Profile pipe bending methods: on the machine and manually


Bending a square profile pipe is a procedure during which the product acquires a curved shape. Bending is done by hand or with a special tool. The curved shape of the metal is obtained on the machine.

Technical characteristics of profile pipes and their features for bending

Before bending the metal, it is recommended to familiarize yourself with their technical characteristics, which will have a positive effect on the result of the work. Products have an oval, square, flat-oval or rectangular section. In accordance with GOST standards, professional pipes with a round section are shaped pipes.

Pipe bending

Product sizes may vary. Distinctive features between them are the wall thickness and cross-sectional area. The definition of plastic possibilities is carried out taking into account the totality of dimensions. This is the minimum allowed size radius.

Profile pipe bending methods

Bending of a profile metal pipe along the radius is carried out in a cold and hot way. To facilitate this process, the use of special devices is recommended — blanks, pipe benders, machines.


A bending rolling machine for a profile pipe can be purchased or made independently. When using the installation, the metal is bent in a cold way. The machine can be semi-automatic and automatic. When using the second of them, a high-quality deflection of the pipe is ensured.

Finished rolled metal

Metal bending rolls are a device that has two components — a metal frame and feed rolls. A hand tool is used for bending small diameter products. Hydraulic rollers are used if the corrugated pipe has a thick wall and its diameter is more than 10 millimeters.

pipe bender


The tool allows you to bend a metal profile pipe at home correctly. The principle of operation of the equipment is based on exerting great pressure on one or more points, which ensures its bending. The tool has a compact size, which simplifies the process of its use in the household. There are manual and hydraulic pipe benders. The second version of the units has a higher efficiency. Electrical analogues are produced that simplify the process of metal bending and do not require the participation of a master. With a one-time procedure, their purchase is impractical.

pipe bender

The pipe bender gives the pipe smooth lines. Fine sand is poured into the metal product, and its holes are closed on both sides with wooden plugs or a simple bar. When choosing a cork, it is recommended to ensure that its length is twice the radius. This will eliminate the possibility of deformation of the professional pipe. Further, small holes are drilled from both ends, with the help of which the gas exit is ensured. In places of the future bend, marking is done. Then the required area is heated and bent.


This method is used with a large bending radius of the metal product. The user heats the place of the bend with a blowtorch. First, a wire with a diameter of 1-4 millimeters is taken, and a spring is made from it, which is put on the place of the bend. After heating the professional pipe, it is bent with a blank, which has a radius equal to the bend.

The shape of metal products after bending with a blank

Cold bending methods

This is a simple method that is used only at low temperatures. A segment is taken and a cork is put on one side. Water is poured into the other end of the metal product. The structure is left in the cold until the water inside freezes. After that, bending is carried out with any tool. This method is used if the material is duralumin, copper, brass and other soft metals.

Before applying the method, it is recommended to ensure that the wall thickness is no more than 1 millimeter, and the diameter is no more than 8 millimeters.

Cutting method


Preliminary it is recommended to accurately calculate the radius of curvature. With three stolons, it is recommended to make cut marks. Next, with the use of a tool, gentle bending is carried out. In places of cuts, the pipe is welded by welding.

Cutting method

With sand and salt

Sand or salt is poured into the metal-plastic pipe, which are preheated. After heating the segment, it is bent in accordance with a template of a given radius.

Shape after using salt and sand

How is pipe bending along the radius


There are several ways to bend the profile pipe along the radius for the greenhouse. If the need for manipulation rarely appears, then a manual pipe bender is used. Bending is carried out by cold and hot methods. The bending equipment consists of a frame that has a roller. It moves along the base, as a result of which the material is bent.

In front of the flexible, the radius of inertia of a professional pipe of a round or square section is determined. When choosing a tool, the master should be guided by the recommendations of specialists:

  • For bending, a lever device is used, with which a turn of up to 90 degrees can be created.
  • When using a lever fixture, it is recommended to use metal products made of flexible material — copper, aluminum, stainless steel. Their diameter should be no more than 20 millimeters.
  • Crossbow pipe benders have a more complex design, which requires laying the product in two supports that rotate around its axis.
  • If the cross section is less than 10 centimeters, then crossbow installations can be used to bend the metal at an angle of 90 degrees.
  • To ensure ease of manipulation, it is recommended to pre-heat or cool the bending point.
  • If bending is carried out by rolling, then the use of equipment that has three rolls is recommended.

The pressure on the workpiece during bending is carried out by various types of rods — hydraulic with a manual drive, screw mechanical, hydraulic with an electric drive.

How to make a manual bending machine according to drawings with your own hands

Before you make a machine with your own hands, it is recommended that you familiarize yourself with its drawing. It consists of:

  • conveyor;
  • beds;
  • clamps;
  • top roller;
  • bracket, which has guide corners.

All of the listed elements are initially assembled separately, and after that — into a single whole. Before assembly, it is recommended to purchase the structural elements of the machine. Tool assembly work requires the use of a welding machine and other tools.

Homemade installation


The bed in its appearance resembles an ordinary table or workbench. Its legs are made from a channel or a piece of a product, the diameter of which is more than 10 centimeters. The legs are connected to the surface of the table using welding, which will ensure the reliability of fastening.

The conveyor consists of two rollers, which are located on both sides of the frame. Its assembly is carried out in accordance with the drawings. The chain sprocket is firmly fixed on the shafts, and then a tensioning mechanism is installed, which includes a similar sprocket in its design.

The clamping mechanism is made of a simple clamp. After installing all the structural elements, the performance of the rolling rollers and the mechanism as a whole is checked. Tests are carried out using pipes of various diameters. Before the procedure, the parameters are calculated — the angle and place of the bend. The high-quality work of the tool is guaranteed if the calculations and the results obtained coincide with an accuracy of a millimeter.

Ready unit

At the final stage, the clamping mechanism and the conveyor are fixed on the frame. For this, self-tapping screws are used, which are screwed in with a screwdriver. The functionality of the tool is checked.

Recommendations and possible errors

When making a tool with your own hands, the user is guided by the recommendations of experts:

  • When assembling the conveyor, it is recommended to carefully install the chain sprocket, as its incorrect fixation causes damage to the equipment.
  • During the manufacture of the clamping mechanism, strict observance of all the main dimensions indicated in the drawings is recommended. In the presence of deviations, it is not possible to guarantee the accuracy of the bending radius of the pipes.
  • After the manufacture of the instrument, it is recommended to provide appropriate care for it, which will positively affect the duration of operation.
  • In the process of using the tool, the performance of all its parts is monitored, and the possibility of a negative impact of environmental factors is also limited.
  • Precipitation adversely affects the condition of the device, therefore it is recommended to provide high-quality protection of rolling rollers from moisture. Otherwise, rust will appear, which will negatively affect the operation of the equipment.
  • After working with the machine, it is cleaned from dust, dirt and sand.
  • If the pipe bending machine is electrically driven, regular maintenance and preventive maintenance is recommended to ensure its high performance and efficiency.

Metal bending is a universal procedure that allows you to bend professional pipes under a specific node. With a small radius, you can manipulate manually. If the pipe has a thick wall and an impressive radius, then it is recommended to use a pipe bender, which can be purchased or made by yourself.


Ventilation of the gas boiler in the house


A gas boiler is a complex technical device, the efficient and safe operation of which depends on many factors. Therefore, the transition to autonomous gas heating requires homeowners to strictly follow the rules for the safe operation of gas heating equipment. Ventilation for a gas boiler is one of such key aspects of its correct operation and, regardless of the type of heating unit, is arranged without fail.

For residents of city apartments using compact mounted gas boilers, the issue of ventilation is not so acute, since modern models of heating boilers are equipped with a closed combustion chamber, the normal operation of which is ensured simply by installing a coaxial chimney.

The situation is more complicated for the category of residential facilities in which powerful gas-fired hot water boilers are installed — such units for burning fuel in the furnace need more air.

Basic requirements for ventilation of gas heating equipment

The basis of any heating system is project documentation. Even at the stage of project development, it is necessary to make thermal calculations, accurately calculate the parameters of the exhaust system. For private houses in which it is supposed to use gas boilers of high power, a prerequisite is the allocation of space for the boiler room.

The boiler room for gas equipment must comply with state regulations and standards, which is explained by the increased danger of using natural gas in everyday life. Let’s get acquainted with the requirements for residential facilities when installing autonomous heating and gas boiler ventilation equipment when installing a heating system in a private house.

Why is gas boiler ventilation necessary?

The main task assigned to ventilation is to remove combustion products from the interior. Even a slight ingestion of carbon monoxide can have an extremely negative impact on the well-being of the inhabitants of the house. No less dangerous are leaks of natural gas, which easily accumulates in a closed space and, at a certain concentration, is an explosive combustible mixture.

The lack of normal ventilation also significantly affects the performance of the heating gas boiler. Only a constant inflow of the required volume of air ensures the normal combustion of fuel in the combustion chamber. As a result of insufficient extraction efficiency, the fuel burns worse, the heat release decreases and the gas consumption increases accordingly.

Important! For powerful floor-mounted gas boilers, poor exhaust operation causes rapid clogging of the furnace compartment. Accumulated soot and soot also cause a decrease in the internal diameter of the duct. As a result, part of the combustion products is not drawn out, but enters the interior of the room.

The ventilation system has certain requirements, so its parameters must correspond to those calculated in the project — a lot depends on the diameter of the duct, its length and the method of air supply. The parameters of the supply ventilation system for a heating gas boiler, in order to maximize the efficiency of the heating system, are calculated individually for each situation and model of gas equipment. At the same time, it is necessary to take into account the design features of the building, which also play an important role in ensuring the ventilation of the boiler room.

Basic requirements for ventilation equipment in the boiler room

A number of requirements are imposed on the building planned for equipping with autonomous gas heating, including the presence of a separate, specially equipped room in accordance with GOST standards for installing a gas boiler — a boiler room. The boiler room can be equipped in the following places (the list is compiled in the direction of decreasing preference):

  • in a separate building;
  • in an annex to the main building;
  • in the attic;
  • in the basement of the house.

