Do-it-yourself procedure for replacing polypropylene pipes


Technological progress in the field of water supply network maintenance is constantly moving forward. Means of storage and transfer of water, for the manufacture of which ferrous metals (cast iron and steel) were used, are being inexorably squeezed out. They were replaced by completely new, light, strong and durable polypropylene pipes. Their replacement, that is, the arrangement of a new water supply network, includes a number of mandatory operations. Having carefully familiarized yourself with the technological features of the production process, you can independently mount a water supply system from polypropylene.

Polypropylene pipes

Scope and advantages of pipes made of polypropylene

Hollow products of circular cross section made of polypropylene are very popular due to the fact that they have a much longer life than metal counterparts. Manufacturers guarantee the safety of a properly installed water supply network for 30-50 years. In addition, polypropylene is devoid of one of the main drawbacks that cast iron and steel products sin: it is not subject to corrosion.

Polypropylene plumbing is strong, durable and cheap

The main areas of application for polypropylene carriers are the installation of plumbing and plumbing systems. The maximum temperature at which systems made with polypropylene can be operated is 140aboutC. This is quite enough for installation in a domestic water supply, since the temperature of the water in the heating system is much lower than the boiling point.

The main design advantages of polypropylene coolants:

  • strength and elasticity of the material.
  • reliability.
  • high savings in thermal energy.
  • good soundproofing.
  • significantly less, in comparison with metal, the mass of the installed water supply.

The main design drawback of polypropylene products is the limitation on the water temperature in the pipes. It cannot be raised above 140 degrees. In addition, it is necessary to carefully protect polypropylene from the effects of aggressive environments — alkalis and acids.

Polypropylene costs an order of magnitude less than metal and metal-plastic. It is environmentally friendly, since the chemical composition of the transported liquid is the same in any section of the pipeline. The only condition for all these advantages to be converted into money savings is compliance with the rules for installing plumbing or plumbing systems.

Choosing pipes for home plumbing

From the moment when the decision is made to overhaul the water supply system at home, you need to be very careful about the choice of the main material. Five types of pipes are widely used as a replacement for metal pipes:

  1. Metal-plastic. Can pass media at temperatures up to 900 aboutC, but they bend very badly.
  1. Polyethylene. Installation of systems can be carried out at negative temperatures and wide pressure ranges. The most suitable material for urgent repairs.
  1. PVC. They cannot be used for laying water pipes due to the presence of the hazardous element chlorine.
  1. PES (made of cross-linked polyethylene). Products from this material can be used in any transportation and heating systems.
  1. Polypropylene. Due to their multi-layer construction and excellent performance, they are the main material for the installation of plumbing systems.
A variety of materials for arranging heating systems

Polypropylene is much more popular than other materials that are used to make plumbing systems. Only cross-linked polyethylene is comparable to polypropylene in terms of performance. But it is less profitable from an economic point of view, since it is more expensive than polypropylene.

It is necessary to pay special attention to the quality of the plumbing assembly in the case when polypropylene products will be used to install heating pipes in the apartment. If errors are made during the installation process, there may be a risk of damage to the installed equipment. To avoid additional financial costs, it is necessary to calculate the system and the correct selection of measuring instruments.

Rules for choosing the size of a polypropylene pipe

Replacing metal pipes with polypropylene pipes involves careful calculations. This is necessary for the normal functioning of the system during the entire declared warranty period for polypropylene products. Four types of pipes are widely used — PPs, PPR, PPB and PPH. Trade networks receive products with a diameter of 16 to 1200 mm. For heating systems, the use of pipes with a diameter of 16-32 mm is optimal. Determination of the estimated diameter of the water supply system helps to save on the cost of materials. Wider (40-50 mm, and in some cases up to 110 mm) pipes are used for sewer installation.

Choosing the right size depends on two factors:

  • the total length of the system;
  • number of water points.

For inlet sections of the system, the minimum outer diameter must be 32 mm. The internal wiring of the system can be carried out using a diameter of 16-20 mm.

The internal diameter of a polypropylene pipe, necessary for the normal operation of the system, can be determined using a simple mathematical calculation:

patency formula

The speed of water movement in the pipe is different:

  • for thin (10-25 mm) — 0.7-1.2 m / s.
  • For thick (over 25 mm) — 1.5-2.0 m / s.

The difference is explained by the fact that as the diameter decreases, the ratio between the surface and the lumen decreases. If you choose a pipe that is too thin, the permeability will decrease due to the fact that the speed of water movement decreases when the flow hits the inner wall.

The permeability in polypropylene carriers of the water supply system depends on the following factors:

  • the number of turns and joints of pipes of different sizes;
  • the total length of the pipeline;
  • pressure values ​​in the system;
  • internal diameter of main pipes.
Dimensions of popular brands of polypropylene pipes

The pipes selected for installation in the system must comply with the standards. The best way to avoid problems is to purchase materials from one manufacturer. This will guarantee the same regular geometric shape, the smoothness of the pipes and the absence of damage throughout the length of the measured segments.

Pipe soldering rules

To securely fasten the welded edges of the pipe together, it is necessary:

  • to measure the welded pipe sections;
  • Make a bevel —

— with a slope of 15about and deepening by 2-3 mm (standard DVS-2207-1, Germany).

— with a slope of 45about and deepening by 2/3 of the outer diameter (standard of the Russian Federation).

The soldering iron should be installed on a special stand. The optimum temperature for heating the working surface is 260 degrees.

The fitting is installed on the mandrel — a special nozzle for welding. The heated pipe is inserted into the sleeve. At the same time and very quickly, the parts removed from the heater are connected to each other. The exposure time of the connection depends on the size of the outer and inner diameters. When overexposure, there is a danger of joint deformation and loss of elasticity. Having brought the sleeve to the stop in the joint, you should stop moving, since if there are undesirable sagging inside the pipe, its conductivity will be impaired.

Connection with a soldering machine

The exposure time of the connected pipes on the machine, depending on the diameter, seconds:

  • 20 mm — 5;
  • 25 mm — 7;
  • 32 mm — 8;
  • 40 mm — 12;
  • 50 mm — 18;
  • 63 mm — 24.

The easiest way to avoid mistakes is to measure the depth of the sleeve. By measuring exactly the same distance on the pipe, you can visually control the moment of the joint. The connection speed of the heated pipe and the coupling must be maximum. In order to avoid a decrease in the quality of the welded joint, it is strongly not recommended to rotate the parts to be joined around its axis.

Stages of installation of a polypropylene water pipe

The decision to replace the pipes of the old water supply with more modern ones made of polypropylene forces us to adhere to a simple plan of action:

  1. Making a sketch of the project.
  2. Material calculation (number of pipes, fittings, couplings and other connecting elements).
  3. Procurement of basic and auxiliary materials.
  4. Overlapping of the centralized water supply.
  5. Dismantling the plumbing.
  6. Installation of new equipment and assembly of the system.
  7. Checking the performance of the newly installed plumbing.
  8. Construction debris removal.
Cutting, processing and welding of polypropylene pipes

Installation can be partial or complete. During partial replacement, new pipes made of polypropylene are put in place of damaged old pipes. It must be remembered that when installing a hot water supply system, it is imperative to install a pressure reducer. In addition, collapsible connections must be located in areas of the system that are open to permanent access. Hot water media must have a water temperature limit of 75 degrees Celsius.

DHW system made of polypropylene

It is not recommended to mount all pipes of the plumbing system on fixed fixtures. This can be done only in those places where there are pipeline risers, joints and turns. On straight sections, the fastening of pipes to the wall must be mounted to be movable. Rules for the use of connecting elements:

  • Coupling — for joints between straight segments, changing diameters and switching to a connection using a thread.
  • Elbow — for turning the pipeline.
  • Tee — for mounting a branch.

Important! For cold water supply, products marked PN10 are used, for mixed — PN20 or PN25 (reinforced).

Operation and repair of polypropylene pipes

Like any other material, polypropylene, in addition to advantages, has a number of disadvantages. Its performance may be affected by:

  • high impact loads;
  • excessively high water temperature;
  • exceeding the nominal pressure;
  • interaction of pipes with chemically aggressive substances;
  • mistakes made during installation.

Before starting repair work, you should carefully inspect the water supply and identify the causes of technical problems.

Repair of polypropylene pipes using fittings

If a depressurization is diagnosed in the area of ​​​​the joints (places of installation of measuring equipment, connecting fittings and transitions to other types of media), then there is a misalignment of the sealing ring installed at the joint, or the fitting is faulty. To carry out repairs in the apartment you need:

  • shut off the water supply;
  • dismantle the failed joint;
  • restore the tightness of the system section at the site of the leak using a welding machine;
  • install a new fitting.

In addition to a soldering machine, rubber clamps and special glue can be used to create sealed joints in polypropylene products. As a patch, a piece of thin rubber, carefully processed and degreased with alcohol, is used. You can fix the clamp with a wire.

This repair is temporary. A new fitting must be installed on the failed joint as soon as possible.

To ensure the smooth operation of the heating system, it is necessary to install a sufficient amount of measuring equipment to control the pressure and temperature of the water. Automation should warn about all problems in time. In the event of a breakdown, do-it-yourself repair of the system will be technically simple. Also, it will not cause financial difficulties. If you follow the rules for operating the plumbing system, it will last a long time and will not cause problems associated with the repair or replacement of equipment.


Technology and methods of laying sewer pipes


The sewer network is an important component of everyday life, which creates comfortable living conditions. Through pipelines, wastewater is transported to external pipelines to special equipment that processes and purifies wastewater. The domestic sewage system is divided into internal and external, which are located respectively inside the house and in the open area.

