Warm water floor in the bath


Hav­ing under­floor heat­ing in your home, you can already appre­ci­ate the advan­tages of such a space heat­ing sys­tem. For those who have tried on them­selves all the advan­tages of this method of heat­ing, it is quite nat­ur­al to desire to achieve the same effect in oth­er objects asso­ci­at­ed with our every­day life. Here you can talk about heat­ing a coun­try house or con­sid­er a bath­house as an object of heat­ing.

For us, a bath is con­sid­ered the stan­dard of com­fort, in which the main fac­tor is warmth and com­fort. To cre­ate the nec­es­sary atmos­phere inside the bath room is per­haps the main task that one has to face dur­ing the con­struc­tion of the bath. A warm water floor, equipped in a bath, is able to rad­i­cal­ly solve the prob­lem of heat­ing. In addi­tion, this heat­ing option is not only high­ly effi­cient and eco­nom­i­cal, but also improves the com­fort of the bath room.

Heated floors in the bath. Motives for this engineering decision

Not every one of us has an idea that lit­er­al­ly every ele­ment of con­struc­tion and equip­ment plays a spe­cif­ic role in the bath. The pres­ence of a stove, thanks to which the steam room works, is not the main heat­ing device in the room. The main task of heat­ing in such rooms is usu­al­ly per­formed by elec­tric heaters. The effec­tive­ness of such heat­ing of the inte­ri­or in the bath is extreme­ly small. Heat­ing rather large inte­ri­or spaces with elec­tric­i­ty is an expen­sive plea­sure. Much more effi­cient and prac­ti­cal would be the option when radi­a­tors are installed for heat­ing in the bath or under­floor heat­ing is installed.

Both options allow you to suc­cess­ful­ly con­nect to the main source of heat­ing. It can be a gas or sol­id fuel boil­er equipped in a spe­cial way. The main thing in this case is to cor­rect­ly choose a source of heat­ing water that can cir­cu­late through the pipeline.

Usu­al­ly, for autonomous heat­ing equip­ment in a bath, an exter­nal tank is used, fed from the main fur­nace. It is pos­si­ble to equip the oven with a water jack­et. Some are try­ing to install a coil on the boil­er, in which water will be heat­ed.

On a note: Any heat­ed water must pass through the col­lec­tor before it enters the water cir­cuit. With­out this device, the under­floor heat­ing device will not be com­plete.


Using var­i­ous heat sources, you will cer­tain­ly encounter the fol­low­ing prob­lems:

  • your warm floor will work only when a sol­id fuel boil­er or stove is on, which ensures the oper­a­tion of the steam room;
  • in win­ter, the water in such a water cir­cuit will freeze.

Noth­ing can be done about the first prob­lem. If the bath is used con­stant­ly, for com­mer­cial pur­pos­es, the warm floor will work nor­mal­ly and con­stant­ly. For those who use the bath peri­od­i­cal­ly, to avoid freez­ing of the sys­tem will allow the use of a cor­ru­gat­ed stain­less steel pipe or a polypropy­lene pipe for the pipeline.

If there are no issues with heat­ing radi­a­tors, a warm floor for a bath plays a more impor­tant role. In rooms where the inter­nal spaces are heat­ed main­ly from the top due to the inflow of hot air from the steam room and high humid­i­ty, the floor is often left unat­tend­ed. How­ev­er, each of us is well aware of those not very pleas­ant sen­sa­tions that cause cold tiles or eter­nal­ly wet and slip­pery linoleum.

On a note: the warm floor with a tiled cov­er­ing dries with­in 10–15 min­utes. The sur­face of tiles or linoleum used as floor­ing is a breed­ing ground for fun­gus and bac­te­ria. A dry warm floor pre­vents the spread of dis­ease-caus­ing for­ma­tions.

After vis­it­ing the steam room, our body is in a relaxed and com­fort­able state. Cold floors clear­ly do not con­tribute to the dura­tion of such plea­sure. Feel­ings will be much more pleas­ant when it is the floor that is the source of heat in the room. Warm air in this case will even­ly fill the inte­ri­or space, cre­at­ing a com­fort­able tem­per­a­ture in the dress­ing room. In addi­tion, heat­ed floors pre­vent the accu­mu­la­tion of water residues on the floor. In rooms with high humid­i­ty, under­floor heat­ing plays the role of a com­pen­sator, dry­ing the air space.

Equip­ping warm floors in the bath, you can com­plete­ly aban­don heat­ing radi­a­tors. This will free up addi­tion­al space and improve the inte­ri­or design of the premis­es.