Important! The use of the basement of the house or the basement under the boiler room, especially when the boiler is running on liquefied gas, is allowed in extreme cases and only when two ventilation systems are equipped — the main and backup. Liquefied gas has a higher specific gravity, so its leakage will lead to gas accumulation in the lower air layers of the boiler room and the creation of an explosive situation.

Wall-mounted boilers have a power of up to 30 kW and a closed combustion chamber. The supply of air for the operation of such a unit in a city apartment is simply provided — for exhaust, it is enough to install a coaxial air duct in the hole of the required diameter in the wall, which is capable of performing two functions at once — through it atmospheric air enters the closed combustion chamber of the boiler, and at the same time combustion products are expelled .


Installation of wall-mounted gas boilers is carried out in the utility rooms, bathroom or kitchen. Under the installation of the boiler, if the thickness of the wall allows, to save space, you can build a special niche.

This heating system is quite suitable for heating private houses of a small area or in the country. At the same time, the premises for installing an autonomous gas boiler must be equipped with ventilation.

Coaxial chimneys are also used for ventilation equipment for powerful floor-standing boilers, but additional requirements are imposed on the installation of such heating units.

The use of heating equipment designed for installation on the floor (with a power of up to 30 kW) for heating requires the allocation of a separate room for the installation of the boiler, which, in accordance with SNiP 2.04.05.II-35, must be equipped with ventilation. In addition, this boiler room must meet the following requirements:

  • minimum area — 4 sq. m.;
  • the volume of the room is over 8 m3;
  • ceiling height — from 2200 mm;
  • door width — at least 80 cm;
  • the presence of opening windows in the room;
  • the device of a special permanently open eyelet;
  • the glazing area must exceed 0.05 m2 per 1 m3 premises (standard for easily dropped structures in explosive premises — SNIP 31-03-2001).

Air with oxygen necessary for fuel combustion and boiler operation enters the heating unit from the outside through the ventilation duct. In the boiler room, the location of the duct is the upper part of the room, the wall or the ceiling. For the convenience of cleaning the air duct, an inspection hatch is made 30 cm below the main channel, which is closed with a flap or a plug cover.

Important! The operation of the supply ventilation is calculated as follows: 1 kW of boiler power requires 8 cm2 cross-sectional area of ​​the vent channel; with natural ventilation due to internal air mass, 1 kW will require 30 cm2 its sectional area.


The main types of ventilation for the operation of gas heating boilers

There are two types of ventilation arranged for the efficient and safe operation of heating gas boilers:

  • natural;
  • forced.

For clarity, the action of these two types of ventilation can be depicted schematically.

Let us briefly consider the device and application of these ventilation systems.

natural ventilation

The average area of ​​a private house is 80-100 m2, therefore, for the normal operation of autonomous heating, natural draft is quite enough. For a boiler with a power of up to 30 kW, it is necessary to have an air vent with a diameter of 15 cm. The ventilation duct is equipped with a plastic pipe and is closed from the outside with a metal mesh that blocks access to rodents and prevents debris from entering.

Ventilation for a gas boiler in a private house is mounted as follows. The upper edge of the exhaust pipe is closed with an «umbrella» that protects the exhaust channel from atmospheric precipitation. A non-return valve is installed on the inside of the pipe, which prevents arbitrary air from escaping to the outside.

The hood is placed directly above the heating boiler, while the air duct is mounted behind the fuel chamber.

Important! In accordance with the requirements and standards, the efficiency of ventilation is determined by its ability to update the air mass in the boiler room three times within an hour.

On a note: it is impossible to calculate the exact parameters of natural ventilation of a gas boiler installed in a private house, since the intensity of air exchange depends on too many factors — atmospheric pressure, wind strength and direction, ambient temperature, etc.


The efficiency of the hood depends on the design of the chimney, and the requirements for chimneys are fixed in the relevant SNiPs — the diameter of the chimney is determined by the power of the boiler.

Example: for a boiler with a power of 24 kW, it is enough to have a chimney with a diameter of 120 mm. With an increase in boiler power, the diameter of the chimney increases. Gas boilers with a power of over 100 kW are equipped with chimneys with a diameter of 230 mm. An important role is played by the length and degree of elevation of the upper point of the chimney above the ridge of the roof — the pipe must rise above the ridge by at least 0.5 m. Otherwise, air may be sucked into the room.

For reference: the diameter of the chimney recommended for each boiler model is indicated in the technical data sheet of the gas equipment.

Forced ventilation

If the parameters of natural exhaust do not meet the requirements specified in the boiler operating instructions, you can use equipment equipped with a forced draft fan. In most cases, duct fans are installed on gas boilers. Air is supplied to the combustion chamber by means of a fan. A working blower creates an area of ​​low pressure, due to which air is sucked into the room.

For high power boilers with high combustion intensity and the formation of a large amount of harmful substances, a forced ventilation device is necessary. Calculating the performance of forced ventilation of a gas boiler installed in a private house is quite simple. Let’s consider a specific example.

Boiler room dimensions:

  • length — 3.0 m;
  • width — 2.0 m;
  • height — 2.2 m.

By multiplying the parameters, we determine the volume of the room:

3m x m2 x 2.2m = 13.2 m3 Rounding up to integer units, we get 14.0 cubic meters.

In an hour, the air in the boiler room should be changed three times, therefore:

14.0 x 3 = 42 m3 That is, the exhaust fan in ideal conditions should be 42 m3 / h. But part of the power will be spent on overcoming the resistance when passing through the chimney, so 40% should be added to the resulting value:

42 x 1.4 \u003d 58.8 (m cube / hour).

We round the value up to tens and get the final value of 60 cubic meters / hour.

You should be aware that the intensity of supply ventilation

In order to get a better idea of ​​what ventilation looks like in an apartment or what residents of a private house should pay attention to, watch the video.


Heating scheme for a two-story house


Heating is the most important engineering system necessary for the life support of each private house. With its help, a certain temperature regime is created, necessary for a comfortable stay of people. When heating is used, heat losses are compensated, and the reliability of building structures, their resistance to negative environmental factors and the durability of the building itself are ensured.

Home heating design is carried out by high-class specialists. Heating engineers will perform a detailed calculation, consider the most profitable dilution of pipes, which will make it possible to avoid expenses when purchasing elements of the heating system.

Features of designing heating of a two-story building

Features of designing heating of a two-story building

The heating project for a two-story house deserves special attention, since in this case its development is carried out taking into account some important nuances.

  • The considerable height of the house, but at the same time the heating device is located on the first floor and the coolant must rise up to the second floor, which prevents it from making its own weight.
  • A large area of ​​the house complicates heating, so experts are considering how to properly arrange heating so that heat evenly reaches all points of the house. For heating in a two-story house, pipe systems are planned to be more branched and material-intensive, which will ensure the circulation of a larger volume of coolant, and larger boilers are installed.
  • The mass of rooms separate from each other requires the creation of a separate scheme for each of them, taking into account partitions, doors and the number of windows, interfloor ceilings — all this interferes with the natural spread of heat and its uniform distribution.

The heating scheme of a two-story private house is calculated on the basis of a water system, which is the best option. The principle of operation is quite simple: water is heated by a boiler, then it passes through pipes and returns again. The boiler for water heating can be used gas, electric, solid or liquid fuel. The system will also include pipes for wiring, temperature sensors, fittings and other elements.

There are several options for heating a two-story house.

Riser system

Riser system
The easiest-to-use gravitational heating system for a two-story house. The heated coolant is distributed through the pipes with the help of a circulation pump and enters the highest point, after which the liquid continues to move due to gravitational force, descends along the risers, giving off thermal energy to the surrounding air. After that, the coolant enters the return pipeline system, from where, under the influence of the pump, it again enters the boiler for heating.

Riser Advantages:

  • high efficiency — uniform heating of the entire system;
  • minimum expenses are required to buy equipment and pipe;
  • the operation of the system is possible without the use of a circulation pump, which will save on costs, but will be much less productive.

As a disadvantage, the low efficiency of such a scheme for buildings of a large area, but even in this case, the issue can be resolved — a powerful circulation pump is being installed or a whole system of taps is being equipped, through which the fluid flow will be regulated.

With natural circulation of the coolant

This is a kind of riser system, but without the use of a circulation pump. In this case, the installation becomes more complicated, despite the simple wiring diagram. The work takes place in accordance with the laws of nature: the density of the hot coolant changes and it is pushed through the pipes (located at a slope from the boiler) by cold liquid. As soon as the coolant reaches its highest point and begins to descend back through the pipes located at a slight slope to the boiler.

The disadvantage is the slow heating of the premises and high fuel consumption at the initial stage of work.


Collector system


Collector — this is the most modern and efficient heating scheme for a two-story private house. It is based on a collector — a distribution comb, that is, a large-diameter pipe equipped with several outlet pipes, used to supply the coolant and its return flow. Circulation pumps are installed on the nozzles, distributing the heated coolant through separate branches. Each branch can have its own collector for distributing fluid across zones, for example, for installing water floors.

At the same time, the collector circuit provides the house with hot water in large volumes.


A two-pipe circuit can be made by hand. Its peculiarity is that two separate pipelines are mounted — for supplying the coolant and its reverse current, looped through each other by means of radiators. The main advantage of such a system is that hot liquid enters the radiators directly, without passing through other heating devices, which allows all batteries to warm up evenly.

Two-pipe is used for collector, as well as with systems with natural and forced circulation of fluid.

Single pipe

Such a heating scheme for a two-story house is activated if the pipeline is of short length, and there are a minimum number of heating devices. The coolant moves along the ring (from the boiler and back), passing the heaters. The pipe for supplying liquid to the battery and its return are mounted in a single pipeline, therefore such a heating project for a 2-story house is quite simple. But there is a significant drawback — the coolant reaches the radiators, which are located at the end of the system, cooled down, therefore single-pipe wiring is not suitable for houses with a large area. You can somewhat improve the situation if the circuit in a two-story house includes a powerful circulation pump and modern radiators with a need for a small amount of coolant.