Sewer line to the house

Features of laying sewer pipes indoors

Sewerage laying at a separate facility (apartment, private house) begins with the design of an internal sewerage network with reference to the premises. The calculation and determination of the material of pipes, their number and type of equipment is carried out.

In the apartment

Laying a network of sewer pipes in an apartment building practically does not differ from a similar system in a private house, however, it has its own characteristics. Before wiring and installing plumbing, a preliminary layout of the sewage system is made, which includes the location of plumbing fixtures, the angle of inclination of the system, pipe sizes, etc.

The installation of a sewer pipeline inside the premises begins with plumbing fixtures and is laid through ceilings or walls to the point of exit from the building.

Sewerage in the apartment

When installing, there should be a minimum number of bends and turns so as not to provoke blockages. Proper installation has a small number of connections and maintains the required angle of inclination, which ensures self-cleaning of the line. When connecting, the pipes must be inserted until they are completely abutted, the sockets are placed along the flow of the drains. Upon completion of installation, the tightness of the system is checked in the areas of wiring and docking with risers.

In a private house

Laying a sewerage system in a private house begins with drawing up a plan for a private house. It is designed strictly individually, taking into account the features and location of all rooms. The location of the riser or header pipe must be precisely determined, after which other parts of the system can be designed. The riser is mounted directly inside the house in an open or closed way. Wiring is connected to the plumbing equipment (bath, sinks, showers, etc.) from the vertical structure, siphons and revisions are installed in the appropriate places.

Installation of a sewer structure in a private house


The internal sewerage device provides for the placement of a fan pipe, which is installed on the riser and brought to the roof of the house. At the junction, a revision is mounted, after which they are led out to the attic at an angle. It should be located away from windows and doors (at least 4 m), at different levels with a chimney and general ventilation. Through the internal sewerage system, waste water is discharged through the basement or the space under the floor to the outside into the septic tank.

In the country

Within the suburban area, as a rule, an autonomous sewer system is organized that does not have access to a centralized highway. Installation of internal systems in the room is similar for both an apartment and a country house. The external sewer network consists of a pipeline that discharges wastewater to a storage or treatment facility. Seasonal residence does not require the installation of complex and expensive equipment, so the function of collecting wastewater is performed by a septic tank or cesspool.

Installation of wells in the ground

One of the options for waste disposal are biological treatment plants, which are the most modern and efficient equipment.

Features of laying a pipeline in the ground

When arranging sewerage in the ground, first of all, environmental characteristics and the type of terrain are determined, which affect the design of engineering communications. The main factors for system development are:

  • Soil feature. It is necessary to establish the characteristics and composition of the soil to determine the method of laying sewers, as well as to calculate the number of rises and slopes of the main;
  • Climatic conditions determine the ways and methods of organizing thermal insulation;
  • Ground water level. The location and amount of groundwater are of decisive importance for the design of the sewage system and the location of underground utilities;
  • The volume of wastewater is calculated based on the number of people who will operate the sewer, as well as the number of organizations and enterprises connected to the system.
The layout of the engineering system in the ground

An important factor is also the determination of the distance from engineering networks to any buildings, treatment facilities and pumping stations.

What pipes can be used


The material and profile is selected in accordance with the existing project of the waste system. Cast iron products do not lose their relevance due to their low price and durability. They are resistant to loads and temperature extremes, but are subject to corrosion. Modern technologies create anti-corrosion coatings that increase the life of the product. Cast iron pipes are heavy, so the trenchless laying of the sewerage system will require special equipment and support personnel to create an engineering structure. When performing external sewerage, cast iron products must be provided with thermal insulation.

In recent decades, sanitary products made of PVP and PVC have appeared, which are not inferior in their properties to metal ones. They are much lighter, so installation with such products is easier. When installing an internal system in a bathroom or bathroom, it is better to use PVC pipes. Polyethylene and polypropylene pipes are more suitable for outdoor systems. The advantage of plastic is that they practically do not accumulate deposits.

Plastic sewer systems of different diameters

Asbestos pipes are resistant to aggressive environments. In the aquatic environment, asbestos only gets stronger over time. In addition, under the influence of the flow of water on the inner surface of the pipes there is no overgrowth. Installation of the asbestos system is not difficult, but it is sensitive to mechanical stress. You need to be careful when transporting and installing them. Protection must be provided to prevent subsidence and fractures. Asbestos products are not recommended for use in sandy soil, as they have low resistance to sand.

Rules for laying sewerage according to SNiP. Laying technology


Engineering communications are installed in compliance with established norms and standards (SNIP 2.04.03-85), which ensures proper waste disposal and an increase in the service life of all elements included in this system.

One of the main parameters when laying pipes is determining the depth of the trench. This takes into account the level of soil freezing in winter, which, in accordance with the standards, should be 30-50 cm higher than the soil freezing depth, from the ground surface to the top of the pipe — at least 70 cm. On soils with a high load, under the roadway, the depth sewers are increased to 0.9-1 meters.

The width of the trench should be 40 cm larger than the diameter of the pipe to be installed. At the exit of the pipeline from the internal system and the approach to the septic tank, the trench is slightly expanded for the convenience of installation work.

In the process of laying the sewerage system under the foundation, the optimal slope of the main line is observed, which is 1-2 cm per linear meter. In the absence of a slope, blockages appear in the system, since wastewater will not move.

Installation of a sewerage system under the foundation

Laying a sewer system under the foundation is used when it is not possible to bring out the sewer pipe in the base.

You can do the work yourself. To do this, you will need the following tools:

  • Perforator. They punch holes directly. It should also fit a set of nozzles with long nozzles;
  • Drill manual with replaceable drills;
  • A hammer;
  • Welding machine or soldering iron for soldering pipes.

After the preparatory work, the scheme of work will be as follows:

  • The angle of inclination of the place for drilling is calculated;
  • An inclined well is being made;
  • A case for the pipeline is placed in the resulting hole;
  • The last step is to mount the engineering structure as a whole.

The placement of manholes is provided every 25-35 m of the pipeline at bends and other problem areas where there is a high probability of blockage. Such a device allows timely repair work and replacement of equipment.

Laying a storm sewer trench requires serious soil compaction. Thus, washout of communications during rains is prevented. The bottom of the trench is covered and compacted tightly with a layer of sand 15 cm high. The pipes are also covered with a layer of sand from above.

Storm sewer on site


Sewerage is installed under the foundation if the foundation does not go very deep into the soil. Pipes are laid below the freezing level of the soil, the distance to the foundation must be at least 5 meters. The pipeline is brought directly into the sewer trench and connected to the external system in the «bell» way or using fittings. Pipes must be metal, since significant mechanical stress due to subsidence of the foundation should be taken into account.

Installation of sewerage under the pile-screw foundation is carried out in untouched soil. To avoid subsidence of the soil, sand is additionally poured into the trench and it is compacted tightly. The joints are slightly undermined to maintain the straightness of the pipes.

In addition, it is necessary to observe the optimal distance from the sewer pipe to the screw pile so that the soil around the pile does not become loose. If the laying is made shallow (up to 70 cm), then in order to avoid damage, the pipeline should be insulated.

The main stages of laying

Work on the creation of a waste system is carried out according to the following scheme:

  • In accordance with the project, a trench is dug using construction equipment or manually with a shovel. The trench starts from the foundation of the house or the outlet of the pipeline, on which it is put on a socket;
  • The bottom of the trench is leveled, rammed and a sand cushion is made. Why is a layer of sand 15 cm wetted with water and tightly compacted;
  • The pipeline is being laid, while the sockets are directed downward to facilitate the connection;
  • The pipeline is assembled by lubricating the pipe edges with a special agent (sealant, etc.) for better sliding of the parts. On the product, you can make marks that will control the correct connection. Before installation, rubber sealing cuffs are inserted into the socket;
  • When laying the pipeline, you should try to use less bends and turns, for which bends with angles of 15-45 degrees are used. At the joints and areas of potential clogging, inspection hatches are installed;
  • After the assembly is completed, the correct slope is checked. If the depth of laying the pipe passes above the level of soil freezing, then work is carried out to insulate the object. For this purpose, mineral wool, cylindrical basalt insulation or a heating cable is used, which is laid simultaneously with the pipe.
Measurement of the angle of inclination of the drain system
  • Start filling up the trench. The pipes are gradually covered with sand, carefully compacted, and then covered with a layer of soil extracted earlier. Each layer of earth 10-15 cm thick is compacted, soil can be compacted only on the sides of the pipeline. This should not be done over pipes in order to avoid damage or deformation of the product.

For proper laying of sewage with their own hands, experts recommend:

  • It is unacceptable to use a lubricant that is not intended for the sewer system. Internal surfaces should not be lubricated;
  • When installing an internal sewerage system in a room without heating, pipe insulation is used;
  • The throughput of a pipe depends on its diameter;
  • It is not recommended to shorten sockets and fittings;
  • To ensure the correct slope, the pipes should be fixed;
  • The lifetime of the system is determined by its tightness.

Thus, the choice of installation method for the sewer system depends on the place and region of residence, landscape design features, the presence of groundwater and the material from which the pipes are made.


How to bend a metal-plastic pipe: effective ways


The manufacture of a heating or water supply system from metal-plastic pipes is advantageous in that almost all work can be done independently, without the involvement of specialists. The cost of materials is low, and the necessary experience can be acquired in the process.

Metal-plastic products do not require the mandatory use of special elements in the angles of rotation of pipelines. This reduces the complexity of the work, and most importantly, reduces the resistance to the flow of water in the system.

Features of the design of metal-plastic structures

Metal-plastic products have a multilayer structure:

  • Inner and outer — high-strength cross-linked polyethylene;
  • The middle layer is aluminum.

