Hot water gas boilers: problems, errors


Today, many housing infrastructure facilities use autonomous gas heating for life support. If for city apartments this possibility is limited by technical limits, then for the private sector autonomous heating is one of the key aspects of housing comfort.

Gas-heating equipment can provide high-quality and efficient heating of residential premises in autonomous mode. Hot water gas boilers are exactly the type of heating equipment, thanks to which you can create the necessary comfort and coziness not only in a private house, but also in mini-hotels, country houses and cottages.

The technical capabilities of this type of equipment are able to fully satisfy the needs for heating and hot water supply.

Gas boiler — general idea

A water-heating gas boiler is a type of high-power household boiler equipment, designed to simultaneously solve two problems — heating a large area of ​​\u200b\u200bthe interior and providing a normal amount of domestic hot water (hot water supply). This type of heating equipment is used in autonomous heating systems in which water circulation is forced.

On a note: for operation of the boiler, natural or liquefied gas is used with the amount of heat during combustion of 33 MJ / m3 at ambient temperature 200C and atmospheric pressure of 745-765 mm Hg. Art.

During operation, the household boiler is able to heat the coolant to a temperature of 95 degrees. Celsius, creating a working pressure in the system of 0.6 MPa. A water-heating autonomous gas boiler or solid fuel has a high power, which is usually measured in megawatts. The models on the market today have different capacities. Boilers for a private house usually have a power in the range of 0.4 — 1 MW. Industrial units are capable of heating large areas, up to 30-40 thousand square meters. m., with a capacity of 1.5-4 MW. Due to their design and principle of operation, water heating boilers have one of the highest efficiency — up to 92%.


The main advantages of hot water gas units are as follows:

  • quick access to optimal operating modes — 2-4 hours;
  • compactness;
  • ease of installation;
  • ease of operation and maintenance;
  • environmental friendliness.

The main advantage of boilers of this type is the low cost of thermal energy, which is an order of magnitude lower than that of other heating appliances. The main scope of application is the provision of hot water supply and heating of residential facilities located far from the heating plant. Usually hot water boilers are installed at facilities where the installation of an autonomous boiler house is technically impractical and economically unprofitable.

In other words, hot water boilers are high-tech devices in which a large amount of thermal energy is generated by burning blue fuel. The resulting heat is used to heat water — a heat carrier that circulates in the heating circuit. Circulating in the pipeline of the heating circuit, the water heats the heating radiators, which then give off heat to the room air. The pressure created in the system ensures the necessary supply of coolant to the farthest sections of the heating circuit and heating the premises to a comfortable temperature.

The main point that you need to pay attention to before installing a hot water boiler is uninterrupted water supply. The good technical condition of the plumbing is a key aspect of the normal operation of gas heating equipment.

Types of hot water boilers used in various fields

The classification of this type of heating equipment is based on the following criteria:

  • type of fuel used;
  • type of allocation;
  • main destination.

According to the type of fuel used, boilers are divided into gas appliances, liquid fuel, solid fuel and combined units. Of the listed equipment, it is gas boilers that have the highest technical characteristics.


By appointment, water-heating units are divided into industrial and domestic.

The first type is used for heating industrial buildings, the operation of such equipment requires special knowledge and experience, the operation of industrial boilers is clearly regulated by regime cards and instructions.

On a note. As a rule, the power of industrial boilers is estimated at tens of megawatts (10-50 MW), steam is used as a coolant in industrial heating systems, therefore such equipment is more often called steam boilers.

The second type is household hot water boilers, which are heating equipment of limited capacity. Such boilers are used for heating household and residential premises of small size, limited area. They use ordinary water as a heat carrier.

According to the type of execution or placement, gas water heaters are divided into wall-mounted (mounted) and floor models. The hinged version of the gas boiler implies a low power device. Such devices are installed in apartments or small private houses. Floor boilers have more power and, therefore, large dimensions. For the installation of a floor-standing water-heating unit, a special room is required — a boiler room, which must be equipped with ventilation without fail.

The main purpose of the water heating device is due to the method of heating boiler water. Boilers with a flow heating method provide the desired water temperature by heating the heating circuit located in the combustion chamber. Other models are equipped with storage tanks in which water is heated indirectly. Devices equipped with storage tanks have a shorter resource and are mainly used for hot water supply and heating of apartments and country houses of a small area. The number of water intake points in this case is also limited. Therefore, the greater the flow of hot water from the DHW system, the greater the capacity and power should have an additional indirect heating boiler used if the gas boiler is single-circuit.