Installation of a water floor in a bath. Design features


Hav­ing estab­lished your desire to make your bath more com­fort­able and cozy, pro­ceed to work. Instal­la­tion of a warm floor in a bath is not much dif­fer­ent from the tra­di­tion­al tech­nol­o­gy of lay­ing a water cir­cuit in res­i­den­tial premis­es. The only con­di­tion is increased require­ments for hydro and ther­mal insu­la­tion of the floor sub­strate. What should be the floor­ing for warm water floors in the bath, you choose your­self. Here an impor­tant role is played not so much by effi­cien­cy as by the prac­ti­cal side of the issue.

The main ques­tion that you have to solve is the fol­low­ing. Where is it nec­es­sary to lay the heat­ing floor, in which sec­tion of the bath? There is no such need for a steam room. But for the wash­ing com­part­ment, dress­ing room and lock­er room, heat­ed floors, just in time. The dif­fer­ence will be only in the type of floor­ing. For the wash­ing room, tile or porce­lain stoneware is used. For the dress­ing room and dress­ing room, the best solu­tion would be a lam­i­nate, par­quet board or linoleum.

In prac­tice, var­i­ous options for equip­ping warm water floors in a bath room are used. The most com­mon arrange­ment options are:

  • warm water floors laid on a wood­en base;
  • lay­ing a water cir­cuit under a con­crete screed;
  • use of poly­styrene boards.

In each case, the choice depends large­ly on the design fea­tures of the build­ing. Large struc­tures usu­al­ly have con­crete foun­da­tions. In the small­er baths, espe­cial­ly this vari­ant, the floors have a wood­en struc­ture.

The main con­di­tion for the suc­cess­ful oper­a­tion of warm water floors is an accept­able coolant tem­per­a­ture. The water enter­ing the water cir­cuit must have a tem­per­a­ture not high­er than 550C. What to do when the water in the coil, water jack­et or tank is sig­nif­i­cant­ly high­er. The col­lec­tor is able to solve this prob­lem, so you can’t do with­out it. By mix­ing hot water with waste heat car­ri­er, an accept­able water tem­per­a­ture in the water cir­cuit is achieved. Only with a mix­ture of water, a warm floor will meet the tasks.

We bring to your atten­tion a schemat­ic dia­gram of heat­ing water floors for a bath con­nect­ed to a heat­ing device. The dif­fer­ence in this case will be in the source of water heat­ing. Every­thing else will be about the same.

With the choice of pipes for the water cir­cuit, we have already spo­ken. With con­stant use of the bath, the ide­al option for you will be the use of met­al-plas­tic, poly­eth­yl­ene or steel pipes. In the event that a bath is a rare phe­nom­e­non for you, it is bet­ter to get by with a cor­ru­gat­ed stain­less pipe or polypropy­lene pipes. The lay­out of the water cir­cuit pipe is select­ed depend­ing on the con­fig­u­ra­tion of the inter­nal premis­es and their area.

As a rule, two pipe lay­ing schemes are cho­sen for this heat­ing sys­tem: “snail” or “snake”. For rooms of a small area, where one water cir­cuit is used, the “snail” lay­ing option looks prefer­able. Such a scheme for installing the pipeline will achieve a uni­form dis­tri­b­u­tion of heat over the entire floor area. The “snake” scheme is used for rooms where it is planned to install sev­er­al water cir­cuits.

The water pipe should begin to be laid from the out­er walls, grad­u­al­ly mov­ing towards the cen­ter of the room. In this case, it is nec­es­sary to observe the opti­mal lay­ing step. It would be bet­ter if you stop at a step of 30 cm. Too small a step will cause a lot of mate­r­i­al con­sump­tion, but too large a step will cre­ate a sta­ble feel­ing of a dif­fer­ence in tem­per­a­ture of the floor sur­face.

As a coolant, you can use not only water, but also antifreezes and oth­er chem­i­cal solu­tions.

Impor­tant! The use of eth­yl­ene gly­col for the heat­ing sys­tem is dan­ger­ous to life and health due to the high tox­i­c­i­ty of the sub­stance. Eth­yl­ene gly­col is the strongest poi­son!

Layer cake device

For a bath, a char­ac­ter­is­tic moment is high humid­i­ty. Under­floor heat­ing sys­tems are unpre­ten­tious in this regard. Prop­er­ly equipped heat­ing floors are able to work effec­tive­ly in rooms with any indi­ca­tors of humid­i­ty. In order for the whole sys­tem to work longer, as a rule, more atten­tion is paid to water­proof­ing dur­ing instal­la­tion. An addi­tion­al water­proof­ing lay­er of thick poly­eth­yl­ene film laid on top of the water cir­cuit pipes would be a rea­son­able solu­tion.