A special glue is used to firmly connect the layers to each other, therefore in some descriptions one can find the presence of not three, but five layers, but the adhesive layers play only a fastening role and are not the main ones.

Figure 1. The structure of the metal-plastic pipe

Advantages of polyethylene as a material:

  • High chemical and biological inertness, ensuring operational safety and durability;
  • High surface smoothness, reducing resistance to medium flow;
  • Low adhesion, which prevents the accumulation of salt and dirt deposits;
  • Resistance to external conditions.

The aluminum layer between the layers of polyethylene increases the mechanical strength and reduces the coefficient of linear expansion when the temperature of the flowing liquid changes.

Laminated pipes are manufactured in a wide range of diameters. The most widely used pipes with diameters of 16, 20 and 26 mm. Products with diameters of 32, 40 and 63 mm are used somewhat less frequently. Materials are supplied to stores in coils with a coil length of 50 — 200 m.

Figure 2. Product bay


The multilayer structure imposes limitations when working with metal-plastic materials. What can happen with incorrect bending:

  • Stratification. If the bending radius is reduced too much, or as a result of several bending attempts, the adhesive line is broken, as a result of which the polyethylene and aluminum layers may lose their adhesion to each other. This will lead to a decrease in strength and service life;
  • Creases. A wall that is inside a bend angle may fall inward. As a result, in the place of the crease, the flow area decreases up to a complete overlap. As a rule, in the places of the crease, the structure is stratified;
  • Cracks in the outer layer. Also possible with a small bending radius, but most often occur when trying to bend materials at low temperatures. As a result of cracks, a section of aluminum is exposed, which has low corrosion resistance.

The first of the listed defects is delamination, which is dangerous because nothing can determine its occurrence by external examination, therefore, when working with metal-plastic pipes, it is necessary to strictly follow the recommendations given.

Figure 3. Pipe creases

The occurrence of most defects can be avoided if you follow the basic rule — the bending radius of the metal-plastic pipe should not be less than five diameters, which is:

  • For a 16 mm pipe — at least 80 mm;
  • For 20 mm — at least 100 mm;
  • For 32 mm — at least 160 mm.

Methods for bending metal-plastic pipes

Pipes can be bent at home in three ways:

  • Manually;
  • Using shock-absorbing materials (springs, wire, sand);
  • Using a specialized tool — a pipe bender.

All methods have the right to exist, but each has its own advantages and disadvantages.

Bending by hand


The easiest way, but requiring some physical strength and the ability to accurately coordinate the force of impact. Suitable only for work with products of small diameters — no more than 20 mm. It makes sense to use this method for small volumes of work. Training is needed to properly perform bends.

Operating procedure:

  1. Mark on the product the place of the beginning of the bend;
  2. They take the pipe in their hands so that the thumbs of the hands are in contact, located inside the intended bend;
  3. With a smooth effort, the pipe is bent at a small angle (no more than 20 °);
  4. Move your fingers a few centimeters further and repeat the action. The smaller the distance the hands are moved, the smoother the bend will turn out;
  5. The steps are repeated until the desired radius is obtained.
Figure 4. The position of the hands when bending by hand.

The important thing is not to put in too much effort. No need to strive to immediately perform the necessary bend. With this method, it is easy to get a defect in the form of a crease. It is better to initially bend the pipe with a slightly larger radius than necessary, and then bend it to the required size.

Use of shock absorber

More reliable results are obtained when shock absorbers are used. Especially for bending metal-plastic pipes, special springs with a dense arrangement of coils are produced. Before the beginning of the bend, the spring is pushed inward at the place where the bend is made, and then proceed in the same way as when bending by hand. Hands should be placed along the edges of the future bend, and more effort can be applied. The spring inside the cavity will not allow the formation of a crease.

For the convenience of pulling out, the diameter of the turns at the ends of the spring is smaller than in the working part, but in addition to one of the ends, you must first tie a strong cord, otherwise there may be problems when pulling out the spring. For the same reason, the diameter of the coils should be one to two millimeters smaller than the inner diameter of the pipe.

Figure 5. Internal spring

Springs are also produced for manual bending of metal-plastic pipes, which are designed to be put on the outer surface. Such shock absorbers are more convenient, since they allow you to quickly complete several bends in one segment, but the risk of creases is somewhat higher here.

Figure 6. Outer spring


In the absence of factory shock absorbers, you can bend a metal-plastic pipe at home using improvised means. When making bends at a small angle and with a large radius, pieces of wire of a suitable length can be tightly packed into the inner cavity of the pipe. The wire should be soft, easily bendable, such as copper or aluminum. In order for the wire to be removed, several pieces must be of sufficient length. First of all, long segments are pulled out, and the rest are then simply shaken out. Large angle bends should not be made in this way, as removing the wire will become a difficult task.

Having sealed one of the ends of the pipe, you can fill it with well-dried and sifted sand. Sand (or ordinary salt) acts as a good shock absorber and allows you to bend at any angle. This is one of the easiest methods, especially when the amount of work is small, although it should be noted that bending a sand-filled pipe requires a lot of effort.

Figure 7. Filling the pipe with sand

Using a pipe bender

The use of specialized tools for bending pipes can significantly speed up the work process and almost completely get rid of defects.

At the heart of the operation of pipe benders of various designs, a template is used to which the product is pressed. In the pipe benders of the crossbow system, a template mounted on a movable rod presses on a bending pipe located between the template and two fixed rollers. The advantage of the crossbow design is the simplicity of the design, while the rod drive can be either manual or hydraulic.

Figure 8. Crossbow manual pipe bender for 16 mm pipe

The design of the rolling pipe bender uses a movable roller, which, when moving, presses the bent material around a fixed template. According to the principle of operation, it resembles a device for rolling caps on glass jars.

Figure 9. Rolling (lever pipe bender)

Note — the maximum bending radius is equal to the radius of the template. And if a rolling pipe bender allows you to bend pipes with different angles, but strictly of the same radius, then a crossbow makes it possible to bend with any radius. In this, the bending technique is similar to manual, but the use of a template and a roller with profile grooves makes it possible to avoid defects on the bent product.



Any design is easy to make with your own hands. The main difficulty is the manufacture of the template. You can use even cylindrical blanks, but the quality of the bend will not be very high, since the cross section of the bent pipe will differ from an even circle. Good results will be only if the rollers and templates have a groove equal to half the outer diameter of the product. That is, a pipe bender for metal-plastic pipes with a diameter of 16 mm must have a groove with the same diameter. This implies that the correct pipe bender will only work with pipes of the same diameter, and the universal device must have interchangeable rollers and templates.

Figure 10. Homemade pipe bender

Bend Radius Calculation

Calculations are resorted to in cases where it is necessary to accurately determine the place of the beginning and end of the pipe bend. The calculation is simple and comes down to a few steps, which will be shown using a minimum pipe bend radius of 16 mm:

  1. Bending radius — R=5*D. In this case, R=5*16=80 mm;
  2. With a given radius, the length of the full circle is 2*3.14*R= 2*3.14*80=502 mm;
  3. The length of the bent section depends on the angle at which the pipe will be bent:
  • for a 90 degree turn, this is a quarter of a circle, that is, 125.5 mm;
  • for a U-shaped bend — half a circle — 251 mm.


In order for the pipe to bend more easily, the bend area must be warmed up with a building hair dryer before work. Please note — the melting point of polyethylene does not exceed 135 degrees. Heating above this value will lead to irreparable consequences. On many sites there is a recommendation to check the temperature with a strip of paper. Carbonization of the paper indicates that the desired temperature has been reached. But nowhere is it indicated that the temperature of paper charring is higher than 150 — 200 degrees. This also leads to the conclusion that the use of a blowtorch or burner for heating is unacceptable, since the flame temperature is distributed unevenly and exceeds the minimum values ​​several times.

The use of pipe benders allows you to bend pipes with a radius less than the permissible one, but you must first check the quality on an unnecessary segment from one batch. The resulting fold is sawn with a hacksaw and carefully examined for delaminations and other defects. In their absence, you can start cleaning work.


Effective ways to insulate a chimney with your own hands


Citizens living on the territory of private houses, in order to reduce heat loss, try to strengthen window frames and walls with additional materials. However, chimney insulation is also a must to ensure that the structure performs well and also reduces the risk of collapse. You can do this yourself, or invite a specialist.

Chimney insulation

Why is it necessary to insulate the structure

When the fuel begins to burn, moisture and smoke begin to accumulate on the walls of the structure. They get outside through a special channel. When the pipe is exposed to low temperatures from the street, moisture condenses with a further exit to the surface. As a result, the brickwork begins to soak with condensate. If the air temperature begins to drop, this leads to its crystallization.

Construction insulation

Water condensate in composition is an active chemical substance that is formed during the combustion reaction of fuel. As the acidity increases, within a short time the substance can corrode even the walls of a metal structure.

Insulating the structure of the chimney using modern materials can significantly extend the life of the chimney, reducing the risk of corrosion and further destruction.

The main advantages of insulated construction

Insulation on the outside of the chimney pipe is a good option for providing protection against the accumulation of condensates, strong winds and inclement weather. However, it is impossible to avoid all negative factors, but it is possible to increase the period of use because:

  1. Less aggressive substances are deposited in the channel. Active chemical elements are eliminated from the chimney along with the smoke.
  2. Reduces the likelihood of sudden temperature changes, resulting in less condensation.
  3. Reduced energy requirements. During operation, the pipe begins to take much less heat as a result of fuel combustion. So, it will be enough to maintain the optimum temperature when using coals.
  4. The design becomes more durable and resistant to environmental influences. When it installs additional material, it acts as a second frame.
Insulated chimney

A good solution would be to insulate the walls of the chimney in the bath, where the condensate content increases due to high temperature.