Important! In household boilers that work for heating and for providing housing with hot water, most of the power is spent on heating water. Therefore, when choosing a boiler model, it is necessary to take into account the reserve power reserve, thanks to which there will be enough hot water in the house, and home heating will become as efficient as possible in any weather.


At the moment, a significant part of the models on the market are double-circuit hot water boilers (not to be confused with a two-pipe heating system). Single-circuit units are less common.

The popularity of models of gas boilers with a double-circuit coolant supply system lies in their high efficiency and uniform distribution of the coolant over the entire heated area of ​​​​the building. The ability to simultaneously provide hot water and heating in the house, while consuming a minimum amount of fuel, is the main advantage of double-circuit gas water heating boilers, modern models of which are equipped with circulators — devices that improve the circulation of the coolant in the pipeline system.

Design of hot water boilers

Today, the heating equipment market is saturated with various models of hot water boilers, which have a similar design and differ only in the power of the heating elements and, accordingly, in performance. The model range is represented by products of both domestic and foreign manufacturers.

In terms of design features — nothing new. Typically, a gas water heating boiler has a durable steel or cast iron body, finished with heat-insulating materials. The design is based on a gas burner and a heat exchanger used to heat the water that then enters the system.

Equipping modern models

Two types of gas burners are installed in water heaters:

  • atmospheric;
  • supercharged.

The performance and, accordingly, the functionality of the boiler depend on the type of burner and the quality of its work. The reason that the gas boiler does not heat the water enough is that the gas pressure has dropped in the gas supply system, as a result of which the necessary supply to the combustion chamber is not ensured. As a result, the low intensity of combustion of the gaseous fuel mass and the low heating temperature of the heat exchanger.

Atmospheric burners naturally mix household gas with air, while pressurized ones are equipped for this purpose with fans — superchargers. Mixing of gas with air occurs under pressure. The fuel mass enters the furnace under high pressure, as a result of which the intensity of its combustion and the efficiency of heating the coolant are improved. The fuel in this case is burned completely, increasing the efficiency of the heater.

In addition, forced draft burners that provide the necessary gas pressure in the system are more reliable in operation.

The design of the hot water boiler consists of the following elements:

  • support frame (for floor type);
  • block of convective, radiation heating surface;
  • block with spare parts and accessories (shutoff valves, valves and gates).


The boiler is installed on a support frame or mounted on a wall, after which the air duct, water and gas are connected. The installation is completed with the installation of instrumentation, shut-off valves and the installation of safety valves. As a rule, all hot water boilers are equipped with an explosion valve, which is installed on the back of the appliance. The main task of this device is to prevent the destruction of the heating circuit due to overheating and excess operating pressure in the combustion chamber.

An important component of the boiler is pumping equipment, the required performance of which is determined by calculation with reference to the heated area and boiler power.

In the process of installing the boiler, it is also necessary to equip a smoke exhauster through which the products of combustion of fuel will be removed from the combustion chamber. The parameters of the smoke exhauster are also determined by calculation at the stage of development of the heating system project. An incorrect calculation of the characteristics of the smoke exhauster is fraught not only with deposits of soot on its walls and a decrease in the efficiency of the boiler, but also with a dangerous deterioration in the functioning of ventilation and a high concentration of carbon monoxide in the room.

In conclusion, a few words about what you should additionally pay attention to when choosing a unit. Having determined the required power and having an idea about the conditions for its future operation, it is also necessary to study the possibilities and degree of reliability of automation, on the operation of which not only the efficiency of the heating and hot water systems, but also the safety of the inhabitants of residential premises depends.


Features of autonomous heating in a private and apartment building


Modern housing construction is built mainly on the use of new technologies. Especially the introduction of know-how is noticeable in the field of heating systems, utilities and water supply. With the advent of new types of heating equipment, autonomous heating in an apartment building is becoming popular in modern housing construction. Even at the design stage, technical capabilities are laid down, thanks to which a residential building can be fully equipped with modern heating facilities. It makes no sense to compare the technological characteristics of autonomous heating with centralized heating systems, given the performance and cost levels. Installing an autonomous gas boiler in a modern apartment allows residents to independently regulate the temperature in their own apartment, using the optimal and cost-effective version of the boiler.

In private homes, a similar scheme for organizing autonomous heating at home is also very effective. In suburban buildings, in cottages, in communal buildings, the heating season begins regardless of the calendar. An autonomous boiler can be turned on at any time of the year, making a comfortable living environment inside residential premises. Owners of private houses today prefer the organization of independent, individual heating and water supply.

Features of autonomous heating in a private house or apartment — technical nuances and possibilities

For each person, the main conditions for a comfortable stay are:

  • warm and comfortable accommodation;
  • the presence of water;
  • lighting.