If the question is how to make heating in a two-story house, then here experts advise paying attention to a two-pipe water heating system with forced circulation. Collector would be a good option. Nevertheless, in most cases, the heating of a private house is equipped with a combined one, especially when it comes to buildings with large areas, for example, using a system of risers and manifold pipes.


Stray currents in water pipes: how to fix the problem


According to studies, the accelerated destruction of underground communications from metal occurs due to the occurrence of electrochemical corrosion. Its cause is the purposeful movement of charged particles, which are stray currents. This situation indicates that in order to ensure the safety of metal structures, it is necessary to figure out how to eliminate stray currents underground in pipes for water supply.

Concept definition

stray currents

Stray currents are charged electric particles with a certain trajectory of movement that occur in the ground, which is a conductor. The term wandering arose due to the fact that it is impossible to predict the localization of particles and the onset of the process. The influence of stray electrical particles has an extremely negative effect on metal products located above and below the ground.

Similar processes arise due to the growing number of electrified facilities that are the backbone of modern countries. And since the soil is a conductor for electricity, there is an interaction between the elements.

Wandering particles arise like electric ones, for the interaction of which a comparison of the potential difference at 2 arbitrary points is required, only for the wandering variant the conductor is the earth. As a result, the metallic material in the vicinity of the process is destroyed faster due to corrosion.

Formation process

How they are formed


The reason for the occurrence of stray currents is a large number of equipment operating on electric charge, as a result, the following elements are potential sources:

  • the presence of a charger in such facilities as substations, overhead lines with a neutral conductor, distributors;
  • the occurrence of activity as a result of the destruction of the insulating layer of wires carrying current in cables and overhead lines, where the neutral is isolated;
  • the presence of a connecting technological link between the conductor and the soil in structures with a grounded neutral and rail vehicles driven by current.

The mechanism of the occurrence of spontaneous discharges can be considered on the example of one of the above points.

One end of the neutral wire is connected to the power plant’s charger, and the other end is connected to the power-consuming PEN bus, which has a connection to the charger. It follows that the potential difference of the electrical value between the terminals forms stray currents, since the energy will be transferred to the memory, which in turn will form a circuit.

In this case, the volume of losses does not have a large percentage, since it will pass along the path of the least resistance, however, a certain part will fall into the ground.

Similarly, energy leakage occurs in the case of damage to the insulation of the wiring.

At the same time, a constant uninterrupted leak does not take place, since the system signals about its occurrence and the site is automatically localized, and also, according to the regulations, there is a certain period of time allotted for troubleshooting.

Important! According to statistics, the main places for the formation of electricity leakage and the formation of stray currents fall on urban and suburban areas where there is ground transport that depends on the power grid.

Currents on rails

When using urban electrified transport, voltage is supplied from the substation to the traction system, which passes to the rails and makes a reverse cycle. If the rails as an iron base are not sufficiently stable relative to the conductor, this leads to the formation of stray current locations in the soil, then any metal structure that appears in their path, for example, plumbing products, act as a conductor.

Important! This interaction occurs due to the fact that the current, moving, chooses the path of least resistance, which is lower for the metal than for the ground.

All this will lead to accelerated destruction of metal products.

Relationship between currents and corrosion processes

Stray current corrosion


Any water supply system located in the soil is damaged by corrosion due to exposure to moisture and salts, however, if the activity of currents is also connected here, then an electrolytic process occurs. In this case, the rate of the electrochemical reaction is affected by the charge flowing between the anode and cathode. It follows that the activity of damage to metal products will be affected by the resistance of the soil to the movement of charges, as well as the complexity of the currents in the anode and cathode zones.

In such an environment, the water supply system is subject to normal corrosion due to leakage currents. The impact forms a galvanic couple, which accelerates the development of corrosion. There are many moments in history when the laid pipeline was supposed to serve 20 years, but in fact the destruction occurred after 2 years.

Options for possible protection

To protect metal products from harmful effects, various methods are used, which are divided by the nature of their application into passive and active.

Passive option

Passive isolation

This option is the use of a different insulating material that forms a protection between the conductor and the metal. Used as insulation:

  • epoxy resin mixtures;
  • incorporation into polymers;
  • bitumen coating.

But if we limit ourselves only to this option, then full-fledged protection will not work, since the insulating material is not a 100% barrier due to the presence of diffusion permeability. Therefore isolation occurs in a partial way. In addition, in the process of moving pipes, such a layer can be damaged, resulting in significant scratches, cuts, through holes and other flaws.

Important! Therefore, a passive method of protection can only be used as an addition.


Active protection

Indicates the use of an active method of localizing the source of exposure through the use of cathodic polarization, where the negative charge displaces the natural one.

To implement such protection, it is necessary to use one of two tools:

  • Galvanic method — the effect of a galvanic pair, the destruction of the sacrificial anode is performed, thereby ensuring the protection of the metal structure. The method is active when the soil resistance is up to 50 Ohm per meter, if the resistance is lower than the method is not effective.
  • Direct current source — provides avoidance of dependence on the resistance of the soil. Cathodic protection is used, the source of which is enclosed in a formed converter connected to an alternating current electrical circuit. Since the source is specially formed by means of its regulation, it is possible to set the required level of current protection, depending on the circumstances.
Active isolation

A similar method can also provide a negative impact:

  • overprotection — excess of the required potential, as a result, the destruction of a metal product occurs;
  • incorrect calculation of protection — leading to accelerated corrosion destruction near located metal objects.

The above examples can be considered on the protection of such a product as a heated towel rail.

Corrosion processes on such products or other end plumbing products have never occurred, but it was real before the use of metal-plastic pipes, where there is contact with aluminum inside the wall. As a result, the formation of wandering elements occurs not only due to the use of plastic pipes in the immediate room, but also in others, since in an apartment building they can be used by a neighbor from another floor.

Important! To avoid the negative impact of the generated currents on your own design, it is necessary to equalize the potentials by providing a heated towel rail, batteries and water pipes with a grounding element.

At the same time, the use of the much-needed grounding occurs in relation to any communication that is made of metal pipes, for example, a gas pipeline in the ground.

Measurement rules

Taking a measurement


To assess the extent of the current situation with the leakage of electric charges, it is necessary to perform a number of measures:

  • measurement of voltage and flow of current along the sheaths of the main cables;
  • determination of the potential difference between contact rails and pipelines located in the soil;
  • checking the level of insulation of rails from the ground covering, using a section of the track for the experiment;
  • estimation of the density of energy leakage from the cable sheath into the ground.

To perform measurements, a special device is used, if activities are carried out on railway tracks, it is necessary to choose the rush hour of traffic.

Measuring tools

To check, transformers and substations are used near the line of movement — the electrode connected to the device is connected to the charger and stuck 10 meters from the substation. All the resulting difference is fixed by the device.

If it is necessary to lay a line of pipes for water supply, it is important to identify the location of stray currents, for this purpose the potential difference between two sample points of the earth’s surface, placed perpendicular to each other with an equal distance, is determined. It is important to carry out such a determination systematically with a gap of a kilometer.

In this case, the devices used must necessarily have an accuracy class of at least 1.5, and the resistance of the equipment from 1 MΩ. The use of measuring electrodes with a potential difference above 10 mV. The time of one measurement must pass within 10 minutes, and the gap between the processes is 10 seconds.


The calculation of the potential and the determination of the location of the stray electrical particles should not be neglected, since the quality of the operation of the plumbing system depends on this, in addition, both protection methods should be used simultaneously, which will regulate the resulting voltage and ensure complete protection of the pipeline.


Why does the gas boiler blow out?


Today, private houses equipped with autonomous heating systems can be found in any locality. The efficient operation of heating equipment largely determines the level of comfort indoors. However, there are situations in our life when the order and comfort that have been established in the house are under threat. The reason is banal — the gas boiler goes out and refuses to work, the heating system becomes useless. The circumstances of the occurrence of such an emergency situation can be very different, from low gas pressure in the line to the usual wind blowing. The latter option is directly related to the wrong ventilation device. Why the gas boiler blows out, and how to deal with it, let’s try to figure it out in more detail.

Why does the boiler go out in windy weather, the main reason

The owners of private houses are well aware of the situation when, with a strong wind, the gas boiler simply goes out. Residents of city apartments are not familiar with this problem if the gas boiler installed in the apartment has a coaxial air duct — this design does not allow a strong gust of wind to get inside, causing the burner to blow out.

In a private house, the design of the chimney and the ventilation device looks different, and blowing out the gas boiler is not uncommon.

There can be many reasons.

Important! The main reason for the wind blowing a gas boiler is poor ventilation design, non-observance of technological parameters during the installation of the chimney. It is not worth solving the problem on your own. To fix the problem, it is better to contact the services of heating specialists.


Other reasons, as a result of which the burner flame suddenly goes out, are associated with the design features of the gas heating equipment or the influence of third-party factors.

Main article: do-it-yourself burner

Other factors that can cause the boiler to blow out

The most common situation faced by the inhabitants of a private house is the operation of a check valve as a result of excessive pressure of the air mass coming from outside. With a strong gust of wind, the valve becomes in the closed position — the automation is sensitive to its position and shuts off the gas supply to the furnace. If this situation is repeated frequently, it is necessary to reconstruct the chimney. Pay attention to its height. For normal operation of ventilation, the upper edge of the chimney must be at least 0.5 m higher than the extreme point of the roof of the building, and the diameter of the air duct must correspond to the parameters of the boiler equipment and is determined by calculation.

To improve draft, it is necessary to regularly clean the ventilation ducts, since the boiler constantly needs an influx of oxygen with air. The lack of oxygen in the combustion chamber causes a low intensity of fuel combustion. With poor draft, the flame can go out altogether.

The flame of the burner is blown out — we solve the problem with the chimney

If you constantly blow out an autonomous gas boiler, first look for problems in the design of the chimney. Pressure drops in the gas pipe are extremely rare, and the pressure drop is negligible. A technical malfunction of a gas boiler, due to the simplicity of the design of heating equipment and the high degree of reliability of modern models, is also unlikely.