What material to use


First of all, it is important to choose a material that will not contain toxic substances, can safely contact the pipe, and is also not exposed to fungus. It is recommended to pay attention that the material can be found in the construction markets in the form of a rolled roll, sheets, slabs and mats.

Thermal insulation cylinder

The use is relevant if the chimney is in the form of a metal structure. It consists of two pipes of different diameters: the first is smaller, acting as a chimney.

Thermal insulation cylinder

Stainless steel is used as the main material. It withstands the effects of acidic substances, which often form on the inside of the chimney. To carry out the sleeve, the pipe must be of large diameter 6-10 cm, which will play the role of a casing. Basalt insulation is poured into free space. Some craftsmen make this material on their own at home, or purchase it at construction markets.

Mineral wool

The material is suitable for insulation of chimneys and furnaces. This is due to the fact that the insulation is able to favorably endure even the highest temperature fluctuations, exposure to chemicals, and is also used as an internal or external insulation.

There are 4 types of insulation depending on the use of material, structure, length or thickness: slag, fiber, stone, basalt. Thermal insulation indicators, chemical properties depend on the structural features. If it is planned to carry out furnace insulation from the outside, it is better to use basalt mineral wool. This is a material that is best suited for brickwork, since basalt has low thermal conductivity, heat resistance, and does not contribute to the spread of mold or fungus.

Sheets are cut to size by experts. The material is wrapped around the pipe, and then the insulation is fixed with a wire. If it is necessary to mount sheets of greater thickness, then a metal grate is used, which is fixed throughout the area.

Gaps must be sealed. As a rule, a special substance or tape is used for this purpose. Brick is suitable as a cladding.


The best solution if the chimney is made of brickwork. It is highly durable and completely waterproof. Category G2 includes Technoplex, Penoplex. Heat-insulating and refractory with lower rates are considered classes G3, G4. For use in coal-fired or wood-built ovens. The inlet gas temperature can reach 600 degrees. For polystyrene boards, non-flammable glue is often used. Stripes and free space are eliminated by insulation.




A brick chimney can be insulated from the outside with plaster and a special metal mesh. This option is considered one of the most common, since heat loss ranges from 25%. First you need to fix the reinforcement, and apply a layer of plaster on top of it. It is better to use several layers.

As soon as the composition dries, to give aesthetics, it is recommended to paint so that the design is in harmony with the main color of the building. It is also recommended to use an anti-corrosion compound.

Thermal insulation from basalt

It is customary to distinguish two types: cylindrical (where the inner diameter ranges from 18-89 mm, the cuts are longitudinal, which allows for convenient installation), semi-cylindrical (the range of diameter used is more than 89-273 mm, consists of two shells).

To make installation, it is not necessary to remove part of the chimney. For this, bandages are used to make the longitudinal joint isolated. In addition, you do not need to use a box for protection.

Stainless steel casing

Suitable for metal or asbestos pipe, the design will be the best choice. The diameter must be at least 5 cm larger than the main pipe. Basalt insulation is used to fill the empty space. If there is an empty space, as a rule, it is filled with cement. It helps protect the pipe from sudden changes in temperature.

Stainless steel casing

Wooden shields

Typically used in saunas and steam rooms. It is worth noting that for the price this is the most democratic material and can be used by anyone. Can be upholstered with a wooden or metal frame. A gap of 15 cm is left between the pipe and the wall. Asbestos, felt or glass wool is used to fill it.

slag concrete

Using the material, parallel walls are built with respect to the main frame. However, in the process of work, a small space should remain. Seams must be reinforced with wire. The free gap is covered with clay or gypsum.

Do it yourself or trust the master


To isolate the roof of the chimney without alterations and spending additional funds, it is advisable to call a specialist. However, with the necessary materials and skill, this process can be within the power of any homeowner. The main thing is to choose a heater so that later you don’t have to work with the ceiling in the ceiling or disassemble the finished structure to correct errors.

Do it yourself or trust the master?

Choosing a material

To select a non-combustible material for the chimney, you will first need to consider what the pipe is made of:

  1. Brick. Even plaster will do.
  2. Metal. To make the structure insulated, you can use mineral wool, which is fixed with wire stitching or aluminum foil.
  3. Asbestos-cement. The best option would be a casing. This is a loose type of insulation that competently fills the gaps between steel pipes.

If the chimney is only planned to be erected, it is better to use sandwich panels first.


If a decision is made to independently carry out all the work, due attention should be paid to preparation, calculate the amount of material and what tools will be needed for work:

  • Perforator;
  • Nails;
  • Felt pen or tape measure;
  • Scissors;
  • Profiles (metal);
  • Vapor barrier film;
  • A hammer;
  • Basalt insulation;
  • Glasses for eye protection.

To make calculations, it will be necessary to take into account the material used and the fuel that is used for heating. This aspect affects the temperature readings inside the pipe. With 7+ 6+ and using solid type fuel, the thickness of the heat-insulating segment should be in the range of 50-100 mm, if the structure passes through the attic, then 30-50 mm.


If the appliance is operated with diesel fuel or gasoline, the thickness should be 20-30 mm. Measure the outer diameter, the length of the chimney channel, the section of the pipe that comes from the nozzle.

The scheme does not imply anything complicated for self-fulfillment:

  • Carrying out the preparatory stage. It is necessary to cut holes in a diameter of 20-30 cm larger than the section of the prepared pipe;
  • Installation of the crate;
  • Installation work with insulation;
  • Steam insulation;
  • Facing the resulting structure;
  • Closing the resulting hole in the roof.

All work requires mandatory calculations and measurements. Otherwise, you can damage the structure, make it less resistant to condensation or increase heat loss.

It is recommended to seek the advice of a specialist who will also help you choose a good option for thermal insulation material. With a successful choice, each owner of a private facility will be able to extend the life of the chimney, as well as ensure safe operation for himself and his family, which is no less important.


Design and installation of water supply pipes in the bathroom and toilet


Most people who want to save on the work of specialists are trying to find as much information as possible on how to properly route water pipes. Thanks to modern devices made of durable, but lightweight materials, you can handle the wiring in the bathroom and toilet on your own.

How to start right

The layout of pipes in the toilet and bathroom should not be drawn up by eye. All results must be obtained through accurate measurements. First of all, you need to calculate the consumption of materials and choose a plumbing model. It is important to take into account that with a separate toilet and bathroom, the wiring is carried out separately for each room, since communications are connected into a common system and do not exist in a separate manner.

Fig 1. Wiring diagram

At the next stage, you need to mark the pipes that need to be brought in the future for each device. For beginners in this situation, you can imagine the following scheme:

  1. Bathroom or shower.
  2. Wash basin. Hot and cold water supply
  3. Toilet. Connection to cold water supply and public sewerage
  4. Washing machine. Supply of sewerage system and cold water supply.

It remains, on the basis of the data obtained and measurements, to build a general scheme for distributing sewer and water pipes in the bathroom and toilet.

Classification of communication wiring types

Before you start piping in the bathroom with your own hands, you need to familiarize yourself with the types of structures.


So water goes to the residents of houses and apartments. Special tees are used at each water intake, and the end user is connected at one of the outlets. This type is relevant if the operation is carried out by a small number of people.

Fig 2. Sequential


However, for an apartment building, this type can be a good option. But there is one serious nuance: the impossibility of turning off one device for subsequent replacement or repair work.

As for the advantages, we note the ease of installation. The design does not involve complex and intricate schemes. Also, wiring does not involve large material costs. A minimum amount of materials is required: pipes, connecting elements.


The consumer is separately connected to the main line. To accomplish this task, a special tool called a collector is used. The main purpose is to distribute the flow of water.

When creating a more complex system, each manifold has additional equipment in the form of a shut-off valve. Collector-type wiring is considered the best solution. First of all, constant pressure drops are excluded, which makes it possible to deliver water without interruption to all consumers. In addition, with a minimum water pressure, you can turn off the supply to one of the bathrooms to increase the flow. In addition, the system allows you to turn off plumbing fixtures if necessary, repair work or complete replacement of devices.

Fig 3. Collector

A leak can form not only in the system, but also around it. To solve the problem, it is enough to turn off the water supply and call professionals.

Mounting methods

To carry out the installation, you need to choose your method of work. The open type involves fastening pipes directly to the wall, or under the floor. This solution allows you to quickly complete the installation process and save money. However, technical adaptations suggest a deterioration in appearance.

Fig 4. Wiring methods

Open gasket


Benefit: constant monitoring of the state of the system. If a leak appears, it is easy to trace. Installation does not involve difficulties. Installation and fastening of all component parts is carried out on site. The investment is minimal.

Fig 5. Open

But the principle is not without significant drawbacks: there is a high probability of mechanical damage to the constituent elements. When using steel pipes, it is not so easy to damage the structure. All communications cannot be hidden, so they will always be in sight. The only solution is to choose the optimal place for installation, which will not catch the eye when entering the space. An alternative would be to use a special box. The market is full of modern products, such as false walls. A beginner should take into account the fact that a decorative solution should not affect the functionality of the system. It is also necessary to monitor the development of corrosion.

Hidden styling

Installation is carried out in special voids of the building structure. As a rule, they look like small recesses or niches, where the size is slightly larger than the diameter of the pipes.

One of the options for a closed type is laying with a screed. Concrete is installed on top of the parts. Among the main advantages, one can single out a neat appearance of the resulting structure. Since the outlets of the pipelines end in the walls, they cannot be mechanically damaged. But the principle is not without important nuances. The work is laborious and also requires significant material costs. It is also impossible to control his condition.