A warm and comfortable climate in your apartment today can be created by your own efforts, without waiting for the official onset of the heating season. In modern apartment buildings, autonomous heating systems are being introduced everywhere at the design stage, while in old buildings they have to be installed independently, overcoming bureaucratic difficulties with disconnecting from centralized heating. Autonomous heating in your home will allow you to solve a lot of technical and economic problems at the same time.

For reference: when using autonomous heating to heat an apartment building, the real savings for each apartment owner are 2-2.5 times.

Especially when you have a double-circuit natural gas boiler at your disposal. The organization of heating becomes simple and clear. Now you can control the temperature in the house yourself. Having your own heating is profitable and comfortable! The advantages of using such a heating system are obvious, among which a tangible economic effect should be highlighted. For residents of new apartment buildings, the problem of heating is not at all a problem, while for residents of old buildings, the installation of appropriate equipment requires obtaining permits from utilities and gas services.

Gas boilers, the models of which are installed in apartments today, have closed combustion chambers, which makes them as safe as possible for domestic use. Due to the fan, atmospheric air is supplied to the combustion chamber through a horizontal pipe in the wall, and the combustion products are removed to the outside through a chimney located inside the same pipe. Thanks to the presence of special sensors, the entire system works completely autonomously. When the temperature in the room drops below that set by the consumer, the boiler turns on automatically, and the circulation pump supplies the coolant to the batteries. Due to the operation of the boiler in automatic mode, it is possible to avoid excessive consumption of gas, maintaining an acceptable temperature inside.

Autonomous heating of a private house — various equipment options and technical capabilities

Long gone are the days when residents of the private sector stoked stoves with the onset of cold weather. Over time, technology has advanced significantly. It became possible to carry out heating of residential premises with the help of gas and other boilers. Today, one of the most effective options for heating housing in the private sector is a water heating system. From the point of view of economy, such a system is the most profitable. Depending on the temperature regime on the street, thanks to water heating, you can independently regulate the temperature in the room, creating comfortable conditions. Modern heating technology allows you to fully automate the operation of the entire system, making a person just an outside observer. An autonomous heating system for the premises of a private house or cottage today is a complex engineering and technical solution.

The only disadvantage of this heating option is the high cost of installation and installation. However, given the current cost of other, alternative fuels, such expenses are quite justified. Of great importance for achieving the required efficiency of the boiler is a properly drawn up and developed autonomous heating scheme. Thanks to a competent approach, the entire heating system in a private house is an integral complex that simultaneously solves the problem of hot water supply in the house.

For residents of private houses, it is important to choose a boiler model, on the operation of which the efficiency of the entire system and economic indicators will depend in the future.

The following models of boilers are on the market today:

  • gas;
  • electrical;
  • solid fuel;
  • liquid fuel;
  • combined boilers — equipment operating on liquid and solid fuels.

In each individual case, you yourself choose the type and type of autonomous heating equipped in a private house, which, in your opinion, will be the most efficient and cost-effective. Despite the wide selection of models presented, for the private sector, where there is a centralized gas supply, the most suitable option is to install a gas boiler. Even in comparison with electric boilers, the efficiency of which in some cases reaches 99%, gas boilers are more reliable, more practical and more economical. Electricity as a source of energy for organizing autonomous heating is more expensive.

Autonomous heating of a country house — an effective integrated solution

The presence of an extensive gas supply system makes it possible to solve the problem of heating a country house quite easily and simply by installing a gas boiler in a residential building. With finances, almost every owner of a cottage, a country estate can connect to a centralized gas supply system.

Today, the owners of large residential suburban complexes are trying to make the heating system universal, not being tied to one source of energy and type of fuel. Combined boilers operating on gas or solid fuels are quite capable of solving the problem of heating residential premises. The use of wood briquettes, pellets, firewood or coal as fuel can become an alternative to gas consumption, the prices of which are constantly rising today.

Autonomous heating for a private house, which is located at a considerable distance from the means of communication and power supply lines, must be universal. Today, there are innovative autonomous systems that can fully provide a residential building not only with heat, but also with other life support resources. Currently, it is practiced to install its own gas storage facilities on its own site. Such a gas holder will allow supplying the residential complex with a propane-butane mixture for 3-4 months. Gas reserves are quite enough for heating in the coldest periods, becoming a good help in the use of other types of fuel.

New universal boilers have the technological ability to easily switch from one type of fuel to another, maintaining the entire heating system and pipelines in a normal functional state.