The most common situations that you have to deal with are related to the chimney:

  • ice crust covering the ventilation channel of the heater — the formation of an ice cap inside the chimney prevents air circulation, putting the gas boiler in a position of oxygen starvation (together with combustion products, water vapor enters the chimney channel, condensing and freezing on the walls of the chimney);
  • reverse draft that occurs when the wind strengthens or changes direction (strong air flow, getting inside the chimney, reaches the combustion chamber and extinguishes the flame in the boiler).

In the first case, frozen condensate creates an artificial obstacle to the air flow. The chimney in such a situation must be cleaned and insulated, allowing the condensate to simply drain down.

In the second case, the situation is dangerous. With the reverse movement of warm air, amplified by gusts of wind, there is a high probability of attenuation of the burner flame. Good automation will work when the burner is attenuated, stopping the gas supply to the furnace. However, the combustion products will first enter the heater, polluting the combustion chamber in the gas boiler, and then they will enter the living space. The reason for this effect is obvious — the insufficient height of the chimney.

See also: if the gas boiler does not work.

How to deal with backlash. Basic mistakes and misconceptions

It was previously said that back draft can be combated by increasing the length of the chimney. The solution to the problem is quite simple, but not always such a solution gives positive results.


The second solution to the problem in such a situation is to install a deflector on the upper edge of the chimney, the task of which is to increase the draft in the chimney.

The third option is to reduce the number of bends and sharp turns of the chimney, which increase the cavitation (swirl) of the flow of hot air with smoke when passing through the chimney.

Both in the first and in the second case, the situation will not change radically. Extending the pipe by 1 meter will not give the expected effect. Installing a deflector on the chimney also does not completely solve the problem. With a significant deterioration in the weather, the wind still blows out the unprotected gas boiler, and the heating will fail again. What to do? What is the optimal solution?

Special design deflector — problem solving

An effective method that is able to solve once and for all the problem of reverse thrust is the installation of an aerodynamic device on the chimney — a deflector of a special design.

In a conventional deflector, air currents act on its outer part. As a result of the interaction of the air mass with the surface of the deflector, a rarefied atmosphere arises, which increases the draft in the chimney. The phenomenon is called the Bernoulli effect, the concept of which came to us from aviation. In other words, when the air, when meeting with an obstacle, goes around it, a rarefaction zone is created around the obstacle, which enhances the lifting effect of the wing.

For reference: a deflector of even a conventional design increases the efficiency of any chimney by 15-20%, not to mention fixtures with a more complex design.


If a conventional deflector is not able to eliminate the wind blowing of a gas boiler, a device of a more complex design is installed. Today, there are several types of deflectors with a complex configuration. Among the most popular products, the following types should be distinguished:

  • deflector type «Smoke tooth»;
  • deflector Grigorovich;
  • deflector type «Voller»;
  • spherical and rotating deflectors.

Two types of devices are considered the most popular in ours: the Grigorovich deflector and the “smoke tooth” type devices.

The Grigorovich deflector is a device in the design of which all contours and elements are directly related to aerodynamics. Unlike the usual deflectors in the form of umbrellas that are familiar to us, standing on pipes in private houses, this device has two cones, direct and reverse. The interaction of the two cones provides the necessary movement of air flows, thereby creating a zone of reduced pressure around the chimney. Due to the temperature difference between cold and hot flows, the draft in the pipe increases several times, preventing any penetration of outside air into the inside.

On a note: deflectors of complex design, on the contrary, use the force of the wind to increase the draft in the chimney, that is, when the wind gusts at an angle, from above or below, the air, penetrating under the lower cone of the deflector, sucks in the air masses entering the chimney.


With the correct location and design of the chimney equipped with a deflector, reverse draft does not threaten you — any gusts of wind will not be terrible for a working boiler.

Another point should be noted — when the wind blows out the gas boiler, and the heating system does not start. This is an underheated chimney. During long shutdowns of the heating system, which is typical for country houses and cottages, when the boiler is first started, the burner flame often quickly dies out. The explanation for this behavior of gas heating equipment is quite simple — it is difficult for the spent combustion products to climb up the cold chimney, and any gusts of wind only prevent the channel from heating.

To get out of this situation, it is enough to warm up the chimney at low operating modes of the boiler, gradually increasing the power of the device to optimal parameters, and the hot combustion products in the heated chimney will rush up naturally.

Main article: all about the ventilation of a gas boiler in a private house.


In conclusion, I would like to say a little about the fact that competent thermal calculations included in the project will allow you to create an efficient heating system in your home. Do not underestimate ventilation, on the design and quality of installation of which the subsequent operation of the heating boiler depends.

Do not save on exhaust and ventilation. The layout of the house should not interfere with the design equipment of the ventilation system. Otherwise, aesthetics will have to be paid for with discomfort — climbing onto the roof in the cold and re-equipping the chimney.


Overview of the heating scheme of a one-story house with forced circulation


Even before you start building your own home, you should decide on the type of heating installation, because comfort in the winter will depend on it. The heating device in a two-story building must work without failure and perform its functions to the required extent, therefore, it is necessary to be especially careful when creating a project, choosing materials and installing all elements. A serious approach to each stage guarantees you a long service life of the heating circuit without the need for repair and replacement of its individual elements. The most suitable option for heating a house with two floors is a device with water circulation.

Heating scheme of a one-story house with forced circulation

Types of water heating

Most often, in two-story buildings, a natural or forced heating system is implemented. The choice in the direction of natural circulation is very convenient, because the heat supply does not depend on the supply of electricity, and even in the event of unforeseen situations, the house will always be warm. The movement of the water flow is carried out due to pipes of large diameter, located under a slope. In multi-storey buildings, forced circulation is more popular. Its main elements are:

  • boiler;
  • heating radiators;
  • collector;
  • expansion tank;
  • pipeline system.

In the heating scheme with forced circulation of a two-story house, the movement of heated water is carried out using a special pump. Depending on the type of boiler, gas, kerosene, wood or coal heating can be used. Alternative energy sources or electricity can be used for this purpose.

Pipes for heating a two-story building

If the project provides for the use of steel pipes, then it must be taken into account that they have a significant drawback — low resistance to corrosion changes. If galvanized pipes or stainless steel products are used during installation, this problem can be avoided. A strong connection will be provided by a circular thread at the ends of the elements. However, for the wiring of heating devices, metal materials are used quite rarely.

Pipes for heating

One of the most reliable options for installing heating in two-story houses is copper pipes. They are insensitive to moisture and corrosion, easily tolerate high temperatures and pressures. The elements are connected by soldering at high temperatures, silver-containing materials are used as solder. The small diameter allows pipes to be placed directly in the walls, which is not only convenient, but also very aesthetically pleasing. The main disadvantage of such elements is the high cost, however, due to their reliability and durability, this price factor becomes less significant. With proper installation, the heating system will serve faithfully not only for you, but also for several generations of your children and grandchildren.

Pipes made of polymeric materials are very convenient to use during the installation process. Installation of such a design can be carried out even by a person who does not have special skills and education, which significantly saves the budget. Lightweight and durable pipes have an absolutely smooth inner surface, so they do not deposit sediment. Plastic is not subject to corrosion, therefore it is widely used in the installation of plumbing systems. Fastening is carried out using a thread or a press connection, welding is not required. The disadvantages include a rather low resistance to temperature extremes, strong heating can lead to leaks.

When developing a heating project for a private two-story house, it is important to make the right choice of the type of plumbing device, to take into account the presence of emergency or alternative heating.

Of course, in most cases, the choice is determined not only by the need, but also by the material factor, however, heating is the segment of construction that is not worth saving, because it depends on the quality of the heating system how you will spend the winters: to freeze or live in warmth and comfort .

Heating system wiring

In two-story buildings, the following wiring diagrams are implemented:

  • single-pipe;
  • two-pipe;
  • collector.

The heating scheme of a one-story house with forced circulation of a single-pipe type does not make it possible to adjust the temperature regime over a wide range. This problem arises from the absence of dampers blocking the radiator during the operation of all other heating devices. That is why, when moving from one radiator to another, the water is increasingly cooled.

The two-pipe type scheme is more relevant for implementation in two-story buildings. Here, each heating unit is equipped with two circulation elements, one of which passes hot water, and the other cooled. The difference between a two-pipe system and a single-pipe system lies in a fundamentally different order of wiring heaters. It is recommended to install control tanks in front of the radiators.

To ensure normal circulation, it is necessary to maintain a distance between the upper level of the supply line and the center of the heating boiler, while the expansion tank can be located on the second floor, and not in the attic. It is advisable to mount the feed elements in the window sill or under the ceiling.

If a two-pipe supply system is used with free heating, then a long warm-up time is required to achieve the optimum room temperature. To speed up this process, it is recommended to install an additional bypass and a circulation pump, in addition to saving time for heating, such an upgrade will contribute to a more even distribution of warm air in the premises.

Heating system wiring

In a two-story building equipped with a pump and a heating boiler, in addition to radiators, it is possible to connect a “warm floor” device, heated towel rails and other heating equipment simultaneously on all floors.

During installation, a beam or collector system can be used. At the same time, each heating element is equipped with an inlet and outlet pipe, which allows heating two floors and controlling the temperature in each room. Collectors must be placed on two floors, it is advisable to use a special cabinet in which all the valves will be located.

Collector system in a two-story house

This type of heating is most optimal for implementation in private two-story houses. The heating circuit allows you to run pipes directly inside the walls. At the same time, installation is quite easy, guided by training videos or instructions, even a person who does not have special skills can install it.

Radiators according to the collector scheme can be placed simultaneously on two floors, however, it is recommended to install a heating boiler only on the first floor, the second one is suitable for installing an expansion tank. Hot water pipes are best placed in places where cold air is most likely to leak: ceiling, window sills. Each radiator must be equipped with a control valve.

When choosing a heating system for your own home, you need to carefully weigh the possibilities and needs, because it affects the comfortable living of all family members in the cold season, as well as the service life of all heating elements. The desire to save money or the wrong choice of components can lead to frequent breakdowns, leaks in the system, and even the need to replace equipment — and these are additional costs.

Pay attention to high-quality radiators, pipes, so you will pay once and live in warmth for many years.


