­els made of thin-walled (thick­ness 1–1.5mm) pipes made of low-alloy steel and alu­minum. Pre­ma­ture dete­ri­o­ra­tion of the pan­els occurs due to cor­ro­sion caused by the con­tact of their inter­nal sur­faces with an oxy­gen-sat­u­rat­ed coolant or hot water from the DHW sys­tem, as well as due to pres­sure surges. To increase the ser­vice life, ther­mal pan­els in such cas­es are con­nect­ed through an “inter­me­di­ary”- a two-cir­cuit adapter (it is also called an inter­me­di­ate heat exchang­er). A device of this type has been devel­oped and man­u­fac­tured, for exam­ple, by the Time com­pa­ny (TBEK series) togeth­er with KZTO (both- Europe).

The domes­tic mar­ket for water ther­mal pan­els main­ly offers prod­ucts from for­eign man­u­fac­tur­ers that pro­duce devices of var­i­ous designs. The most wide­ly rep­re­sent­ed in EU are ther­mal pan­els made of rec­tan­gu­lar met­al pipes installed close to each oth­er and weld­ed to the coolant col­lec­tors. Most of these devices are designed for oper­at­ing pres­sures up to 4–5 atm, so you have to con­nect them to the heat­ing sys­tem of a city apart­ment through an adapter. There may, how­ev­er, be excep­tions to this rule. For exam­ple, a com­pa­ny Arbo­nia- “patri­arch” of the Euro­pean mar­ket of tubu­lar design radi­a­tors and ther­mal pan­els- releas­es a very effec­tive mod­el Decotherm. This device is made to order only. It con­sists of one or two rows of steel pipes tight­ly pressed against each oth­er. Device body thick­ness- from 41mm. The pan­el is mount­ed both hor­i­zon­tal­ly and ver­ti­cal­ly. In addi­tion, the heater can also be made for instal­la­tion on the wall of an “irreg­u­lar” shape: bro­ken (made in the form of two or more flat pan­els joined at an angle, repeat­ing the out­lines of the cor­ners of the room), radius (repro­duces smooth wall bends) andt.e. It is pos­si­ble to pro­duce Decotherm ther­mal pan­els, designed for oper­a­tion at 10 atm. The cost of the device in the basic con­fig­u­ra­tion- from 300–350$. for 1 piece

The front sur­face of ther­mal pan­els of the Nova Mir­ror series (Zehn­der, Ger­many) is also formed by flat pipes (sec­tion- 70elevenmm, wall thick­ness- 1.5mm), fram­ing an ele­gant nar­row mir­ror. The asym­met­ric design of Nova Mir­ror is sure to appeal to those who are look­ing for some­thing unusu­al for their home. The ther­mal pow­er of the device does not exceed 1200Tue Height- 1800mm, width- 640mm (mod­el NVM 180–6) and 780mm (mod­el NVM 180–8). The price is from 34.50 $. for 1 piece

How does an inter­me­di­ate heat exchang­er work?

Hot water of the heat­ing sys­tem or hot water cir­cu­lates along the inter­nal con­tour of the dou­ble-cir­cuit adapter, and along the exter­nal one (in addi­tion to the heat exchang­er, it includes the pip­ing and the ther­mal pan­el itself)- antifreeze or water. Nat­u­ral­ly, water from the heat­ing sys­tem or hot water sup­ply and the coolant from the sec­ondary cir­cuit do not mix with each oth­er, but only exchange heat. Cir­cu­la­tion in the out­er cir­cuit of the adapter- grav­i­ty or pump­ing (the coolant “dri­ves in a cir­cle” the cir­cu­la­tion pump built into the cir­cuit). The adapter pro­vides a fair­ly quick heat­ing of the pan­el to oper­at­ing tem­per­a­ture. The lat­ter, how­ev­er, due to heat loss­es will be 5–15 C (depend­ing on the length of the sup­ply pipes in the exter­nal cir­cuit) is low­er than the tem­per­a­ture of the water in the sys­tem to which the pan­el is con­nect­ed. And the ther­mal pow­er of the device will be 10% less (this must be tak­en into account when buy­ing pan­els).