The presence of control and measuring equipment will allow not only to create the necessary level of safety, but to achieve a high economic effect. When planning engineering communications, the issue of choosing a heating system for a private house or for a country house largely depends on other factors. It is necessary to take into account the intended use of the residential building, the materials from which the building was built, even at the design stage. Autonomous heating of the house must meet the technological capabilities of construction, economic aspects and fire safety requirements. In any case, the choice remains with homeowners, who must, first of all, base their choice not only on the cost of heating equipment, but also on technical characteristics and economic indicators.


The best ways to insulate a metal chimney pipe in a bath


Most owners, after building a bathhouse, installing a fireplace or a stove with a chimney, consider that all work is completed. In the meantime, the moment comes when the chimney for the built bath must be isolated from combustible elements and roof leaks.

Wall and ceiling insulation with metal plates

It is best to carry out stove insulation at the construction stage of the bath. This will help to avoid increasing costs when dismantling furnace elements for its insulation. It will be more difficult to isolate the finished structure, sometimes it is required to completely disassemble it in order to lay additional material.

Why is chimney insulation necessary?

The chimney is mainly protected from two main negative factors that affect it:

  • High temperature in the sauna.
  • Moisture ingress through poorly made joints in the roof.

To eliminate negative factors, you can wrap the chimney pipe with a heat insulator. This will help prevent heating of the metal structure, as well as eliminate the appearance of condensate, which also adversely affects the iron elements.

Chimney insulation allows:

  • Make a safe transition at the points of contact of the pipe with the roof or wall.
  • Avoid heat loss.
  • Extend the life of metal structures.
  • Use all types of finishing materials to create your own unique style and cozy atmosphere in the bath.
Metal hood in the sauna

In principle, it is not difficult to carry out work on the insulation of the chimney structure, the main thing is to know how to isolate the metal chimney chimney pipe in the bath. To choose the right type of insulator that is right for you, you need to understand their technical characteristics.

How to choose a heater for a chimney in a bath


There is no fundamental difference for choosing insulators for a bathhouse built separately or in a house. Basically, the choice falls on two types of heat insulators:

  • Mineral wool. Its varieties include: glass wool, stone and basalt. These heaters are able to withstand high temperature conditions, in addition, they resist fire and are resistant to open fire. The porous structure allows good heat retention. It has a small weight, which does not require strengthening the walls and foundation of the bath.
The use of mineral wool for a metal chimney
  • Modern multifunctional heat insulators: teploizol and foilizol.

Teploizol is an innovative insulation made of polyethylene foam, with a foil surface on both sides. The material perfectly manifests itself as an insulator, does not absorb moisture, and is resistant to high temperatures.

Use this material of different thickness. The value of temperature stability depends on this parameter:

  • Thickness from 2-5 mm is able to withstand temperature changes from -30 to +100 degrees.
  • The seam width is from 5 to 10 mm and can withstand temperatures from -50 to +150 degrees.

It is not difficult to fix the thermal insulation on the surface. To do this, you will need a metal wire or tape that attaches the insulator to the chimney. The work is carried out quickly and does not require additional assistance from outside.

Furnace hood with thermal insulation

Folgizol is also well suited for insulating the chimney of a properly installed pipe in the bath. It is made of a double layer of food foil and internal insulation. Such an insulator not only protects the metal surface of the structure from heat loss, but does not emit harmful substances when heated. It is an environmentally friendly material, which is an important factor these days.

Regulations and set of rules


To carry out work on the insulation of pipes in the bath, certain norms and requirements of SNIP have been created, which should not be violated:

  • The minimum height of the chimney pipe must be 5 meters.
  • A distance is left between the ceiling and the furnace structure. For metal structures — 1.5 m, and for brick — 500 cm.
  • The gap between the pipe and combustible elements is more than 250 mm.

Compliance with these standards will not only save heat, but also protect the building from fire.

Conducting chimney insulation yourself

Mineral wool is one of the most popular types of insulator for stove hoods. You can “wrap” the entire surface with a basalt heat insulator, starting from the exit to the roof and ending in close proximity to the heat source. In this case, it does not matter at all whether the structure exits through the roof or the chimney pipe is led through the wall.

Exhaust outlet through the wall

Important! A metal chimney without an insulating layer seems to be an extremely fire hazardous object, therefore a distance of 60 mm must be maintained between it and the nearest heating element.

Work on the insulation of the stove hood in the bath is carried out as follows:

  • It is necessary to prepare a heater. It is better to take basalt wool in slabs, the thickness of which should exceed 5 mm. You can use rolled material, whose density should not be lower than 6 mm.
  • The material is fixed over the entire surface of the pipe with a wire that is wrapped over the material.
  • A reinforced mesh is mounted on top of the heat insulator. Prepared cement mortar or plaster is applied to it. If plastering is difficult, you can use a metal sheet. This step is necessary to protect the insulation from moisture.