Basic malfunctions and rules for repairing a chimney


The chimney is one of the main parts of the heating system of a residential building, which allows you to remove carbon monoxide and combustion products. Smoke components settle on its inner walls. During the formation of condensate, a chemical reaction takes place, during which acids are created, destroying the internal structure of the brick material or provoking the development of corrosive processes in the smoke channel from metal elements.

Additionally, the pipe is affected by external factors — gusts of wind, seasonal temperature changes, various precipitation, a chimney is flowing. The resulting damage causes a decrease in traction force, leads to an increase in fuel consumption, there is a risk of poisoning people with combustion products, and as a result, repair of a house or industrial chimney is necessary.

Chimney damage

Breakdowns can occur for many reasons, the main ones are:

  1. Incorrectly executed laying of smoke channels, which causes the formation of condensate.
  2. The masonry is made of poor quality bricks that break down in a short time.
  3. Mechanical damage to the pipe.
  4. Wear out of masonry in a natural way.
Masonry destruction

It is necessary to check the condition of the chimney once a year, this is especially important before the heating season, it is unacceptable not to inspect the smoke channels for more than 5 years. During these examinations, the causes and extent of damage are found. Detected defects must be immediately eliminated so that the thrust is normal.

Chimney blockage

With a decrease in traction, you should immediately check the pipe for possible blockages, the cause may be bird nests, fallen pieces of concrete or brick. The passage may be clogged with soot.

The easiest way to check is by lowering a weight into the smoke channel (it will stop at the blockage). The defect is easier to eliminate with a falling weight. If this does not work out, to repair the chimney, you will have to disassemble it at the site of the blockage and remove it, after which the wall is folded again.

Soot removal


The flow of vapors into the smoke channel from the furnace is a reason that can cause several troubles:

  • The traction force will sharply decrease and the smell of burning will appear in the room.
  • The masonry is saturated with moisture, which leads to its further destruction.
  • Resinous black spots appear on the stove and on the surface of the chimney.
  • Increases corrosion and provokes the main malfunctions of metal pipes.

Condensation appears for several reasons:

  • Under the surface of the roof there are through cracks, this quickly cools the air. Condensation will definitely appear under these conditions;
  • The chimney does not have thermal insulation — the pipe is plastered or enclosed in a metal casing. Internal smoke channels are protected with glass wool or basalt fiber.

blowing out

Trouble can occur for 2 reasons:

  1. The deflector above the chimney is not installed or broken. The deficiency must be corrected immediately.
  2. Nearby buildings or tall trees create an obstruction that prevents the chimney from working properly. It is necessary to increase it by 0.5-1 m, which will allow it to be removed from the area of ​​​​wind backwater.

Other reasons

The smooth inner walls of the smoke channel are very important — the surface without unnecessary protrusions improves the flow of gases. With a large diameter of smoke channels in a private house, if they are larger than necessary for the stove, the gases will slowly rise up, they gradually cool down and the air moves even worse.

Moisture and tar on the chimney

The head of the chimney is the most vulnerable place, which is affected by weather phenomena. Its integrity is very important for the quality of traction, for this reason it is important to immediately eliminate any malfunctions. It is possible that even a new chimney will begin to work inefficiently — smoke occurs, the smoke does not go away well, or even reverse draft appears. These troubles indicate errors in the design or when laying the chimney.

It should be examined by a specialist in order to find the cause of the trouble, and give an opinion on how best to repair brick chimneys. The entire structure may need to be redesigned.

Masonry inspection and minor restoration


During an external examination of the pipe, the level of destruction of the brick is determined or all defects that can cause a decrease in traction force are detected. If cracks are found, a mortar that has crumbled from the seams, the pipe is smeared again.

Remove the old solution with your own hands using a chisel. You need to cut into the masonry by at least 2 cm, so you can free up space that will be filled with fresh mortar.

The solution is prepared from 1 share of Portland cement, 2 shares of lime and 7 shares of sand. The seam is moistened in advance, this will enhance the adhesion of the solution. A trowel is used to coat the damaged section of the pipe, filling the voids. It will be possible to seal the seams well with the help of an aluminum tube bent at an angle, its thickness should be the same as the width of the seam.

Masonry restoration

Cracks found on the pipe are cleaned with a metal brush, and dust is removed from them. Seal all cracks with a heat-resistant sealant or a simple clay mortar.


If serious damage is found during the inspection, the pipe will have to be restored until it is completely disassembled. The brick is removed in layers with a hammer and chisel, there is no need to rush. The material is removed to the area where the row will be without damage. The disassembled brick is lowered to the ground, the pipe is folded into one brick, the masonry must be constantly monitored by the level.

Masonry should be done so that the inner surface remains completely smooth, this will improve the passage of smoke. The upper part of the pipe must have a head, which is made of cement mortar, it protects the masonry from the effects of negative weather conditions.

Complete pipe reversal


If it is impossible to completely sort out the chimney, a sleeve is installed in it to eliminate defects — a ceramic or steel pipe of the desired diameter. A smooth ceramic or metal surface will not trap soot and improve traction. Before installing the sleeve, you must first make sure that there are no foreign objects in the chimney. The sleeve is lowered into place as a whole or with a long chimney in separate parts, but in order to connect the individual elements of the sleeve, it will be necessary to disassemble the masonry.

The void between the masonry and the pipe is filled with asbestos cord or other non-combustible heat-insulating material. Upon completion of work, a protective visor made of painted metal is installed on top of the smoke channel. The installation of a round sleeve improves smoke removal, increases the tightness of the smoke channel, and significantly reduces heat loss. This method can only be used for straight chimneys, the diameter of which does not change along the entire length.

Repair of industrial chimneys

Industrial chimneys are serviced by specialists who have a special permit to work at height. This, perhaps, is the replacement or strengthening of worn elements or individual parts of the structure.

The restoration of the pipe head requires a temporary shutdown of the process equipment. Part of the repair work can be carried out without stopping the operating mode.

Examination of chimneys

Assessment of the condition of smoke exhaust devices at industrial facilities is carried out regularly. Taking into account the nature and extent of defects, the chimney repair is divided into current and capital. Overhaul of boiler room chimneys is carried out by organizations that include workers with the necessary certification.

Preparation for work

Work at these facilities consists of several operations:

  • Restoration of the protective coating, protection of the chimney shaft against corrosion.
  • Elimination of the roll of the pipe, if it is above the permissible values.
  • Replacement or complete repair of tension devices for metal pipes.
  • Restoration of brickwork.
  • Repair and strengthening of heads.
  • Restoration or new laying of lining of brick channels.
  • Restoration of blind areas.
  • Restoration and arrangement of concrete sills.

Repair methods


After completing the examination of the chimney, a repair project is created. The most common defects:

  1. Mounting and tensioning the clamping rings, this will remove cracks on the surface of the pipe.
  2. Cracks no more than 3 cm are cleaned from dust and dirt, after which they are sealed with concrete mortar.
  3. Cracks larger than 3 cm are preliminarily cleaned, destroyed bricks are replaced.
  4. After eliminating the shortcomings, tighten the compression rings.

Foundation restoration

If there has been a deformation of the base of an industrial pipe, which causes the entire structure to roll, recovery methods include:

  1. Reinforcement of the soil around the structure by resinizing or grouting.
  2. Additional load on the base from the side against the tilted wall.
  3. Partial removal of soil opposite the roll.
Scheme of an industrial pipe

For an industrial chimney made of bricks, it happens that it is necessary to eliminate small cracks, and sometimes — the restoration of the masonry. If horizontal or vertical cracks have formed on the surface, then during the repair they are sealed with cement mortar and the foundation surface is plastered. Metal chimney parts require repair after a short period of time. Bandage rings are tightened over time, as they weaken over time and do not fulfill their purpose well.

It is important to pay attention to the condition of the masonry mortar. Over time, it loses its characteristics and is washed away by precipitation. To prevent the destruction of the masonry, it is necessary to cover the empty seams with a high-strength plaster mortar.

Restoration of reinforced concrete structures

Industrial pipes made of reinforced concrete products in some cases at thermal power plants reach 350 meters. It is possible to work on such structures only with the help of a winch. Metal reinforcement is laid in the frame of reinforced concrete products, it corrodes over time, at the same time concrete is destroyed. If a pipe section is damaged to a depth of up to 3 cm, it is covered in 2-3 layers along a metal mesh.

Pipe surface treatment

Industrial pipes made of reinforced concrete products are restored inside, embroidering and covering up the detected cracks after that. Large damage to the pipe surface requires complete surface plastering. After repair, industrial pipes are painted using organosilicate paint. This material does not tarnish over time, and can be used to protect metal surfaces.

Restoration of industrial metal pipes

The main works in the repair of damaged industrial chimneys are surface preparation and painting. Sometimes it is necessary to replace the bracket or other component of the smoke channel. At the preparation stage, a layer of old paint is peeled off.

With the help of spatulas and metal brushes, from 10 to 30% of the old coating is removed. There are requirements to clean all 100% of the surface. This can be achieved by using a special acid solution. It is applied to the pipe and after three minutes the old layer of paint is carefully removed. Areas where corrosion is detected are treated with drugs that stop these processes. It is necessary to paint the surface after a previously applied primer, after waiting 2 hours before painting.

Metal pipe repair

No matter how high-quality the chimney is, over time it collapses. If the first signs of problems were found, such as cracking of the masonry or shedding of the mortar, it will be necessary to immediately repair the industrial or chimney pipe. Without timely repair, the pipe will eventually fail and will need to be repaired.


Let’s talk about the types of gas boilers for heating for a private house


Gas autonomous heating is by far the most popular in everyday life, given the scale of application. Natural gas is the most affordable type of fuel for efficient autonomous heating of residential premises. A home boiler is a technically advanced, high-tech unit that, by burning gas in a combustion chamber, heats the coolant in the heating system. Today, various types of gas heating boilers are widely represented on the market for heating and heating equipment, designed for living quarters of an apartment or a private house of almost any area.

Thanks to household gas boilers, it was possible to successfully solve the issue of autonomous heating of housing. The transition to individual heating is justified both from an economic and practical point of view. For those who are ready to start realizing their desires, we will consider the types of boilers — gas heating units, their design features, basic installation rules and recommendations for choosing.