Think­ing about the instal­la­tion of under­floor heat­ing, first of all, you should take care of improv­ing the ther­mal insu­la­tion char­ac­ter­is­tics of the room itself. Do not neglect the tech­nol­o­gy of installing under­floor heat­ing. It is impor­tant to fol­low a clear sequence of lay­ing each ele­ment. Your under­floor heat­ing should resem­ble a lay­ered cake, in which each lay­er plays its own, spe­cif­ic, tech­no­log­i­cal role.

As a rule, a lay­er cake con­sists of the fol­low­ing ele­ments:

  • water­proof­ing lay­er (hydro­bar­ri­er);
  • ther­mal insu­la­tion lay­er;
  • heat-reflect­ing ele­ment (foil);
  • water cir­cuit pipes;
  • met­al rein­forc­ing mesh as the basis of a con­crete screed;
  • con­crete mor­tar (for water pipes, the desired thick­ness of the screed is 50 mm.

For a bath, installing a con­crete screed will be the best option. In addi­tion, if the build­ing is cap­i­tal and you are con­fi­dent in the strength of the struc­ture, it will not be dif­fi­cult to install the screed.

Impor­tant! When installing the screed in the bath should take into account some of the nuances. For a sink or show­er screed, it must be done with a slight slope, plan­ning the instal­la­tion of a drain pipe. The slope should not exceed 3–50. Oth­er­wise, the cir­cu­la­tion of the coolant through the heat­ing pipe will be dis­turbed.


After lay­ing pipes and rein­forced mesh, bea­cons are made, locat­ed in such a way that they would be poured with con­crete. The nec­es­sary slope was observed.

The min­i­mum allow­able screed thick­ness at its thinnest point is 50 mm. For those rooms where the rough sur­face is made with­out a slope, the thick­ness of the screed, respec­tive­ly, in dif­fer­ent places will be dif­fer­ent. Ignor­ing this fac­tor, you can get as a result of non-uni­form heat­ing of the floor in dif­fer­ent places. Where the con­crete lay­er is thick­er, the floor will be less warm. Con­verse­ly, in thin places of the screed, the floor sur­face will be hot.

It is bet­ter to imme­di­ate­ly make a rough sur­face with a slope dur­ing the prepara­to­ry work. A rough screed with a slope is made on top of the water­proof­ing and ther­mal insu­la­tion lay­er. On top of which the water cir­cuit is already mount­ed. Fur­ther, every­thing is done in the same order. Anoth­er way out of this sit­u­a­tion is as fol­lows. When lay­ing pipes, in those places where the screed is planned to be thick­er, the pipeline is mount­ed with a small­er step. Those. in those places where the screed is thick­er, the num­ber of pipe turns increas­es. Due to this, heat trans­fer in this area increas­es.

Conclusion. Some information about the types of underfloor heating in the bath

Hav­ing fin­ished with the screed, you get an almost fin­ished work­ing sur­face of the warm floor. The remain­ing work will be main­ly relat­ed to giv­ing the room com­fort and com­plete­ness. Facial coat­ings large­ly deter­mine the aes­thet­ic char­ac­ter­is­tics of the room, how­ev­er, one should not for­get about the man­u­fac­tura­bil­i­ty of coat­ings.


Usu­al­ly, ceram­ic tiles or porce­lain stoneware are used for baths. Such sur­faces are very prac­ti­cal in terms of clean­ing, at the same time they are an excel­lent water­proof­ing lay­er. The advan­tages of such a coat­ing are dura­bil­i­ty, prac­ti­cal­i­ty and good ther­mal con­duc­tiv­i­ty. Ceram­ic coat­ings are main­ly used for wash­rooms and pool rooms.

Lam­i­nate, par­quet or linoleum are suit­able for the dress­ing room and chang­ing rooms.

In each indi­vid­ual case, you your­self choose the type of cov­er­age, tak­ing into account the inten­si­ty of vis­it­ing the bath and its capac­i­ty. For a coun­try house, in the coun­try, lay­ing linoleum on the floor will be an excel­lent solu­tion. It is not rec­om­mend­ed to use par­quet or lam­i­nate in baths where vis­its are peri­od­ic. Wood­en sur­faces can start to dete­ri­o­rate in a cold, unheat­ed room. The attrac­tive­ness of the room is lost and there is a high prob­a­bil­i­ty of mold spread­ing.

For the nor­mal func­tion­ing of the warm floor in your bath, you must clear­ly mon­i­tor the oper­a­tion of the col­lec­tor. Your com­fort and cozi­ness depends on its per­for­mance. In between vis­its to the baths, water floors pow­ered by stoves and sol­id fuel boil­ers must be drained.


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