Particular attention should be paid to the insulation of the pipe cutting in the ceiling of the bath. The places where it passes through the ceiling or wall are especially vulnerable, so this area must be isolated. In order to maximally secure the roof ceilings and prevent the roofing material from igniting, additional protection is created from a metal box. You can make it yourself or buy it ready-made in the store.

Installation of hood insulation at the construction stage


When carrying out insulation work, the following should be considered:

  • The orifice size is created larger than the pipe diameter. The distance from the walls of the roof to the chimney is about 30 cm.
  • Slots in this space are not allowed, since this space is filled with insulation, which should fit in a dense layer around the entire perimeter of the box.
  • Wooden parts located in the place closest to the pipe must be treated with flame retardants.
  • To insulate the ceiling and roof, it is better to take heat-resistant material: cellular concrete, clay, expanded clay.
Insulation in places where the chimney is installed with expanded clay

If the insulation of the cutting in the ceiling is not carried out correctly, the room will quickly cool down, and the cost of heating will increase. Therefore, you should carefully consider this issue.

Sandwich pipes — a modern solution for chimney thermal insulation

A chimney made of a sandwich pipe in a traditional bath can be an excellent solution to the issue of insulation. Now in the construction market you can buy a finished structure. By installing such a system, you can not think about the materials and methods of additional insulation of the chimney.

Sandwich pipes consist of several parts of a prefabricated structure, which are easy to connect and install yourself. Such a system is ideal for a sauna or an iron stove.

The design resembles a layer cake:

  • Stainless steel inner layer.
  • The second one is made of basalt wool.
  • The outer sides are covered with galvanized iron.

Installation of a sandwich pipe occurs according to the following scheme:

  • Prepare an opening at the point where the structure passes through the ceiling.
  • An exhaust flange is installed, which is the first stage of the design. The collection of the remaining parts begins with the second step.
  • Double-walled pipes are gradually connected and led out through the ceilings to the roof. Mounted elements are additionally attached to the walls.
  • After assembling the structure, insulation is carried out in the places of passage to the attic. Here it is allowed to use only double-walled parts of the structure without additional elements.
  • Next, the chimney is discharged through the roof. In places of its passage it is necessary to perform thermal insulation.
Conclusion of a sandwich pipe through the roof


  • The bath chimney is fastened with stretch marks if it rises strongly above the roof.
  • A spark arrester and a fungus are mounted on top of the finished structure.

During the connection of the elements, a sealant for chimneys is used. It is able to withstand temperatures up to + 1000 degrees. Traction force depends on the quality of the connection and the tightness of the joints.

To increase fire safety, the passage of the stove hood to the attic is created through the ceiling-passage unit. It is a galvanized steel box with a hole for the pipe. It can be purchased ready-made. The box is inserted into the prepared opening before the entire structure is assembled.

Thermal insulation in this place is carried out in the following way:

  • PPU is installed in the opening. The structure is placed on the lower beams so that the connection is higher than the attic floor.
Strengthening the PPU structure on the ceiling
  • The gap between the ceilings and the walls of the PPU must exceed 13 cm, which is filled with mineral wool.
  • Further, the gaps are closed from the upper and lower sides with metal plates.

This multi-layer construction allows you to keep warm and minimize the accumulation of soot on the walls. Sandwich design is not suitable for traditional Russian baths with high humidity. This must be taken into account when building a bath.


Warming the chimney in the bath is a difficult and responsible job. Mistakes made during their implementation can completely nullify all efforts to build a bath and postpone the possibility of its operation.


We make a water heated floor from a gas boiler


Giving preference to autonomous heating methods, homeowners want to solve the problem of heating an apartment or house once and for all. Independent heating provides not only optimal temperature conditions in residential premises, but also provides significant cost savings in the family budget. It is up to you to decide which type of autonomous heating to give preference to. To begin with, let’s get acquainted with the main existing options for home heating, based on the energy they consume:

  • Electrical devices.
  • Solid fuel devices.
  • Liquid fuel units.
  • Gas appliances.

Each of the listed groups is divided into subgroups according to the installation method, the coolant used, the scope, etc. But to this list of devices used as the main means of heating housing, it is necessary to add systems involved in the heating process as additional devices that increase comfort temperature regime in the room. Such systems include the so-called underfloor heating, electric and water.

Be sure to read: independent heating in the apartment.