The inter­me­di­ate heat exchang­er is cut into the mains of the heat­ing or hot water sys­tem or con­nect­ed to it in par­al­lel. In this case, you can not be afraid of high pres­sure test­ing, the pres­ence of oxy­gen in the water, hydraulic shock andt.e. The inner cir­cuit pipe is very durable and easy to descale or replace. It is per­mis­si­ble to use any pipes in the exter­nal cir­cuit- plas­tic, met­al-plas­tic, cop­per andetc. Even if the sup­ply pipe of the ther­mal pan­el bursts, there will be no flood- the vol­ume of the coolant in the exter­nal cir­cuit of the sys­tem is only a few liters. This, of course, is not the cubic meters of hot water that are thrown into the apart­ment when a device built into the heat­ing or hot water sys­tem is destroyed.

Some man­u­fac­tur­ers dec­o­rate the sur­face of tubu­lar ther­mal pan­els with met­al sheets (most often- of stain­less steel). This tech­ni­cal solu­tion organ­i­cal­ly fits into high-tech inte­ri­ors. For exam­ple, for Cre­do-Tech­no (Ker­mi, Ger­many) radi­a­tors, a flat front pan­el cov­ers two rows of pipes and all con­nect­ing fit­tings. The per­fo­rat­ed screen made of pol­ished high-alloy steel is a design ele­ment and can also be used for hang­ing tow­els and oth­er bath acces­sories in the bath­room and liv­ing areas. Height of ther­mal pan­els Cre­do-Tech­no- 1400–1800mm, width- 540–690mm, depth- 122 or 133mm. The cost of appli­ances- 44–700 $. for 1 piece

ATsale you can find very spec­tac­u­lar ther­mal pan­els made of stone (more pre­cise­ly, stone chips, gyp­sum andt.etc.), inside which there is a cop­per or steel coil for the coolant. Due to their large mass and low sur­face tem­per­a­ture, these devices, like Euro­pean stoves, fill the house with soft and com­fort­able warmth.

Geo Ver­ti­cal stone ther­mal pan­els look impres­sive (Jaga, Bel­gium) in white, light grey, black and sand col­ors. Their sur­face is smooth, slight­ly curved. ATsteel tubes for the coolant are pressed into the pan­els, which can with­stand an oper­at­ing pres­sure of 7 atm and a coolant tem­per­a­ture of up to 110 C. In addi­tion, each Geo Ver­ti­cal device can addi­tion­al­ly be equipped with an elec­tric heat­ing ele­ment with a pow­er of 900‑1500Tue Ther­mal pan­el dimen­sions- 1500500mm, price - approx­i­mate­ly 430 $. for 1 piece BUThere are Geo Hor­i­zon­tal hor­i­zon­tal heaters - These are already “hybrid” devices. They raise the tem­per­a­ture in the room not only due to infrared radi­a­tion from their stone sur­face, but also due to con­vec­tive heat exchange, which is cre­at­ed using a high-per­for­mance LowH2O cop­per heat exchang­er locat­ed behind the pan­el (it can han­dle a work­ing pres­sure of 15 atm).

Cinier, in addi­tion to the already men­tioned elec­tric ther­mal pan­els, also pro­duces devices for water heat­ing sys­tems. Their heat exchang­er, made of cop­per pipes, accord­ing to the man­u­fac­tur­ers, has suf­fi­cient­ly high anti-cor­ro­sion and “anti-expan­sion” prop­er­ties, which ensures high reli­a­bil­i­ty and long ser­vice life of the heaters. Instru­ment work­ing pres­sure- 5 atm. The cost of water ther­mal pan­els Cinier is 70–1300$. for 1 piece

The edi­tors thank the com­pa­ny “Ruscli­mat”, “Tep­lo-Art”, “Ter­moros”, AD hoc, Calei­do, Carisa, Cor­di­vari, JagaRun­tal, Ther­mic for help with film­ing and pro­vid­ed pho­to­graph­ic mate­ri­als.

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