The main types of gas equipment

Household gas boilers used for heating today are a perfect type of heating technology. Thanks to technological progress, it was possible not only to modernize the design of the gas heating unit, but also to equip the boiler with automation systems. At the moment, for heating an apartment, a private house and other residential premises, the following types of household gas boilers are produced, differing in the type of placement:

  • units in floor execution;
  • wall type products.

Each type of unit has its own design features, pros and cons. The location of heating equipment in the conditions of struggle for every square meter of living space plays an important role today.

Floor gas boilers are still considered the most common option for gas heating equipment. Gas boilers of this type today heat almost all private houses, cottages and summer cottages, the reason for such popularity is the simplicity and reliability of the design of the unit. Most models have sufficient power to effectively heat all the interior of a residential building and provide hot water.

Despite the advantages in power and performance, floor-standing devices have a significant drawback — the need for a separate room for their installation.

Important! The premises allocated for the boiler room (with a boiler power of up to 30 kW) must have an area of ​​​​at least 4 m2, and volume — more than 8 cubic meters, equipped with an efficient exhaust and forced ventilation. The gas boiler is installed on a concrete base pad or on a metal sheet. The permissible distance from the walls of the boiler along the perimeter of the device to the wall panels is 0.5 m.

The conditions of a small-sized city apartment or a country house are ideally suited for wall-mounted heating gas units. The main advantage of wall-mounted boilers is compactness and versatility. Modern models successfully fit into any interior of a living space and do not impose increased requirements on the bearing capacity of the base on which the installation is carried out.

Technically, installation is possible in any room that has an external wall or the ability to connect the unit to a central chimney. However, for safety reasons, the placement of a gas boiler in living and sleeping rooms is prohibited; utility rooms, bathrooms, a kitchen and even an attic can be used for this purpose. Provided that the ventilation is equipped, the wall-mounted boiler can also be installed in the basement. However, the final assessment of the possibility of placing a gas boiler in one place or another should still be given by a gas service specialist.

In terms of technical equipment, wall-mounted models are similar to mini-boiler rooms — in a small case, a burner in the combustion chamber, a heat exchanger and automation are compactly placed.

Having dealt with the types of boilers by type of placement, it is important to evaluate the features of the internal structure of the boilers.

Main article: do-it-yourself gas burner

Internal arrangement of gas boilers


Consider the main components and arrangement of gas heating boilers.

Heat exchangers

The efficiency of the gas boiler is determined by the heat exchanger, which is one of the main structural elements. Like boilers by type of placement, heat exchangers differ in the material of manufacture. The most common heat exchangers are of three types:

  • steel — installed in gas boilers of budget models;
  • stainless steel — wall-mounted boilers are equipped with them;
  • cast iron — almost all models are equipped in the floor version.

If we talk in detail about each type of heat exchanger, then it is important to know the following:

  1. Steel devices are easy to manufacture, but in terms of durability they lose to stainless steel and cast iron products, as they are susceptible to corrosion. In addition, steel oxidation products get into the water and accumulate in radiators, so the cost of units with a steel heat exchanger is lower than the price of other options, which, with a limited budget, often becomes the main selection criterion.
  2. Cast iron is a fragile material, but operation in a gas boiler eliminates shock loads, and this drawback is not fundamental. Cast iron is subject to oxidation, but to a weak degree, so the chemical composition of water from contact with cast iron almost does not change. The heat capacity of boilers with cast iron heat exchangers is high, due to the characteristics of the material of manufacture. Units of this type are durable.
  3. Stainless steel heat exchangers are aesthetically pleasing, impact resistant and do not change the chemical composition of the water. Their price is the highest of the three assembly options, since, in addition to the listed advantages, it is due to the high cost of the material and complex manufacturing technology.

Cast iron heat exchangers and stainless steel products have approximately the same efficiency and durability. If, when choosing a gas boiler, proceed from considerations of reliability and functionality, then models with a cast-iron heat exchanger should be preferred — autonomous gas heating is installed for more than one year, it is important to take into account the resource of the gas boiler and the possibility of routine repairs.



Any gas heating boiler, regardless of design and type, is equipped with a gas burner. This is a device through which natural gas is supplied to the combustion chamber. The burner is equipped with nozzles, thanks to which the burning gas is distributed throughout the burner, ensuring uniform heating of the coolant. Burners, depending on the model and type of boiler, are produced in several varieties and are classified according to two parameters: functionality and purpose.

According to the functionality of the burner are divided into the following types:

  • diffusion devices — providing a mixture of natural gas and oxygen already in the combustion process;
  • injection burners — enriching the gas with oxygen even before it enters the combustion chamber;
  • atmospheric burners — operating on the principle of injection devices (the degree of gas saturation with oxygen is less intense);
  • regenerative burners — heating of the gas before it is fed into the combustion chamber is carried out through the operation of the regenerator;
  • burners with a supercharger — the work of supplying fuel to the combustion chamber is performed by a fan;
  • burners with preliminary full and partial mixing.

Note: the last type of burners for heating gas boilers works on the principle of a gas cutter, where butane is used instead of natural gas. Oxygen is mixed with gas directly at the outlet of the nozzle, creating the required intensity of combustion of the fuel mass.

In addition to the classification of gas burners by functionality, there is a division according to their purpose:

  • household;
  • industrial.

Household gas boilers with low power are equipped with atmospheric type burners, since in most cases ease of use of the heating unit and long-term operation are required.

Industrial models with high power, the operation of which is carried out in modes of increased complexity, are equipped with injection burners.

Burners using air blowers are rarely installed in gas boilers.

Varieties of combustion chambers

In addition to separating gas boilers according to the type of heat exchanger and the type of gas burner, there is a classification of heating equipment according to the arrangement of the combustion chamber (combustion chamber).

Boilers can be:

  • with an open firebox;
  • with closed combustion chamber.


In the first case, for the normal operation of the boiler, a prerequisite is the presence of a chimney. Such boilers are usually installed in private houses, where the layout of the building allows you to make a chimney of the desired length and appropriate diameter.

Important! The chimney must meet the requirements of the design documentation for the heating system, i.e. match the power of the boiler and the architecture of the building. The intensity of the thrust required for burning fuel in the combustion chamber and ensuring the safety of the operation of heating equipment depends on the diameter and length of the pipe.

Closed-fired boilers are used to heat small apartments. Such models do not require a separate chimney device for their installation. The output of combustion products is carried out through a hole in the wall panel of the house, into which a coaxial chimney is output, which also serves to supply air. As a backup device for safety purposes, the room is additionally equipped with a forced exhaust (exhaust fan).

Boilers with a closed furnace have a significant advantage over open combustion chambers. Air is injected into the furnace not only before the boiler is turned on, but also continues to flow into the combustion chamber after it is turned off. As a result, all residual combustion products are removed from the furnace, including gas accumulated in the furnace as a result of an emergency leak.

Boilers with forced ventilation have the best performance. The ignition of the boiler is faster, and the fuel mass is almost completely burned out. The efficiency of such boilers, in comparison with traditional models, is much higher, which gives significant gas savings.

Features of household gas boilers

Having dealt with the various types of boilers and their internal structure, we will consider another type of classification — according to the method of heating the coolant. We will talk about single-circuit and double-circuit heating boilers.

A single-circuit boiler is used only for the installation of a home heating system in residential buildings of a small area. The increase in the functionality of the unit in this case is limited by the technological capabilities of a single-pipe heating system. The boiler does not have special hydraulic devices and devices that can provide hot water in the house. In comparison with double-circuit boilers, such units are much cheaper.

On a note: To provide housing with a hot water supply system, single-circuit boilers are supplemented with another water heater — an indirect heating boiler (hot water electric titanium), which is installed next to the boiler. The volume of the boiler capacity is selected depending on the number of points of hot water intake (50-500-800 liters) and is determined by the power of its heating element


Double-circuit boilers look preferable in all respects. Such units have more power and are used for heating interiors and providing a residential facility with hot water at the same time. The design of double-circuit boilers is equipped with both units for heating housing and units for the hot water supply system — capacitive or instantaneous water heaters.

See also: rating of gas boilers.

The double-circuit boiler is easily and quickly put into action, the intensity of heating of the coolant corresponds to the specified parameters, and the heating of heating radiators in all rooms occurs evenly.

The only disadvantage of both the first and second types of wall-mounted double-circuit boilers is the low power of the water heating system — such devices have a hot water tank with a volume of only 50-100 liters, while floor models — 150-200 liters.

Main article: all about gas boiler ventilation.


All models of household gas boilers that exist today are able to satisfy the necessary minimum needs of the inhabitants of the home. The choice of the type of boiler should be tied primarily to the needs and operating conditions, so you should not purchase an overly powerful unit — a large power reserve will remain unclaimed. However, a low-power home boiler that does not meet the requirements is a waste of money.

At the same time, the price of the unit is not the last criterion in importance. Buying cheap equipment is fraught with frequent failures and will ultimately result in high costs for a low-quality boiler, so you should choose a device in the middle price range, the functionality and quality of products in which often differs from top models only by the absence of one or two rarely used options.


The most economical way to heat a private house


The presence of heating in housing is, first of all, a factor in the suitability of the house for living in general, and only then a condition that ensures the comfort of this residence. Therefore, the question of how to do without heating housing is not appropriate in Russia even in the southern regions, and it remains only to decide which heating to choose.

There are many criteria for choosing the type of heating — the amount of financial costs for the device, the efficiency of the heating method, the ease of maintenance of the system, its safety, and so on. Considering that in various regions of Russia the heating season lasts from three to nine, or even more, months, the cost of heating a home is significant, and economical heating of a house is one of the desired results that are sought when choosing a heating method.

In the conditions of modern intensive development of suburban areas with cottages and dachas, especially where the pace of private construction is ahead of the rate of gasification of new areas, economical heating of a private house is a particularly acute problem. In such situations, you have to order a housing project with a heating system for the future — taking into account the upcoming supply of highways, but until that moment you also need to heat something.

Let us consider in more detail everything that is relevant to this problem, and how to take into account the existing set of factors when striving for heating efficiency.