Of particular interest in this regard is the water-heated floor, which operates from a gas boiler — an autonomous hot water generator. The system is relatively new, but sufficiently studied, superior in efficiency to devices such as, for example, heated fans.


Underfloor heating — idea and concept

The idea of ​​underfloor heating in living quarters is not new. A person has long paid attention to the laws of physics operating around us — warm air in a room always accumulates at the top, under the ceiling. The cooled air, on the contrary, sinks down, making the floor the coldest place in the room, eating up precious kilocalories with its large area.

The floor artificially heated to a certain temperature becomes a powerful source of heat in the room. Due to the large heating area, the air evenly warms up and rises, filling the entire interior space. The process of air exchange provides the necessary temperature in the room, and, moreover, minimizes the difference between its values ​​at the floor level and under the ceiling. In rooms equipped with underfloor heating, there are practically no zones with cool air.

Gas boilers used today for home autonomous heating are quite capable of ensuring the normal operation of a warm water floor. It is possible to achieve an effective increase in comfort in this situation, subject to certain conditions — accurate thermal and hydraulic calculations, competent installation of the underfloor heating system.


It is possible to provide floor heating by laying a pipeline in the existing space between the floor and the floor covering, in which the coolant heated by the gas boiler will circulate. Water (regular or with special anti-freeze additives) acts as a heat carrier — a traditional liquid used for autonomous boiler equipment.

The heat exchanger in this case is a pipeline laid under the floor covering. The effect is achieved due to the large heat transfer area. The amount of heat entering the interior space is sufficient for the horizontal and vertical distribution of the warm air mass.

Important! The fundamental difference between this system and other types of heating systems is the low temperature of the coolant. For a warm water floor, it is enough to heat the coolant to a temperature of 30-50 0 FROM.

Components of the «warm water floor» system


The main structural elements of such a system are:

  • gas boiler;
  • pressure pump;
  • shutoff valves and connecting fittings;
  • the main pipeline for distributing the coolant to residential premises;
  • floor mini-pipeline for laying on the surface of the subfloor;
  • collector;
  • system of automation and adjustment of operating modes.

Gas boiler

For a private house of a large area, where it is planned to increase the comfort of the temperature regime in a large number of rooms, the best choice would be a stand-alone double-circuit gas boiler. Such units have high power, are able to simultaneously solve several problems at once — heating residential premises and providing hot water.

On a note: for floor-mounted gas heating equipment, it is necessary to equip an appropriate room with a chimney and ventilation. The room allocated for the boiler room (boiler capacity up to 30 kW) must have an area of ​​​​at least 4 square meters, and a minimum volume of 8 cubic meters. If a single-circuit gas boiler is used for underfloor heating, then for the DHW system it will be necessary to additionally install an indirect heating boiler, which can be placed in the same room.

For an apartment where every square meter of area is expensive, you can use a wall-mounted gas boiler, which, with the right power selection, will also ensure the efficient operation of a water-heated floor. Due to its dimensions, it is easier to choose a place to place such equipment; wall-mounted gas boilers can be installed even in the kitchen or in the bathroom. Typically, the power of wall-mounted gas boilers varies in the range of 7-30 kW.

Wall-mounted autonomous gas appliances in most cases have a closed combustion chamber, therefore, for its efficient and safe operation, it is enough to equip a coaxial chimney with access to the street or to the central chimney shaft.


An important point when buying equipment is to determine the optimal power of the gas boiler, which will have to ensure the operation of the «water heated floor» system, therefore, when choosing a gas boiler model, it is necessary to rely on thermal calculation data.

For reference: for heating 1 sq. m of living space requires the cost of approximately 100 W of electricity, subject to good thermal insulation of the room, ceilings no more than 3 m high and no excessive number of windows.

Most of the premises of a private house have external walls in their construction, heat losses through which may require an increase of up to 150 W of heat consumption for heating 1 sq. m. living area. Therefore, when buying a gas boiler, even having a thermal calculation indicating the required power of the unit, it is better to purchase a device with an excess of the calculated value of this characteristic by 15-20%.

In most cases, the power of double-circuit boilers is designed for hot water supply with one or two water intake points. Therefore, with an increase in the number of hot water intake points, an increase in boiler power will be required.

In this respect, a water-heated floor has an advantage — it loads a gas boiler in a gentle mode. The principle of operation of the underfloor heating system in this situation requires minimal energy consumption from the boiler to heat the coolant. Most of the boiler power is released to heat the water of the hot water supply system.

Pipes for water floor heating

For laying a warm water floor, copper, polypropylene, metal-plastic or PEX pipes are used.

