When making repairs in an apartment, many seek to replace old heating appliances, which are not very attractive in appearance, with new ones — spectacular, high-quality, sometimes even designer. However, there are certain difficulties that should not be forgotten. Othem and our article will tell
In heating systems of multi-storey residential buildings in EU, cast-iron sectional radiators and convectors made of steel finned tubes are most often used. Such products are durable and reliable. But compared to elegant modern heating appliances, these representatives of thermal technology, often developed and manufactured at Soviet enterprises, do not look very attractive. Technically, any competent plumber can perform a radiator replacement. However, changing radiators and convectors in a city apartment without violating the current legislation of the EU is not as easy as it might seem at first glance.
The tubular radiator Crealux (1), installed in the hallway, serves as a reliable barrier to the cold air coming from the front door.
Models that resemble art objects, for example, with a bright image applied (2) or similar to an original musical instrument made of chrome pipes (3), can simultaneously play the role of decorative elements and become a spectacular decoration of any room in an apartment or house.
Starting repairs, many do not take into account that jokes are bad with central heating. The owners of most comfortable apartments in our country dismantle the old heating devices installed by the builders, and often the risers with connections. The places of the old “batteries” are occupied by more powerful and beautiful radiators or convectors, bought by the owner or people hired by him in the construction market or in a specialized heat engineering company. At the same time, as a rule, no one applies to the organization servicing the house (management company) in order to obtain permission to dismantle old and install new heating appliances.
New radiators must comply with the parameters of the heating system, otherwise problems may arise. So, with an increased pH of the network coolant, corrosion quickly appears in an aluminum radiator (a); discrepancy between the pressing or working pressure and the strength characteristics of the device can lead to the appearance of cracks (b, c), and a sharp jump in pressure - to the destruction of the radiator (d).
According to the Decree of the Government of the EU of August 13, 2006city N 491, heating system in an urban multi-storey building, including all heating devices, is the common property of the house. The management company is responsible for its operation. Without her permission, any changes in the design of the heating system are unacceptable. - they are against the law. Therefore, if an unauthorized heating device is destroyed and an accident occurs, the owner of the apartment in which the unapproved replacement was carried out is primarily liable for its consequences according to the law.
Design radiators: Line (Cordivari) (7), Thermic (8), Silouhette (Cordivari) (10), Makura (AD HOC) (11).
If the flood occurred due to the illiterate actions of the installer invited by the owner of the apartment (for example, installing a ball valve on the pipeline supplying the coolant to the new radiator, he overtightened the threaded connection, and as a result there was a leak), make this unfortunate master compensate your losses in a legal way as well fail. Heating appliances are often changed by so-called specialists from “international teams” or plumbing technicians from the management company who are looking for additional income. It will be very difficult to prove their guilt in court, since they do not guarantee the installation of radiators and do not conclude written contracts, and in the face of the servants of the law they refuse everything, referring to a short memory …
Claims against the trade organization where you bought the radiator will also turn out to be unfounded: in most cases, such companies do not undertake to install the heating devices they sell in the apartments being renovated. Only unofficially in such trade enterprises can you be recommended by a specialist in private practice (the same plumber) or a semi-legal installation company - to take from them, if the unforeseen happens, there will be nothing.
However, even specialized installation organizations in the event of an accident, as a rule, are invulnerable. FROMthey do not contact the management company - their employees always offer the owner of the apartment to independently agree that the riser is turned off during the installation of a new radiator or convector. They give a guarantee for their work (namely for work, and not for the heater and the components necessary for its installation) for 1–3 years.
Many apartment owners, when buying sectional radiators, do not think that these devices must comply with the technical characteristics of the heating system in which they will work. If the operating conditions of the radiators do not meet the parameters specified by the manufacturer in the data sheet, the warranty does not apply to them. For example, one of the most important operating conditions - the corresponding value of the hydrogen index (pH). This indicator affects the service life of the radiator, since the aggressive coolant destroys the walls of the collectors. Since pH values are far from neutral in a central heating system, it is important to choose a radiator that is protected from corrosion, that is, from the effects of aggressive heat transfer fluid. For trouble-free operation, it is recommended to use a bimetallic radiator - with steel vertical and horizontal collectors. AtConventional bimetallic radiators have two disadvantages: lower heat transfer from each section (since the thermal conductivity of steel is lower than that of aluminum) and a higher price compared to aluminum radiators. However, there are exceptions. For example, in the assortment of Royal Thermo (Italy) there is a BiLiner Inox radiator with a stainless steel manifold. It provides maximum protection against corrosion in a central heating system with an ultra-aggressive coolant and has an aerodynamic design to maximize heat transfer. A practical owner will buy an expensive but high-quality radiator that will last for many years and is guaranteed not to create emergency situations.