Independent Factors Causing Heating Costs

The concept of «economical heating of a private house» does not necessarily mean low costs for heating a home. Heating equipment, for example, for a large house cannot be low-cost, but the costs of installing and operating the system must be commensurate with the efficiency of the chosen heating method.

The profitability of a heating system is the degree to which the actual costs of heating a home correspond to the estimated costs necessary to ensure a given temperature regime, that is, achieving the required level of comfort at the cost of minimal costs. And this is achieved through a thorough analysis and selection of the optimal combination of factors affecting efficiency.

Independent factors that determine the cost of heating a private house:

  • climatic zone;
  • heating area;
  • equipment price;
  • fuel cost;
  • required temperature.

Only the last point, which means the temperature range determined by sanitary standards for premises with people living, needs comments.

The above circumstances are the starting point for choosing and designing a heating system for a private house, economical in relation to specific conditions.

Factors affecting the efficiency of heating systems

There can be no equal sign between the actual and estimated heating costs, because with any heating method, heat losses are inevitable, also due to various factors. But these factors affecting the degree of efficiency of heating systems, in contrast to unchanging circumstances, are possible to change:

  • the presence and degree of effectiveness of external thermal insulation of the house;
  • type of heating system and correct calculation of fuel costs when choosing a heating boiler;
  • power of heating equipment;
  • design features of the system;
  • pipeline material;
  • the presence of thermal insulation of the heating circuit in unheated rooms;
  • use of devices for automatic shutdown of the heating unit;
  • fuel quality.

See also: advantages and disadvantages of electric heating in the apartment.

The presence and degree of effectiveness of external thermal insulation of the house

The cost of heating a home directly depends on the arrangement of the house with thermal insulation. Indoor air and building structures heated by the heating system, in the absence of external thermal insulation, quickly give off heat to the atmosphere, and the heating system will be forced to work with increased load or in continuous mode in order to compensate for the external heat transfer of the building. This, of course, is accompanied by accelerated equipment wear and increased fuel or electricity consumption.

Thermal insulation materials are easy to install, their price is acceptable throughout the entire range, and the effect of using external insulation is saving fuel or electricity up to 40%. In addition, thermal insulation will save the internal surfaces of the outer walls from the formation of condensate.

Type of heating system and correct calculation of fuel costs when choosing a heating boiler

If a boiler is chosen as the heating equipment, then the question arises which type of fuel to choose — electric, gas or solid fuel.

When choosing, you need to proceed from the design of the house — whether it has its own chimney.

If there is no chimney, and its device is not included in the immediate plans, then the choice is narrowed — only a boiler on electricity is suitable for installation. In this case, the refusal to build a chimney will give significant cost savings when installing a heating system.

If preference is given to an electric heating unit, then a vortex induction boiler, which does not have heating elements in its design and is therefore distinguished by durability (25-30 years), will be a reasonable choice. In addition, the efficiency of such devices is close to 99%, which is a strong argument in favor of their efficiency.

If there is a chimney, then the choice of the boiler depends on the material of the smoke exhaust system.

Main article: Heating system for a country house with electricity.

A gas-fired boiler should not be connected to a brick chimney — its combustion products contain nitrogen and sulfur compounds, which, mixed with condensate moisture, form acids that destroy the brick. But such a chimney will perfectly cope with the removal of smoke from a solid fuel boiler.


A steel chimney or its improved version — sandwich pipes are suitable for a heating unit using any type of fuel. The choice of pipe design (ordinary steel, stainless, sandwich, coaxial) is also directly related to the efficiency of the heating system — cheap ordinary steel will require replacement faster, and it’s good if this happens in the warm season. Other types of steel chimneys are solid, and therefore durable and reliable, but you can’t save on safety.

When choosing a heating boiler, in order to have an idea of ​​​​the degree of its efficiency, you should know exactly the amount of fuel it consumes. But marketers in stores, persuading the buyer to buy one or another type of unit, give comparative characteristics of fuel consumption, manipulating various units of measurement used for liquids, gases and solids. The fact is that the calorific value of fuel is measured in kW / kg, while diesel fuel and gas are often measured in liters, which gives other quantities, since the density of these substances is much less than unity.

Important! To verify the truth of the statements of marketers, it is necessary to bring the fuel consumption of the units they represent to a common unit of measurement, and then calculate the need for the season and cost.

For an objective comparison of heating costs during the season of a house with an area of ​​100 square meters, the table below calculates the costs of common types of fuel. This economic calculation, in particular, refutes the claims of marketers that the cube of the so-called «Euro firewood» is equivalent in efficiency to 5 cubic meters of ordinary firewood.

Heating equipment power


This indicator is also directly related to the efficiency of the heating system. The excess capacity of a boiler or other unit can be limited by installing a thermostat, but the cost of heating equipment is directly proportional to its capacity, and the paid potential will be unclaimed.

And a heating boiler of insufficient power will not cope with the task, and paying for slightly warm heating radiators also has nothing to do with efficiency.

Therefore, in order to achieve the efficiency of the heating system, it is necessary to purchase equipment based on the calculation of the required power, which is performed taking into account the area of ​​\u200b\u200bhousing, ceiling height, region and the nuances of the hot water supply system.

Design features of the system

It is impossible to achieve economical use of heating equipment if you choose it only based on the power and cost of fuel consumed. The design of the heating system is not always universal, so that it can be used to heat rooms of any size and proportions, different heights of ceilings and the number of window openings. For example, baseboard heaters will do an excellent job of heating small rooms, but they will not be effective in spacious rooms due to the small heat transfer area of ​​​​their design.

The situation is also ambiguous with the installation of underfloor heating systems. If you use them as the main and only means of heating housing in the middle lane or northern regions, then the floor temperature must be raised to such values ​​when contact with it loses comfort — it will be hot to walk on such a floor without shoes.

Therefore, an economical heating system is unthinkable without the correct choice of the type of heating equipment and compliance with the installation technology, taking into account the design features of both heating devices and each room.

Pipeline material

This question is relevant if we consider not separate portable heaters, but a heating circuit with a heating boiler. Heat transfer by the coolant should be carried out into the air environment of the premises planned for heating. Therefore, in transit sections, the coolant through the pipes of the heating circuit should give off a minimum amount of heat. To do this, it is necessary to ensure the thermal insulation of the pipeline, in particular, by making it from pipes with a low coefficient of thermal conductivity (plastic, metal-plastic).

To increase efficiency, even on pipes made of polymers, thermal insulation is performed, not to mention metal pipelines. These measures will allow the coolant to lose less heat on its way to the radiator, and the heating system to bring the air temperature in the room to a predetermined level earlier and turn off.

Using automatic heater shutdown devices


An important factor in ensuring the efficiency of heating equipment is the rational mode of operation of the heating system. This is provided by automation that monitors the temperature in the room and controls the intensity of heating. Modern equipment of heating devices allows not only to set the desired air temperature in the room, but also to program the variation of the heating intensity at different times of the day. For example, during the absence of tenants in the house, there is no need to maintain the temperature in the most comfortable zone, but you can lower it by several degrees.

Fuel quality

Different fuels have different calorific values. But the same type of fuel can be of different quality, depending on many factors — the percentage of moisture content of firewood, the content of impurities in gas, liquid fuel, etc. Profitability is directly related to this. Low-quality fuel has a lower calorific value, forms more soot, which reduces the clearance of the chimney and worsens traction. The combination of these factors leads to an increase in fuel consumption and the cost of maintaining the heating system.

Important! Oil fired boilers must be operated with the fuel specified in the instructions for use. You should know that diesel fuel and diesel fuel are different types of fuel.

Heating methods by type of fuel consumed

All types of fuel and energy (excluding exotic ones — solar, wind, chemical, etc.) consumed by heating systems are divided into the following main groups:

  • solid types;
  • liquid fuel;
  • gas;
  • electricity.

We recommend that you familiarize yourself with the material about the most economical ways to heat the garage.

Each of these types has advantages and disadvantages that offset each other.

For example, behind the seeming cheapness of solid fuels (firewood, coal, waste from the cellulose and woodworking industries, peat), the costs of harvesting, transport, storage, kindling, maintenance of the furnace and chimney are hidden. And the highest, at first glance, the cost of electric heating of a private house is justified by the lack of costs for the above items in the case of using electrical equipment.

These factors, of course, are not reflected in the above summary table of fuel costs for seasonal heating of a private house with an area of ​​​​100 square meters.

Depending on the circumstances, using the same type of heating can be economical in one region and costly in another. This is known to manufacturers and distributors of heating equipment for the home, which form prices for heating equipment, taking into account the increased demand for economical systems. Therefore, it is not surprising that potentially economical heating systems for a private house initially cost a decent amount.

Thus, there can be no categorical statement about the indisputable efficiency of a particular unit, as well as a universal recommendation on how to save on heating. Unless there is an opportunity to arrange the most economical heating by supplying hot water from a thermal spring of natural origin to the system. But even in this case, you will have to pay a tax to the state for the use of natural resources.

And yet, if the choice is made in favor of electrical equipment, then the use of vortex inductive heaters (VIN-boilers), unlike other types of electrical heating appliances, is the most economical heating.

The reverse recommendation applies to oil coolers, the operation of which, due to the specifics of the principle of operation and design, is extremely uneconomical.


The most economical way to heat a house is a technology that takes into account a number of factors and circumstances, both obvious and seemingly unrelated. The key to economical heating of housing in a private house is the optimal prioritization, taking into account these factors in specific circumstances.


Options for laying heating pipes in a private house


The heating of a modern private house depends on many factors. This includes the choice of a heating boiler, the presence of underfloor heating systems, the choice of a radiator connection scheme. But the most important factor affecting the energy efficiency of the system is the laying of various heating pipes in a private house, the choice of diameter and installation method.

An example of the arrangement of a modern boiler room, in this case using a copper pipe

Types of pipes used for laying heating in a private house

Depending on the project of the heating system of a private house, the material of the pipe for connecting radiators and disconnecting the boiler room may be different. Let’s look at the main options used in the work.