Copper pipes (high thermal conductivity, durability) are an ideal material for underfloor heating, so their price is high and availability is limited.

Polypropylene pipes are also not very common, but for a different reason — their flexibility is insufficient, and the minimum bending radius of the pipe should be equal to 8 of its diameters, which moves the turns apart.

Pipes made of metal-plastic are deservedly popular — the inner aluminum coating provides them with good thermal conductivity, and polymer shells protect them from damage. With such characteristics, an affordable price is a good incentive to choose in their favor.

PEX pipes are a material made of “cross-linked” polyethylene, that is, with an artificially modified molecular structure that makes this material strong and durable. The price of PEX pipes is quite affordable, and therefore their use in the installation of water-heated floors is widespread. However, one specific property of this material should be borne in mind — when heated, PEX pipes tend to take on their original contour, therefore, when laid on the floor, they must be firmly fixed to the screed reinforcement.


The heating system does not fit in one day, so its reliability, including tightness, and durability must be ensured. For this purpose, the pipes are laid in a single solid coil, without joints. The task is to obtain a single, closed circuit during the installation process, through which the coolant will circulate, for which it is better to use water with special additives. This will avoid defrosting the system during severe frosts. This measure is relevant for owners of country houses and cottages with non-permanent residence.

Important! When used in a water system, it is necessary to install an additional protective device, a compressor or a compressed air cylinder for emergency purging of the entire circuit and draining the coolant.

Important! When buying pipes for a heating system, pay attention to the markings. Products intended for heating systems have the corresponding symbols and designations. As a rule, this is an allowable pressure of 10 bar and a heating temperature of up to 95 0FROM.

Depending on the characteristics of the room and the type of flooring (thickness of the screed, height of the room, etc.), pipes with a diameter of 16-20 mm are used to install the underfloor heating system. During the laying of the pipeline, a minimum bending radius is allowed, equal to five times the diameter for metal-plastic pipes and 8 times for polypropylene material.

To complete the picture, we suggest that you familiarize yourself with the video material, which describes in detail and shows how the installation of a water-heated floor is carried out.

Installation of the «water heated floor» system

The installation of a water-heated floor system begins with the preparation of the foundation, which includes several operations, which we will briefly consider now. Failure to comply with the requirements for the subfloor, on which the heated floor is mounted, is fraught with at least a decrease in the efficiency of its work, at the maximum — depressurization followed by expensive overhaul.

Foundation preparation

The substrate must be properly prepared before laying the pipeline. The base surface must be firm, clean and even. Height differences are allowed in the range of plus or minus 10 mm per meter of linear length. If the floor surface does not meet the requirements, has a large curvature and obvious flaws, a leveling screed is installed, followed by waterproofing of the base in case of depressurization of the system.

Before laying the pipeline, thermal insulation of the subfloor is also carried out. For these purposes, plates made of extruded polystyrene foam, or basalt fiber 30-50 mm thick, are used.

With a sufficient budget, the use of plates shielded with foil and equipped with special protrusions for convenient pipe laying is justified. Such measures are resorted to to reduce heat losses through the floor in the premises of the first floor — a warm floor, together with a gas boiler of any capacity, will work with an increased load simultaneously with floor heating to heat the basement or someone else’s apartment on the floor below.

Important! Before pouring the laid pipes of the underfloor heating system with cement mortar, it is necessary to stick a strip of damper tape 5 mm thick and a width equal to the thickness of the poured mortar layer along the perimeter of the room on the walls. The tape will compensate for the thermal expansion of the screed and reduce its pressure on the vertical structures.



Underfloor heating systems are divided into 2 types according to the design and, accordingly, the installation method:

  • concrete (filled);
  • flooring.

In the first case, we are talking about pouring with concrete the contour of the system of water heated floors laid on the prepared base. This operation is preceded by breaking down the base into sections and laying the reinforcing mesh.

The following types of laying pipes-heat pipes are used:

  • snake;
  • double snake;
  • spiral;
  • offset spiral;
  • combined method.

The diagram shows how the heating circuit is laid in a room with increased heat loss — two or more external walls.

Important! After the installation of the underfloor heating system is completed, it is pressure tested at a pressure of 5 bar for 24 hours.

The concrete screed acts as an additional element-participant in the process of heat distribution. Considering the poor performance of concrete in tension, it is placed at a pressure in the heating system of 3 bar, reducing the tensile load with further water supply to the operating pressure.

For the screed solution, cement of a grade not lower than M-300 is used, and its thickness should be 30-50 mm, while the mortar layer above the heat pipes should not be more than 2 cm.