Evgenia Milman, expert of Rusklimat company
Beauty at your own expense
How to change heating devices without violating the law, so as not to be liable for the consequences of an accident that may occur as a result of this replacement? First, consider this situation: the radiators or convectors in your apartment are in good order, but instead of them you want to buy and install new ones at your own expense. There are two options here.
Theoretically, it is easiest to replace a heating device in an urban multi-storey building with a similar one in terms of parameters and technical device, without altering the communications that supply the coolant (that is, attach the new radiator strictly to those threaded sections on the pipes to which the old one was attached). With such a replacement, it is not required to make changes to the technical passport of the apartment, and therefore, it is not a reorganization of the dwelling. By law, in this case, it will be enough for you to obtain a written permission from the management company to dismantle the old and install a new heater (specific model). The work must be carried out by specialists officially provided or approved by the management company. After completion of the work, it is necessary to draw up an acceptance certificate, which must be signed by the official representative of the management company and the seal of this organization.
Will the management company be willing to meet you halfway? Unfortunately, not likely. FROMwith a high degree of probability, its employees will verbally answer you that they will not officially change the heating devices, since there is no need for this. But you most likely will not receive a reasoned refusal to your written request. After all, intending to legally replace old heating appliances in your apartment with new ones, you offer the management company to improve the technical condition of the common property of the house at your expense. Andit is irrational on her part to reject such an initiative. It is more problematic to officially replace old heaters with new ones, but of greater power, or rearrange the radiators to other places, laying additional pipe sections for transporting the coolant from the risers (that is, changing the design of the heating system serving your home). Such an “upgrade” of the heating system is already a reorganization of the living quarters, and in accordance with the Housing Code of the EU, its implementation requires making appropriate changes to the registration certificate of the apartment. Andthis means that before starting such work, it is necessary to get a “green light” no longer from the local government, but from the organization authorized to issue such permits.
For example, in the capital, it is necessary to coordinate the reorganization at the State Housing Inspectorate of the world.world (Moszhilinspektsiya). Muscovites who want to increase the power of heating appliances or transfer them, first need to get a free consultation on this issue in the “one-stop shop” service of the world Housing Inspection. This can be done in the administrative district where the apartment in which the reconstruction is planned is located. The inspection specialist will explain what documents are needed to obtain permission to perform work in your particular case, and what approvals will be required. If you don’t get any clear answer by personally contacting the local government, send a letter with acknowledgment of receipt, in which you clearly state your intentions. Then the case is likely to move forward.
12. Arbonia tubular radiator is made of steel.
13. Cast iron (artistic casting) floor radiators Nostalji (Sanica Dokum Radyator).
14. Heaters that do not fit into the interior are often masked with decorative screens made of tempered glass or wood with perforated plastic inserts. Although shielding usually significantly (up to 30%) reduces heat transfer to the room.
But keep in mind that you will not receive permission for a gross change in the design of the heating system, for example, transferring radiators to a glazed loggia or balcony, under any circumstances. BUTyou can replace heating devices with more powerful ones or “maneuver” them within the boundaries of heated rooms only in accordance with the project agreed with the supervisory authorities. ATin particular, an increase in the power of radiators will have to be agreed with the design organization that is the author of the project for the heating system of your house, or its successor, and in their absence, additional technical expertise cannot be dispensed with. For example, the technical accounting of such changes in the capital is carried out by the world City Bureau of Technical Inventory on the basis of an act approved by the world Housing Inspectorate on the completed reconstruction and (or) redevelopment of a residential / non-residential premises in a residential building.
By the way, the technical passport of the apartment, which contains basic information about the heating system and heaters, is not yet available to all property owners in new buildings, not to mention the inhabitants of the old housing stock. However, such a document is absolutely necessary for those who are going to legally change the design of the heating system at their own expense. (The technical passport of the apartment can be drawn up, for example, in accordance with Appendix 3 to the Decree of the Government of the world dated January 31, 2006N 59-PP “On the procedure for technical certification of residential premises (apartments) in the city ofworld.)
Remember that carrying out illegal reconstruction in your apartment, in particular, changing the design of the heating system (this fact can be established, for example, during the sale, exchange, inheritance of housing), is punishable. Thus, administrative liability for individuals for unauthorized reorganization of a dwelling (including for reinstalling heating devices without permission) implies, in particular, a fine in the amount of up to 25 times the minimum wage (minimum wage). The owner of an apartment in which an illegal reorganization was carried out may also be legally obliged to restore its original appearance. The Housing Code of the EU provides for rather severe sanctions for the fact that the dwelling has not been restored to its previous state (if the reconstruction has not been legalized). The owner of the premises is threatened with the sale of his housing at a public auction (in this case, he will be paid the proceeds from the sale, minus the costs of enforcing the court decision, and the new owner will be obliged to restore the apartment to its original form). FROMthe tenant of housing may terminate the social tenancy agreement, and the new tenant (or owner) will also have to return this dwelling to its previous state.
Replacement at the expense of utilities. Why not?