Fig 6. Hidden

Carrying out hidden installation work involves laborious work for gouging the strobe and cutting it out. It is allowed on the territory of private houses, where the main material for construction is brick. On the territory of the apartments there should be a free layout, for example, a studio. In an apartment, most often the thickness of the walls is greater, in other situations there is always a risk of non-compliance with the developed standards.

A large load is placed on the load-bearing walls, which leads to a weakening of the strobe. If the thickness of the walls is increased, then such changes are unacceptable. Regardless of the type of structures, it is strictly forbidden to mount gates in slabs. Alternatively, the gasket can be installed behind the skin or in the screed. Suitable for copper or steel pipes, as it does not imply free access to the system.

The use of propylene pipes


The layout of polypropylene pipes in the bathroom and toilet does not cause great difficulties. If it is necessary to carry out cold water supply, it is first necessary to prepare pipes with a diameter of 25 mm, where the wall thickness will be at least 2.8 mm. For hot water supply, it is better to choose reinforced pipes with an identical diameter, but so that the wall thickness is from 3.2 mm. Polypropylene is a synthetic material that is durable and lightweight.

Fig 7. Scheme of work with polypropylene pipes

For independent work, it is recommended to follow the following procedure:

  1. To begin with, cut the pipes (it is recommended to use Rehau pipes), having previously measured the length. It is worth preparing a special cutter, because burrs often remain due to a hacksaw, and perpendicular cuts cannot be made at all.
  2. Take the trimmer and process the pipe by chamfering. If the pipes are additionally treated with foil, you must first remove it with a shaver
  3. For welding, a dor and a coupling are installed on the soldering iron in accordance with the diameter of the pipes. It remains to heat the device to 260 degrees
  4. The end of the pipe must be cleaned of dirt and dust, insert the soldering iron into the coupling. Each part is heated for a certain amount of time. As a rule, a special table is attached to the purchased pipes. On average, the time does not exceed 5 seconds
  5. It remains to do the docking. It is important to control the complete alignment of the axes and wait until the parts have completely cooled down.

Pros and cons of combined and separate bathrooms

To organize the normal use of the toilet and bathroom, it is necessary to create a competent drainage system. If you decide to do the connection and wiring yourself, you need to understand not only the principle of operation, but also what configurations of bathrooms exist.

Fig 8. Separate and combined bathrooms


Considering the arrangement of apartments and residential facilities, there are often two types of bathrooms: separate and combined. In the second case, this is a whole space without partitions. In the first case, the toilet and bathroom have separate entrances to the space. The choice is subjective. However, from a sanitary point of view, it is worth noting that a combined bathroom is not the best solution. The use of a combined bathroom is relevant in the following situations:

  1. If the separate spaces of the toilet and bathroom are too cramped and allow you to fit basic hygiene items. When combined in a combined bathroom, a large share of the space is sometimes freed up, allowing, for example, to move a washing machine or mount a bidet.
  2. If initially the area of ​​\u200b\u200bthe room is large (from 10 sq. M).
  3. The use of the bathroom is limited to a limited number of people.

By choosing the right wiring method, you can independently achieve the optimal result and create an uninterrupted system for supplying cold or hot water.

Features of communication in the apartment building

After determining the type of wiring and drawing up a competent action plan, it is important to ensure that the input of the communication system is carried out in the correct order. First of all, check that a shut-off valve is present on the pipes. In the event of a leak, it can be used to quickly shut off the water. In the future, we look at its condition in the process of effective use.

Fig 9. Wiring in an apartment building

As a rule, modern equipment is used in new buildings. The use of a ball valve is recommended. It is important to remember that the device must be opened or closed smoothly so as not to damage the structure. You also need to install special protection that will prevent leaks. Then the self-cleaning filter is installed. With its help, water undergoes high-quality water purification, eliminating third-party impurities, heavy metals. If necessary, you can put water meters, if necessary. You can also install a water flow regulator. It is installed at will or if there are constant difficulties with pressure.


The principle of operation, characteristics and installation of a heating cable for sewer pipes


The problem of freezing of sewer communications of external sewerage is best solved at the design stage, using insulation and placing its main part below the freezing depth of the soil. But due to the great depth (more than 1m) or the presence of additional communications, this becomes impossible. The risk of freezing is also subject to parts of water pipes and drains in places where they exit the house and come into direct contact with the ground. Therefore, all these communications need to be protected from possible freezing not only with a layer of thermal insulation, but also with heating elements.

Figure 1. Frozen sewer pipe

There are several ways to build thermal insulation for sewerage systems with heating, without it, with your own hands or with the help of specialists. One of the most popular and effective heating of sewerage systems is heating with a heating cable.

Heating cables (types)


Produced in one- and two-wire versions. The basis of this type of product is a conductive (heating) core, which, when an electric current passes, releases heat according to the Joule-Lenz law. The heating core is insulated, as a rule, with a heat-resistant material (for example, fluoroplastic). Some types use double insulation. Next is a metal shielding braid in the form of a mesh of thin conductors or just foil. This shell protects it from mechanical damage, and is also a screen. The surface of the wire is covered with a heat-resistant sheath.

Figure 2. Construction of resistive cables

This cable works as follows. If it is single-core, then the power supply must be carried out from two sides (as shown in the figure below on the left), and the wire should be evenly distributed in a loop along the entire length, which is extremely inconvenient. The problem of two-way power supply is solved in two-core products, although the principle of operation is similar, but it is more convenient to install and connect (in the figure below, on the right). In addition, for both types, it is necessary to use temperature control of its surface using temperature controllers.

Figure3. Connection methods for single-core and two-core resistive cables



It is a kind of resistive, or rather a modified version of a two-wire. The modification consists in the fact that short sections of heating spiral wires are added to it, located with a certain step. Now, unlike its predecessor, it can be cut into pieces of the desired length with a certain step.

Figure 4. Construction of a zone heating cable


It is a wire with two parallel copper strands, between which there is a semiconductor. This design is covered with protective, electrically insulating and shielding shells. The specific resistance to electric current of a semiconductor is directly proportional to its temperature. That is, the higher its heating temperature, the resistance between the two cores increases and vice versa. As with previous products, heat is released according to the same law (Joule-Lenz), but not in the current-carrying cores, but in the semiconductor separating them. Since its conductivity depends on temperature, the magnitude of the current will also change, and, consequently, the power. In fact, this wire is its own heater and thermostat in any of its sections along its entire length. Accordingly, the amount of heat in each area will be released differently, so that regardless of external conditions, the temperature of its surface will be almost the same at each point.

Figure 5. The principle of self-regulation of the conductivity of the heating cable


Such a heating cable consists of an insulated conductive core wound around a ferromagnetic core, which is a pipe. Alternating current creates an alternating magnetic flux, which induces eddy currents in it, and they heat it up.

Such heating is considered obsolete and is now used extremely rarely. This is due not only to low efficiency, but also to the fact that it can only be used for metal pipes.

Which heating cable to choose for heating sewer pipes

To resolve this issue, let’s compare the advantages and disadvantages of the above wires for heating. Resistive single-wire, two-wire, and zonal can be generalized because of their similarity.

Resistive and zone heating cables

Advantages of resistive (including zonal) heating cables:

  • The simplicity of the device;
  • Relatively low cost;
  • Long-term use resistivity stability;
  • Long service life if properly installed.


  • The inability to change the length (in zonal this problem is partially solved, but the length changes in steps);
  • The need for a thermostatic device;
  • If the heating wires are close together, if they are intertwined, and even if the surface is dirty, the insulation overheats significantly. Overheating of the insulation leads to its premature aging and possible short circuit;
  • Requirements for installation.

Self-regulating cable


Advantages of a self-regulating cable:

  • Does not require a separate thermostat;
  • The ability to cut the footage of any length (not less than 1.5 m and not more than indicated in the passport);
  • During installation, the approach and crossing of wires is allowed, which greatly simplifies the laying;
  • Temperature control occurs independently at each point, along the entire length. This completely eliminates its overheating;
  • The surface temperature along the entire length is almost the same.


  • Compared with resistive, this product has a high cost.

After analyzing the advantages and disadvantages of different types of cables, we can conclude that self-regulating will be much more efficient. When heating sewer systems and drains with it, in addition to the above advantages, significant energy savings can be achieved. To do this, you need an additional thermostat to control the temperature of the external environment.

Choosing a cable for a sewer system

The required heating power is directly related to the heat loss of the heated pipe. It is very important to make the correct selection of power for the sewer system of the desired diameter and the conditions for its heat transfer.

Important! Incorrect power selection can lead to:

  1. If the power is too high, overheating, as a result of which the service life of the heating system will decrease. In the worst cases, plastic drains can melt. (When using a self-regulating heating cable, overheating is completely eliminated).
  2. If the power is too low, the system will not be able to withstand low temperatures, which will lead to freezing of drains.
  3. To reduce the economic efficiency of heating.
  4. Increasing the likelihood of electric shock to a person or animal.
  5. Reduced service life of both the heating system and the sewage system itself.

When you build a sewer with your own hands, design its heating and thermal insulation, you can be guided by the table below. It displays the average heat loss depending on the pipe diameter, insulation layer and temperature difference.

Figure 6. Selection of specific heat losses of the pipe depending on the diameter and external conditions


We take the power per unit length equal to or slightly greater than the number that we find at the intersection of the desired thickness and temperature difference. Next, we multiply the length of the pipeline by this number and by a safety factor of 1.3, then divide by the cable power according to the passport — this will be the required length.

Reliability of the heating cable

The reliability of a self-regulating cable directly depends on the quality of the heating matrix (semiconductor material between current-carrying cores). The lower the quality, the faster it ages — as a result, the specific heat release and self-regulation decrease. The service life of such a low quality matrix is ​​3-4 years.