Steel pipes

Allocate materials from galvanized steel, based on stainless steel, from ferrous metal. The advantage of such products is high thermal conductivity, which allows you to give off heat not only to the radiators themselves, but also to the supply pipes. With the correct arrangement of the heating system, a sealed circuit is obtained, which eliminates leaks for many years.

Steel pipes in the heating system. Side connection option


From steel water and gas pipes, due to the large internal diameter, it is possible to equip inclined heating systems, which was actively used in the last century. Such systems operate without the use of pumps. Steel is ideal for laying a system of cast iron radiators. Today, corrugated material is made on the basis of stainless steel, which are quite convenient to install.

Copper pipes

Due to the high flexibility properties, such systems are often used to equip a boiler room. To bend the pipe, it is enough to heat it to a high temperature, after which it is necessary to bend it, then cool it. Copper is capable of withstanding up to 400 MPa.

A big advantage of using copper is its resistance to temperature differences, so that the walls of the material do not collapse even when the heating circuit is completely frozen. The connection of various sections is carried out using capillary soldering, or using compression fittings. Products are characterized by high coefficient of thermal conductivity, resistance to high and low temperatures, minimal hydraulic resistance, high durability. The main thing is not to combine heating systems by connecting copper and aluminum pipes, since such contact will lead to a violation of the strength of the overall system.

An example of using a copper pipe for distributing a heating circuit

Polypropylene pipe

This material is known to all. It has been actively used for many years, easily withstands pressure up to 10 atmospheres, and is connected using fittings and transitions. In those places where it is necessary to switch to metal, a transition is used. Such pipes may well be laid on the surface, since they have an aesthetic appearance, but they can also be “packed” in a finished floor screed, walled up in walls.

For hot water, a polypropylene pipe with metal reinforcement is used, which increases its strength when heated. Installation is carried out using special equipment, which involves heating the pipe itself and the connecting fitting or tee, turn and other elements.

Along with polypropylene, metal-plastic material is used, which is used to equip underfloor heating systems. High strength allows pumping coolant for 50 years or more. Cross-linked polypropylene is also used for underfloor heating systems.

Heating wiring in the house using a polypropylene pipe. Option to install a collector with a circulation pump on the bypass

Types and schemes for laying heating pipes


It is important to choose the right pipe laying method. Alternatively, a single-pipe and two-pipe laying system is distinguished.

With a two-pipe laying, the system has a supply and a “return”. This increases the cost of the project, but increases the efficiency of the heating system, since the cooled water directly enters the return pipe, where, using a circulation pump, it is pumped back to the boiler and quickly heated up. That is, the heating boiler needs to spend less energy on heating water than heating it constantly.

Two-pipe heating system

As for the one-pipe system, here, with less investment, the consumer initially pays more. The fact is that the cooled water from the radiator enters the supply, where it deliberately dilutes the water by approximately 15-20%. Thus, the next radiator in the system will receive water at a temperature equal to 80-85 percent of the primary values.

An example of a one-pipe heating system

Attention! The very last radiator in the circuit will be significantly colder than the first one. This should be taken into account when constructing the heating circuit. Many people think that such problems can be compensated by using a circulation pump, but this is not so, since pumps can only increase the intensity of water exchange with the boiler.


It is the two-pipe heating system that is the most efficient. Now you need to figure out how to connect the radiator. There is a bottom connection, lateral, and diagonal. Of all the above methods, it is most convenient to connect the «bottom». But, such a connection is unable to 100% convert the energy of the coolant into heat for your home, since the radiator is only half warm. The diagonal connection has the maximum efficiency, which involves chasing and laying supply pipes into the wall.

With a diagonal connection, the “supply” goes from above from the heating boiler, and the return goes from below, from where the cooled water is again supplied to the boiler. With a diagonal connection, be sure to choose a two-pipe system so that the coolant circulates faster in a closed circuit.

As for the laying methods, if the heating system changes in an already finished house, for example, in a frame house, then nothing is ditched and pipes are laid over the floor or along the walls. To do this, it is necessary to install a pipe clamp every 70 cm, so that it is important for hot heat supply, otherwise the PVC material is deformed. It is with such pipes that they often work, since their low cost and high durability can reduce the overall cost of the project.

An example of laying a heating circuit over walls by mounting pipes on clips and clamps

If the house is only being finished, the floors have not yet been filled, then it is most convenient to lay PVC pipes under the finishing screed. As a rule, it is never less than 7 cm, so with this layer of concrete you can organize a hidden laying of polypropylene heating pipes. With proper soldering of the pipe, you can eliminate the violation of tightness. The main thing is to pressurize the system before pouring the finishing screed. For this, a system with a pressure gauge is used, designed to fill the circuit with water, with the help of which pressure is created in the pipe of the order of 2-3 atmospheres. The contour is pressed and allowed to stand for about 5 hours. If during this time the pressure has not dropped, then the installation was successful.

Attention! It is recommended to check the system for operability before pouring the finishing screed. This will help eliminate the narrowing of the plastic pipe. The reason for this is overheating of the fitting.

As for the choice of the connection scheme for radiators, today the beam scheme is actively used. The beam scheme is the connection of each radiator to a central collector, which is installed in the boiler room. From the collector to the heating boiler there is a main pipe, which is often larger in diameter than the diameter of the supply pipes. Thanks to the radial connection, metal-plastic pipes or cross-linked polypropylene can be used.

Here it is not at all necessary to lay polypropylene heating pipes in the wall, as well as to observe rectangular turns. It is enough to lay them under the floor, which will facilitate installation and increase the pace of work. This scheme is considered the best for solid pipes that do not solder.

Description. An example of a radiant heating scheme from a collector in a private house.

SNIP requirements


The general SNIP regulating ventilation and heating is registered under the number 41-01-2003. There are other rules, among which are:

  • SNiP 2.04.05-91 (clause 3.58). Regulates the installation of decorative screens and grilles on radiators.
  • SNiP 41-01-2003 (p. 6.5.13.). Indicates the need to install shutoff valves, except for rooms with a high probability of freezing of the coolant.
  • SNiP 3.05.01-8 (clause 3.18). Regulates the slope of the heating circuit with a pipe length of more than 500 mm.
  • SP 40-108-2004 (clause 3.2.1). Regulates the connection of a copper pipe to a boiler with aluminum leads.

Sealing and thermal insulation

Only metal connections have to be sealed. The fact is that when working with HDPE pipes, they are soldered, which does not require additional sealing. With regard to metal-to-metal connections, plumbing linen must be used. This is the most inexpensive way, which, together with the paste, allows you to achieve 100% tightness.

It is necessary to wind the flax in the direction of movement of the object that will be wound onto the thread so that the flax does not turn when screwing on. Instead of flax and paste, you can use fum tape, as well as other means.

An example of applying sanitary flax with paste for additional protection against leakage of threaded connections

As for thermal insulation, there is a special insulation on sale, which is made to fit the diameter of the pipe. It is recommended to isolate the coolant that is supplied from the boiler to the heating radiators. This should be done especially if the pipes lie against the wall under the floor, since it is here that the maximum level of heat loss is observed. As a heat-insulating material, you can choose basalt wool, glass wool, polystyrene foam and other insulation.

Important! Don’t save. When laying underfloor heating systems, it is definitely recommended to install the pipe on the insulation. For the central part of Russia, at least 5 cm of foam plastic is used.


Being at the stage of calculating the heating circuit, proceed from the fact that 1 section is selected based on 1.2 square meters of the room. Do not forget to take into account the margin, if in your room two walls are adjacent to the street, you need to add a margin of up to 30%. That is, for a room of 15 square meters in contact with the street, in which there will be a warm floor, it is recommended to install a radiator with at least 12 sections.

In order to create excess intersectional pressure in the circuit, it is necessary to operate with the diameter of the supply pipe. That is, from the boiler to the main collector there must be a pipe of at least 32 millimeters in diameter. Further, a pipe of the same diameter will go to each circuit, approximately 4-5 meters for each wing. This will create excess pressure in the circuit. Next, you need to narrow down, choosing a diameter of at least 25 mm to each radiator. When lifting water to the radiator, it is necessary to narrow it up to 20 mm, inclusive.

The use of fittings when welding polypropylene pipes

More isn’t always good. It is impractical to use pipes of larger diameter everywhere, since the permeability of water will be better, but its amount will increase, which will lead to heating of a larger volume of liquid. Hence the extra heating costs. The rise of the coolant to the floor above is carried out through a pipe of at least 32 mm.

One radiator comes with an installation kit. These are two cranes, a plug, a Mayevsky crane, 2-3 hooks. Tees, transitions, couplings are considered individually, depending on the number of radiators in the house, their location, and the method of laying the pipe.

Recommendations for operation and repair


The norms of SNiP require the installation of radiators in an ideal geometric plane. It is necessary to set the radiator according to the level, otherwise airing will occur and the coolant will not flow further. It is necessary to install a Mayevsky crane for an aluminum radiator. Aluminum, when interacting with water, releases a gas that must go outside. That is why after a couple of weeks, the pressure in the circuit may drop by 0.1-0.2 from the nominal value.

Important! Consider the nuances. A supply tap must be provided in the circuit, which is delimited from the main water supply circuit in the house by a check valve.

Using the Mayevsky tap on the radiator to vent air from the system

Try to lay polypropylene heating pipes in the floor screed only when the product has a warranty period of at least 40 years. Otherwise, the pipe must be serviceable so that you can always make repairs.

When installing a radiator, make sure that the window sill does not cover it by more than 30%. The recommended height of the radiator from the floor is 6-8 centimeters, from the radiator to the window sill no more than 10. Be sure to install taps on each heating radiator in order to be able to adjust the coolant.

Installation of valves on the radiator in order to further adjust the temperature of the coolant and the possibility of completely isolating the radiator from the system in case of repair

At the bottom of the heating circuit, water must be drained to the sewer. This is necessary in case of repair. At the top of the heating circuit there should be air vents that will allow air to escape without creating an air lock. When using underfloor heating, be sure to install a separate pump on the manifold. It is installed on the supply, in the direction from the boiler to the warm floor. Be sure to use taps at each connection and branch, which will facilitate future repairs.