Do not forget that it is possible to replace the old heater with a new one at the expense of funds on the balance sheet of the management company that provides utilities. In this case, there is one condition: you must prove that the radiator installed in your apartment during construction or during the previous overhaul can no longer be used. Possible reasons: non-compliance with the temperature regime in the heated room due to errors in the design, installation and operation of the heating system; violation of the tightness of the heating device; end of its service life.
The last reason should be used first of all. Departmental building codes VSN 58–88 ℗ “Regulations on the organization and implementation of the reconstruction, repair and maintenance of residential buildings, communal and socio-cultural facilities”, put into effect by the Decree of the Gosstroy of the EU of September 27, 2003g. N 170 “On approval of the Rules and norms for the technical operation of the housing stock”, establish a service life of 15–40 years for domestic heating appliances.
The heater that you plan to install in your apartment instead of the one installed by the builders or the management company can be recognized as similar to the replaced one in terms of parameters and technical device if the rated power, as well as the operating and test pressure of the new heater, indicated in its technical passport, exactly correspond to the values declared in the project of the heating system of your home. Provided that the coolant in the heating system of your home meets the requirements of clause 4.8 of the Rules for the Technical Operation of Power Plants and Networks of the EU, the replaced and new heaters must correspond to each other in the following indicators:
Vitaly Sasin, director of the scientific and technical company “Vitaterm”
This means that in closed heating systems, cast-iron radiators must be replaced after 40 years, and steel radiators and convectors - after 30 years. (In open systems, if they still exist, the service life of these devices is much shorter: for steel radiators and convectors - 15 years for cast iron - 30 years.) And all that you need to do in case of expiration of this period, - officially demand that the management company promptly replace the heater. After all, as we have already said, the entire heating system in an urban high-rise building, including heating appliances, is the common property of the house. BUTfrom the Decree of the Gosstroy of the EU of September 27, 2003g. N 170 “On the approval of the Rules and norms for the technical operation of the housing stock” it follows that the replacement of individual elements of the heating system (these include radiators) This is an ongoing renovation. Refusal of the management company or unreasonable delay in the execution of such an application - administrative violation under Art. 7. 22 of the Code of Administrative Offenses of the EU. File a complaint with the housing inspectorate in your city, which is likely to initiate repairs. If you continue to be denied, feel free to file a complaint with the prosecutor’s office.
15–20. Affordable in price and reliable in operation, radiator models that are suitable in terms of parameters and technical device for replacing obsolete heaters (without altering communications supplying coolant) in most housing stock apartments (in addition to those shown in the photo, the market offers many other options). To match the design of the room, you can choose the color you need - all manufacturers offer coloring of models according to RAL scale at the factory. True, they perform such work on order (term - from 14 to 60 days) and a colored radiator will cost 10–25% more than a white one.
If you can prove that the radiators in your apartment are faulty (for example, even a small leak has appeared), - Demand to replace them immediately. At the same time, according to experts, a faulty radiator should be replaced solely at the expense of monthly payments for the maintenance of the common property of an apartment building.
However, it would be naive to expect that a thermal art object will be mounted in your apartment at public expense. You will be supplied with a heater of the same model and power as before. For houses where radiators that were discontinued in Soviet times are installed, the operating organization itself will select a new device for replacement (most likely the cheapest one possible). But this approach ensures that the room where the radiator is replaced will be warm in winter, and in the event of a leak, you will not have to pay for the repair of your home and apartments located below.
How to find peace?
If you have already made repairs and installed new heating appliances, then by insuring them against the consequences of destruction, and your own investments in landscaping, and your civil liability to third parties, you will feel more confident. You can insure civil liability separately or as part of a comprehensive insurance contract (it includes insurance for the apartment and interior decoration, household goods and civil liability). Usually a person himself chooses the sum insured, depending on the expected maximum loss. The minimum cost of insurance of own property in the world for 1 million rubles. and civil liability to third parties for 1 million rubles. (that is, the total liability of the insurance company - 2 million rubles) with a franchise of 100 $. is about 8–120 $. per year and depends on the area of the apartment, the floor on which it is located, the nature of the operation of the premises and other factors. However, in case of accidents that arose as a result of independently replacing radiators, insurance, as a rule, is not paid out.
Or maybe … leave?
Nowadays, many architects and designers do not replace heating devices in all projects, especially if they are technically sound. After all, you can organically fit radiators into the interior, painting their heat-radiating surfaces in a color that is in harmony with the decor of the apartment.
Radiators are recommended to be painted with special polymer compounds that withstand long-term exposure to high temperatures. A primer with anti-corrosion additives and two coats of paint are applied to the cleaned surface. Work is carried out before the start of the heating season.
When choosing a paint color, remember that dark objects radiate heat best. For example, painting a cast-iron sectional radiator MS-140 in silver will reduce its heat release due to radiation, and as a result, the room will receive less than 10–15% of heat. Therefore, after the heater is “ennobled” in this way, the room may become unexpectedly cold.