Proven manufacturers who care about their reputation, such as Fujikura, Pentair, Devi, Hemstedt, use quality materials for production. This, of course, translates into a higher price, but its work throughout the entire service life (15 … 20 years) is worth it.

The main stages of laying the heating cable

In private homes and in production, installation of heating is carried out at the stage of insulation of sewer pipes. It is necessary to securely seal the joints to avoid moisture seepage. The cable can be laid on the outside of the pipeline (under thermal insulation) or inside it.

Internal installation

This method of heating the sewer system has many more disadvantages:

  • Increased risk of blockage
  • The heating cable is constantly exposed to the aggressive environment of drains (accordingly, you need to fork out for a purchase with a more stable outer sheath);
  • It is extremely difficult to apply this method on extended communications;
  • An additional tee is required.

However, the method of laying inside the pipe can sometimes be the only possible solution. Advantages:

  • It is possible to heat pipes with low thermal conductivity or old systems with significant deposits on the walls;
  • It is convenient to heat partially in places where the sewerage passes through the foundation;
  • It is convenient to heat water pipes and drains without thermal insulation.

The main stages of installation:

  1. In order to introduce the cable into the sewer, a special coupling-nipple is installed.
  2. If there is no tee or inspection hole, you can cut a small section, and then mount an adapter of the desired diameter.
  3. Insert the cable to the required depth.
  4. The sewer pipe must be sealed. It is necessary to screw the nut with the nipple and check the tightness.
  5. Connect the cable to the mains. To do this, it is necessary to provide a power socket nearby or a circuit breaker in advance.
Figure 7. The main stages of installation of a heating self-regulating cable inside a pipe

outdoor installation

When installing a heating cable outdoors, there are two ways — this is laying in a «wave» («spiral») or along the pipe. Regardless of the method, it fits along the entire length. A higher concentration of laying should correspond to places with a higher probability of freezing. Further, it is displayed in a warm place, and only then an electrical connection is made.

Spiral laying

This is the most versatile and probably the most effective way. Of course, for this you need to spend time and have the relevant experience in reserve. But this method allows heating the sewer with the possibility of further modifying it at low cost.

Installation principle:

  1. For short lengths, the cable is laid in a spiral wound around the pipe. (calculated length is distributed over the entire pipeline).
Figure 8. Coiling method for short distances
  1. For long distances. We divide the route by the number of sections, a multiple of two (approximately).
  2. With a margin in length, we fasten the pre-cable product.
  3. We wrap the resulting loops around the pipe in the opposite direction, one from one.
  4. We wind the coil in increments of 30-50 cm.

It is attached to the pipe with adhesive or aluminum tape in increments of 0.5-1m or along the cable along the entire length. The aluminum tape is sealed to ensure complete cable sealing.

Figure 9. External way of fixing the heating cable with a spiral

Laying along the pipe


This is an easier installation method, but slightly worse in terms of heating efficiency. The principle of such laying can be seen in the figure below. With one (left) and two (right) heating elements. Fastening the cable product to the pipe through 0.5-1m or along the entire length is similar to the previous method.

Figure 10. Installation along the pipeline with one and two heating cables

When laying a sewer pipe system in the ground, the same insulation and additional heating are required. In addition, it is recommended to use an outer protective shell. It is recommended not to stick the heating self-regulating cable with a strip of foil, but wrap it completely around the pipe, as shown in the figure below.

Figure 11. Installation of a self-regulating cable with a full winding

Recommendations of the installation masters

  1. To increase savings when heating the pipes of the sewerage system with a self-regulating cable, you need to use an additional thermostat to control the ambient temperature.
  2. It is necessary to ensure a reliable connection of sewer joints, to prevent the passage of moisture.
  3. It is strictly forbidden to mount cable products with conventional insulation internally.
  4. The permissible temperature of the pipe material, as well as its insulation, must be higher than the temperature to which the cable will be heated.
  5. The angles of rotation of the heating cable must correspond to those prescribed in its passport.
  6. During installation, the air temperature at which the laying is carried out must be higher than the permissible one.
  7. At the time of the first inclusion of a self-regulating cable in the power grid, its power consumption will exceed the nameplate several times. After that, in a few minutes, the indicator will return to normal.

At first glance, the installation of a self-regulating heating cable to protect the pipes of the sewerage system is very simple, but this requires knowledge of the relevant codes and regulations. By following them, you will be able to mount an efficient and reliable heating system.


Types of thermal insulation of chimneys


The products of combustion of fuel in a stove or fireplace are removed from the room using a chimney. Chimneys have a complex structure. To obtain the necessary traction, it is necessary not only to correctly calculate their height, to carry out a competent installation of the chimney, but also to properly organize thermal insulation. There is a wide choice of heaters for insulating pipes of all types of stoves and fireplaces.

Red refractory brick chimney

Why is thermal insulation needed?

One of the important reasons is fire safety. Flue gases can have temperatures up to 400 degrees. An overheated chimney often causes a fire. Therefore, it is especially carefully isolated at the points of contact with the structures of the house: ceilings, roofs, walls.

The second reason for the insulation of the chimney is the fight against condensate. Water vapor impregnated with combustion products cools and settles in the form of a resinous liquid on the inner walls of the chimney. The substance not only clogs the pipe and reduces its permeability, but also corrodes its walls. Another negative consequence is an unpleasant odor that enters the living space from the chimney.

The formation of condensate is especially intense in winter, when there is a big difference between the temperatures outside and inside the chimney. This is one of the main causes of condensation. Therefore, thermal insulation of the chimney is an important step that will significantly extend its service life.

The most popular types of heaters

Often, the thermal insulation of chimneys is done by hand. In this case, the main attention is paid to the section of the chimney, which is located outside the heated zone. That is, the part of the chimney that is on the roof is insulated. Sheet insulation is stuffed or glued onto brick pipes, and when insulating round metal pipes of wood-burning stoves, a “sandwich” type construction is used. Most often, stone and mineral wool, polyethylene foam, and kaolin fabric are used to insulate chimneys.


It is molded polyethylene foam. It is made in the form of pipes of different diameters, can be used without additional operations for cutting, winding, tying. Also sold in sheet form.

Molded foamed polyethylene — thermal insulation



  • no shrinkage;
  • seamless;
  • does not absorb moisture;
  • vapor tightness;
  • long service life.


May consist of two or three layers. One is polyethylene foam, the second is foil. The third layer is made of either foil or polypropylene.

A roll of foil-foamed polyethylene — foilizol


  • light weight;
  • high heat-reflecting properties due to the use of foil;
  • there is no moisture absorption;
  • simple installation;
  • safe for humans.

The cost is higher than that of thermal insulation, but its protective properties are also better.

Basalt wool

Made on the basis of basalt fiber. Synthetic resins are used as a fixing agent. Modern manufacturing technologies make the material as safe as possible.

Basalt wool in a roll


  • low thermal conductivity;
  • incombustibility;
  • long service life;
  • high strength;
  • good soundproofing properties.

glass wool


Time tested material. It is made from cullet, soda, sand, borax, limestone, dolomite are also used as raw materials — the same that is used to make glass. Polymer components are used as a binder for fibrous material.


  • withstands temperatures up to 450 °C;
  • has low thermal conductivity;
  • high strength;
  • good soundproofing properties;
  • incombustibility.


Natural material that is mined in special deposits. Another name is white clay. It is used in the form of non-combustible kaolin wool — thermal insulation, which is suitable for all types of chimneys.

Kaolin wool


  • does not emit harmful substances when heated;
  • refractory material;
  • electrical insulating material;
  • low thermal conductivity;
  • resistance to high temperatures;
  • high chemical resistance.

Recommendations of experts on the choice of insulation

There is a wide range of thermal insulation materials. The quality of the insulation depends on its thermal conductivity and thickness. The thicker the insulation and the lower its thermal conductivity, the better it will insulate from unwanted heating or cooling. When choosing a heater, you need to pay attention to fire resistance, heat resistance, and the absence of toxic emissions when heated.

Kaolin wool has no competitors in terms of fire resistance. Even an open fire does not take it. The only drawback is the high price.

Basalt, mineral, glass wool are excellent heat-insulating heaters. They are not flammable. Previously produced brands were not completely safe for humans. Claims were caused by both a binder — phenol-formaldehyde resins, and crumbling hard fibers, the smallest particles of which could get into the respiratory tract. It is believed that modern production methods have completely solved the safety problems.

Advice! When laying insulation in several layers, it is necessary to overlap the heat insulator, avoiding overlapping joints.


The safest materials: thermal insulation and foil insulation based on polyethylene foam. They have low thermal conductivity and are easy to use. Folgoizol better reflects thermal radiation, so it costs a little more. Ease of installation due to the shape of the product. It is enough just to put them on the insulated product, firmly fix it with aluminum tape. The disadvantage of the material is low heat resistance. Suitable for use at temperatures up to 170 °C. Also, there is no resistance to open fire.

How to install a heater with your own hands

Installing a heater is not a complicated procedure, it is easy to do it yourself. Before starting work, you need to understand what method of insulation will be used. It depends on the type of chimney, the design of the building and the funds that are planned to be spent on the thermal insulation of the chimney.

A reliable way of warming is bulk. A special box is mounted around the chimney. Kaolin, expanded clay, sand, slag and other heat-insulating materials are poured into it. The method is highly reliable: the structures are strong and durable. The used heaters are not combustible, resistant to high temperatures. The properties do not deteriorate over time, which allows you to reliably isolate the chimney. The main disadvantage of this method is the high labor intensity. The box is recommended to be installed at the stage of building construction. Otherwise, serious alterations may be required, which will entail high costs.

Insulation, type «sandwich»

The most popular method of chimney insulation is «sandwich». Rolled or sheet products made of basalt, glass or other mineral wool are used. The “sandwich” is formed as follows: the bottom layer is the chimney itself, the outer one is an additional iron sheet, the “filling” is the insulation layer. The gap should be chosen on the order of 4-5 cm. That is, the diameter of the outer pipe should be 8-10 cm larger than the diameter of the inner one.

Sandwich insulation device

The operating procedure is as follows:

  • Pre-assembly of the vertical section.
  • A heater is laid out next to the assembled chimney, it is desirable that the length of the roll matches its height.
  • The chimney must be placed on top of the insulation.
  • The heat-insulating material is fixed with adhesive tape. One end is fixed before the whole structure is placed in a large diameter pipe, which will become the outer layer of the “sandwich”. The other end is when the entire chimney is placed in a wide pipe.
  • The last stage is the installation of the chimney. It is necessary to fix it to the wall, make a joint with the roof on the roof.

Advice! Reliable fastening of the chimney is provided by special brackets. They can come in a kit, bought separately, independently made from a corner.

Also, mineral wool can be fixed to the chimney simply with a wire or metallized tape. But even in this case, it is necessary to close the outer layer with a non-combustible material. You can use roofing material, refractory fabric, aluminum foil for winding. Protection from the outside will help extend the life of the insulation.

The use of polymeric materials as a heater


The shape of thermally insulating products made of polymeric materials, including foamed polyethylene, makes it easy to install insulation.

The detachable structure is called the «shell», as it fits snugly around the chimney. Its main advantage is ease of installation. Well suited for warming a round metal chimney. The disadvantages include the need for individual selection of products according to the diameter of the chimney.

A «shell» is produced from polyurethane foam and polystyrene, it is not suitable for chimneys, as it does not withstand temperatures above 100 ° C. Similar polyethylene foam products are used at temperatures up to 170-180 °C. If basalt or mineral wool is used as the material, then such a product can withstand heating up to 400-450 ° C.

Basalt «shell»


To ensure that the insulation is not exposed to precipitation and is protected from the negative effects of the environment, it is necessary to install waterproofing. It is mounted on top of the roofing materials of the roof and is an apron made of waterproof material. After fixing the waterproofing, all joints must be carefully coated with bitumen, liquid rubber or silicone sealant. There are other ways to waterproof.

Roof chimney waterproofing

Fire insulation


Heating chimneys to high temperatures causes additional requirements for their design. Especially true for chimneys organized in wooden houses. All points of contact with building structures must be carefully insulated to avoid overheating and ignition.

All of the methods described above are suitable for isolation. They can be insulated with asbestos cloth or cardboard. The use of asbestos pipes, the installation of ceramic chimneys will reduce the risk of fire. Cardinal ways to solve the problem: bringing the chimney to the street and using a pipe made of red refractory bricks.

Thermal insulation of brick pipes

Even if the pipe is made of refractory red brick, it still needs to be insulated. The easiest, fastest and most reliable way is plastering. From 3 to 5 layers of plaster are applied, while the total thickness should be about 40 mm. To keep the layers firmly, additional reinforcing elements are applied. They are installed separately on each layer of plaster.

Lathing device for installing a heat insulator

To insulate a brick pipe with mineral wool, a crate made of a metal profile or a wooden beam is mounted on it. Sheet insulation is installed tightly enough to eliminate any gaps. Cotton wool is covered with a layer of vapor barrier, the joints are glued with adhesive tape. The final stage is finishing. You can apply plaster or sew up with polymer siding.

No matter how simple the measures for warming the chimney may seem, you should first carefully study all the necessary information. It is necessary to pay great attention to the choice of a heat insulator. It is required to think over in advance the order of work and prepare tools, materials, organize free access to the chimney or to the place of its installation.


Diesel boilers and their varieties


In private households, autonomous heating is an integral element of the heat supply system. When choosing heating equipment, owners take into account the simplicity and efficiency of use. Equipment manufacturers offer a wide range of models, among which liquid fuel units — diesel boilers are especially popular.

Types of installations, design features

In the absence of connecting the house to the gas main and the need to organize heating of non-residential premises, the use of a diesel boiler will be an ideal option for solving the heating problem.

Functionally, diesel units are similar to gas plants, the key difference lies in the type of fuel used and in the burner.

By the number of working circuits, single- and double-circuit devices are distinguished. The first group is equipped with one heat exchanger, used for autonomous heating. The design does not involve the removal of hot water from the system.

The main advantages of single-circuit models:

  • Smaller dimensions and price in comparison with a two-circuit model with similar parameters.
  • In case of emergency, only one heat exchanger will need to be replaced.

Dual-circuit models on diesel fuel are capable of simultaneously performing two functions. The units are equipped with two heat exchangers, one of which, when heated, transfers heat to the heating system, and the second provides water heating for hot water supply. Cold water is supplied from the central water supply, heated and consumed during consumption. Boilers of this type are called flow-through. Accumulative models are equipped with a built-in boiler, which stores a supply of heated water.

The main advantages are that there is no need to spend money and time on the purchase of equipment for heating water. Compared to a single-circuit unit and an additional boiler, the double-circuit model has more compact dimensions.

The type of burner and power make it possible to divide diesel boilers into one-, two-stage models, as well as units with automatic control.

In installations with a single-stage burner, there is no possibility of adjusting the power — work is carried out at the limit values. The price of such a device is lower, but during operation it consumes a lot of fuel.

In two-stage models, the power has two levels of adjustment. When the maximum temperature is reached, the boiler switches to economy mode, maintains heat in the coolant. When the temperature reaches the minimum, the burner switches back to maximum operation.

Equipment equipped with an automatic control system is operated within the established temperature limits. The user sets the desired temperature by pressing a button on the control panel. All work processes, the choice of power is under the control of electronics. In case of a long absence, a standby thermal mode is set to maintain the set minimum temperature in the heat exchanger.


Instructions for removing the plug from the sewer with your own hands


For a comfortable stay in the apartment, along with heat, electricity, it should be supplied with water for household and drinking needs. In addition, it must also have a drain from sanitary appliances. Ideally, the amount of water withdrawal should be equal to the water consumption. But in practice this is not always the case.

Pipe socket cover

Of course, you have to pay for this service. Nobody will do this for free. But not all residents are in a hurry to do so. Many do not pay for the fact that the management company supplies them with water and diverts it. Debts grow like a snowball and there comes a time when they exceed all reasonable limits. Public utilities, of course, are constantly looking for ways to influence debtors and make them pay. You can, of course, shut off the water, limiting its access to the consumer. But water is supplied through a common riser, and then it is distributed to apartments through a branch network.

If this is done, then conscientious payers will suffer along with the debtors. Therefore, it is preferable for public utilities to use a different path. They are installing a plug on the sewer to malicious debtors, and this can be done in relation to a particular apartment. Installing a water limiter will not violate, but using the sewer will be problematic.

Installation eligibility

Under the law, public utilities are not entitled to turn off the supply of vital services, such as water and electricity, without a special court order. Therefore, in judicial practice, such a restrictive measure as a plug on the sewer appeared.

The partition is installed on a branch from a common riser

Of course, you can use another way to deal with non-payers, in which a locksmith comes to the apartment and cuts off the taps. But after all, not every tenant is ready to let him in, he has a guaranteed right to the inviolability of the home. To install the plug, it is not at all necessary to enter the apartment. You can’t prove anything in litigation.

Installation mechanism and whether it can be removed


The easiest way to fix the problem is to pay off debts. The liquidation of the debt will result in the removal of the silencing device by the management company. Technically, it is very difficult to remove it, since it is installed using special equipment. For this purpose, a probe and a manipulator are used. The sewer plug is supplied with a camera, which allows placement exactly in the place where it is really needed.

Many devices have been invented, but they are all approximately the same in terms of the principle of their operation. On a long cable carry out the descent of the manipulator.

Structurally, the plug on the sewer sewer can be presented in various forms, as well as the material for its manufacture. It is made of metal and polypropylene. Mostly, they use the second option.

Utilities use the following types:

  • Solid type. When it is installed, the movement of effluents through the sewer riser completely stops.
Solid closing lid
  • Lattice type plug. The liquid passes unhindered, and suspensions are retained, which causes their gradual accumulation.
  • Pneumatic plug. The device is in the form of a rubber balloon.
Rubber-cord pneumoplugs


It is not difficult to imagine what an unpleasant smell this will appear in the apartment. After all, a large amount of liquid waste is discharged from the apartment every day.

The plug is installed as follows:

  • First, a specialist from the management company studies in detail the scheme that was used when connecting the sewerage system. This is necessary because the apartment may have several sewer risers. Installation of only one partition is unlikely to create serious problems for the tenant.
  • After studying, an action plan is developed for how the plug will be installed. The point of its installation is outlined. Usually this is a segment of the sewer network that limits the toilet bowl from the riser.
  • The choice of a place for convenient control of the equipment is required. Usually it is the roof.
  • A device consisting of a manipulator, a light guide and a camera is lowered into this tube. The plug is brought to a certain place and the installation is carried out.

After the plug is installed, the drains stop their movement only in a single apartment. The work of the sewer system of neighboring apartments will continue as usual.

Restrictive measures for debtors

Of course, you can remove the plug, but this requires some experience with sanitary devices. Otherwise, inept actions will lead to the fact that the riser is completely clogged, and in the worst case, it will be damaged and fail.

It is very problematic to attribute such works to a pure category, since, for example, it will be necessary to remove the toilet bowl. How the barrier device will be removed depends on the presence or absence of a sewer inspection window in the apartment, as well as on how the sewer system is connected. It is much easier to carry out such activities if plastic or metal-plastic risers are installed. It is more difficult if there is a cast-iron riser.

Remove them by mechanical or chemical means. With any of them, there is a high risk that the riser will become clogged.

Disconnect the toilet and partially disassemble the riser


You can remove the installed plug from the sewer yourself with partial disassembly of the problem area. This method is applicable for the recent installation of the toilet. It must be bolted to the floor. You should not even try to disassemble the toilet if it has been installed for a long time and filled with cement. If the toilet is removed, it can be deformed.

The plug is usually placed where the sewer enters the dwelling. This location requires access. Therefore, initially remove the toilet. If the toilet is of a modern design, then it is not difficult to remove it. But first, they turn off the access of water by blocking it with a tap. First, remove the drain tank. Then disconnect the socket. Next, the toilet itself is removed.

Removing the plug after removing the toilet

It is required to unscrew the bolts with which the fastening to the floor is carried out.

When the device is removed completely, access to the partition is obtained. Now you should remove the plug from the sewer pipe and carefully remove it. This stage is responsible, errors must be excluded. Some try to push it inside the riser. Under no circumstances should you do this. The plug will fall into the common riser and block it. In this case, all residents whose drain is connected to this riser will no longer be able to use the sewer.

The plug must be tried to pull out into the apartment. How to do this will depend on how long the pipe is. You can use pliers. But it might be longer. Then you need to make a metal hook or use an ordinary fishing harpoon. It is quite possible to capture it, since it has holes in it.

When it was possible to hook, it is necessary to carefully pull out the plug inside the apartment. Maximum care is required when carrying out such work. Do not allow the device to be inside the sewer riser. When the plug is successfully removed, work is done to install the toilet bowl and return it to its original place. All actions are performed in reverse order.

Removal of the limiter by the master


Of course, you will need a whole set of tools. Without them, the plug simply cannot be pulled out. If there are no such tools, and there are no skills in working with plumbing devices, it is better not to remove the barrier device yourself. In the arsenal of tools, wrenches must be present in the set. You can not do without a hammer and adjustable wrench. Additionally, you should stock up on a flashlight, hard hook or harpoon.

Chemical removal using revision

By the way, using this method absolutely does not give any guarantee that you can get rid of the stub. Sometimes, if the riser connection configuration allows, you can achieve a very positive result.

When the toilet is filled with cement, you should not even try to remove it. However, the apartment may have an audit of the sewer riser. Then it is quite possible to extract it through this window. First you need to stock up on a long thin stick with a metal hook at the end. You can also use a fishing harpoon for this. The stick can slip out of the hands and fly into the riser. Then it will be impossible to extract it from there. To prevent this from happening, a rope must be tied to the stick. If it accidentally slips out, it can be pulled out.

The actions are simple to perform. First remove the revision window cover. The hook or harpoon that was prepared in advance should be inserted into it. After that, you need to try to hook it. If this succeeds, she is carefully pulled into the riser, and then she is taken out.

Removing a stub with a revision


In the case of a polypropylene or mesh plug, it is not difficult to perform such actions. However, this method is associated with a number of disadvantages:

  • Before carrying out such actions, it is necessary to prepare and put on the appropriate overalls. You should take care of protective measures, because at this moment anything can be dumped into the sewer from above, including boiling water.
  • There is a very high risk that during such work the plug will fall out and fall into the common sewer riser. Then she will block it completely or partially.
  • A significant drawback is that all the work is done almost blindly. True, it is not difficult to determine the location of the barrier device. At that moment, when the metal hook touches the walls of the riser and the surface of the plug, the sound will be different in nature.

You can try to dissolve the grid. To do this, you can use the drug «Mole». It contains oxalic acid. This option is applicable only if a non-metallic plug was used by the utilities. Don’t expect quick results. This will take at least a week. Some time will pass, the grating will dissolve and the plug will disappear.

Mole — a strong chemical agent for removing pollution and obstructions in the sewer

Citizens who have removed the partition often use an anti-plug so as not to fall under restrictive measures again.


Installing a plug is legitimate, so public utilities are struggling with debtors. It is very difficult to remove it yourself. This requires the right skills. The most reasonable solution to the problem is to pay off debts. In addition, the option is not ruled out that after self-removal of the plug, the public utilities will install it again.


The main methods of insulating gas pipelines


Insulation of gas pipelines is a necessary and important action aimed at protecting the pipeline from the effects of adverse environmental factors. Thermal insulation not only reduces heat loss, but also increases the quality of operation of the line.

Laying a gas pipeline with an insulator

Gas pipeline insulation materials

Insulation for surface gas pipes is carried out by various materials, which are subject to the following requirements:

  • Insulating insulation must be evenly spread over the entire surface area of ​​the pipe.
  • Must have a high degree of waterproofing and UV protection.
  • Resistant to chemicals.
  • It must protect the surface of the gas pipeline from mechanical stress, that is, be resistant to damage.
Application of insulation on the surface of the gas pipeline using a burner

These requirements must be observed, since pipelines transporting gas are under pressure with increased operational loads. Surface damage or poor workmanship will result in great difficulty transporting the gas through the system.

Types and characteristics of insulators


The main types of insulating materials for gas pipelines include:

  • Bituminous mastics. They are polymer, mineral, rubber. They are residual products of the oil industry with a viscous consistency. Mineral oils, atactic polypropylene, dolomite, crumb rubber are added to the carbon composition. To increase elasticity, special additives are added to bituminous mastics that enhance protection against cracking.
  • Tape. They are made from PVC and polyethylene. They have an adhesive surface on one side, which is attached to the surface of the pipe.

Each type has its own advantages, but pipes are insulated only in the factory.

Anti-corrosion coating of the gas system

Application technology

Before applying the insulator, the surface is pre-cleaned from rust, melting residues and scale. After the pipe is primed to increase corrosion protection and better adhesion to tape materials. Next, bituminous mastic is applied or polyethylene adhesive tape is wound. Both operations are performed by a special machine.

After applying the insulating material, the pipeline is subjected to a thorough check for the presence of defects, cracks, irregularities. The check is carried out with special measuring instruments.

The thickness of protective coatings is controlled using thickness gauges. Each type of coating has its own density level indicators:

  • For a bitumen-mastic coating, this figure corresponds to 7.5 to 9 mm.
  • For PVC adhesive tapes, this figure is from 1.8 to 3 mm.
  • The thickness of the polyethylene tape varies from 2.5 to 3.5 mm.

To enhance the insulation of the gas system, the material is applied in several layers: the first is a primer, then 2-3 layers of polyethylene tape, the top is wrapping. Such a coating is able to withstand heavy loads under pressure and retain its functions at temperatures from 45 to -35 degrees. Typically, the tape is applied at the factory, but for complex piping, the insulation is applied by hand.

In highway conditions, when application is required directly in difficult weather conditions, the tape cannot be used, bituminous mastics are used. Manual work is allowed only for the insulation of pipe joints, during repair work on the surface.

Application of bituminous tape


The technology for applying an insulating coating using bituminous mastics during repair work includes the following steps:

  • Carrying out cleaning of the isolated area. To do this, use metal brushes and sandpaper.
  • Process the ends adjacent to the treated area. To do this, cut off a piece of material at a distance of 1.5 cm.
Welding of pipeline ends
  • Dry and heat the joint in the winter.
  • Apply bituminous mastic to the prepared surface with a brush or roller.
  • The adjacent joints are heated with a gas burner.
  • Reinforcing material or glass wool is applied to the heated mastic.
  • Then another layer of hot bituminous mastic is applied.

Each action should be carried out with extreme care, since we are talking about working with chemical material and the use of heating devices.

Features of insulation of underground gas pipelines

Insulation for underground gas pipelines is necessary to protect the pipeline from the effects of corrosive processes, due to high soil moisture, as well as to eliminate the effects of stray currents.

Production of pipes with polyurethane foam insulation


The impact of stray currents adversely affects metal pipes. They are able to disable the pipeline during the first year of operation. Currents are generated in places where power grids, highways and railways pass. If the gas pipeline is laid next to such communications, special protection should be applied. The best insulator in this case is polyurethane foam (PPU).

The advantages of this insulator include:

  • Low thermal conductivity.
  • Low material density.
  • Resistant to temperature extremes and pressure fluctuations.
  • Extending the life of the pipeline.
  • Ease of installation during repair work.

For insulation with PPU, two methods of application are used:

  • Application of material in the factory.
  • Protection of communications after installation of the pipeline.

Pipes with PPU insulation applied at the factory are regulated by GOST No. 30732. According to this standard, two types of pipes are produced: ordinary and reinforced. They differ in technological characteristics and performance. The technology for the production of pipes with polyurethane foam insulation is as follows:

  • The upper shell is made of polyethylene using extrusion technology. For its production, a special press machine is used, into which liquid polyethylene is supplied under pressure, and then it solidifies. After complete hardening, the shell is taken out and inserted into the pipe with the inside.
  • The gap between the pipe wall and the inner surface of the shell is filled with liquid polyurethane foam, which subsequently hardens.

Pipe insulation in the factory is considered more reliable and durable. To enhance protection against moisture penetration from above, the shell is covered with polyethylene.

Polyurethane foam coating — the ideal solution for a gas system

This insulation has another advantage — the possibility of installing electronic sensors for monitoring the gas pipeline. It allows you to identify the slightest malfunctions in the system and quickly eliminate them.

During the installation of the pipeline, the ends of the pipes to be connected are covered with asbestos cloth to protect the coating from damage when heated. To connect the ends of the pipes, it is better to use heat shrink sleeves. They are not inferior in performance to PPU and will perfectly protect the entire system as a whole.