When installing a system of water-heated floors, one should take into account the technological limitation — a finished floor covering must have a high coefficient of thermal conductivity in order to transfer heat into the room air with minimal losses. That is, laying linoleum, laminate, parquet, and boardwalk over a warm floor is not advisable due to the high heat-insulating properties of these materials. And laying on top of a tile system, especially with a high density — porcelain stoneware, natural stone, broomstick, is not only justified, but also expedient because of the constantly cold surface of such a finish.

The laying method of laying is used in rooms where the use of a screed is undesirable due to low ceilings, or the production of concrete work is fraught with moisture leakage into the lower or adjacent rooms. The restriction may be seasonal or be related to the design features of the building. The main advantage of flooring systems is the high speed of their installation. Warm water floors of the floor type of laying according to the materials of the system device are divided into:

  • polystyrene;
  • wooden:
  • modular;
  • rack.

All these types of flooring systems are less labor intensive and there is no significant pollution of housing during installation.

Polystyrene underfloor heating

This system is a set of heat-insulating coating made of extruded polystyrene foam (expanded polystyrene), heat pipes and heat-distributing aluminum plates.

Polystyrene plates are laid on the bearing base, on top of which heat pipes are mounted on aluminum plates with special grooves.

On top of the aluminum plates, the floor is finished with a material with a high coefficient of thermal conductivity (for example, ceramic tiles on 2-component epoxy adhesive).

Wooden underfloor heating systems

These devices are mounted on existing wooden floors or logs made of wood.

In the modular version, plates (modules) are used with channels and grooves for heat-distributing plates and pipes.

In the slatted type of underfloor heating, the modules are installed between the logs on the hard subfloor, or the logs are pre-installed for this. These structures play the role of stiffening ribs for a heated water floor and its subsequent finishing, the list of structural elements does not differ from the modular view.

After the laying of underfloor heating of the floor type is completed, the system is also pressure tested and commissioning is carried out (tightness check, tightening of connections).

The flooring method of arranging the underfloor heating system is universal and applicable in almost all buildings and structures. However, its advantages are reflected in the cost, which is quite high.


A competent project combined with a qualified installation of equipment is a guarantee of a positive result. A water heated floor, which you will use as an additional home autonomous heating system, will be an effective, economical and practical device that significantly increases the comfort of your home.


Antifreeze for heating system


A country house, cottage or cottage will become warm and cozy when they have a normal, full-fledged heating system. Due to the fact that equipment for water heating is widely represented on the market today, there is no difficulty in installing and organizing an autonomous heating system for your own home! There remains an important question that owners of suburban housing often face, how to increase the durability of a working water boiler, pipelines and radiators! What happens if antifreeze is poured into the heating system of a house?

The topic of antifreeze when it comes to the efficiency of a hot water heating system?

Traditionally, it is considered that it is better to fill a water heating complex with water, which is the most common and affordable coolant. It takes into account the fact that water can be found everywhere and always. Water has ideal physical properties, among which heat capacity, heat transfer and viscosity are the main ones. Despite the apparent advantages, water has a significant and significant drawback — it freezes at low temperatures. During the heating season, this is fraught with big troubles. If you do not adhere to the operating conditions of the water boiler and the entire heating system in the winter, freezing of the coolant threatens with catastrophic consequences. For our climate, severe frosts are not uncommon, as a result, frozen water in the heating system of the house breaks pipelines and disables radiators.

It should be remembered: The presence of water as a heat carrier in the heating system of a country house requires a constantly operating boiler to maintain a positive temperature in the system. Heating must be constant, even in the absence of household needs, which leads to significant fuel overruns and financial costs.

A comfortable country house, equipped with a water heating complex, needs constant supervision. An unexpected failure of the boiler automation, power outages will cause a complete defrosting of the entire system. The consequences can be the saddest. Not only will we have to change most of the pipes and radiators, but in some cases also eliminate the consequences of the flood.
A warm house after such an emergency is ready to turn into a cold and frozen room, unsuitable for living. Antifreeze for home heating will help solve the problem, a substance that successfully resists low temperatures and does not lose its basic physical properties. How to pour antifreeze into the system, in what proportion to add it to water or use a concentrate, can be found on the websites of numerous companies involved in equipment and installation of autonomous heating.

The heating system in this case will remain functional throughout the entire period of operation, ensuring that your warm home will be reliably protected from frost. Properly selected coolant will provide high performance and technological characteristics of the water boiler. In each individual case, it is necessary to choose a specific brand of antifreeze, which includes the necessary components and additives that ensure reliable heating operation. Switching to non-freezing liquid in the heating system as a coolant is the right step and quite justified.

If you decide to increase the protection of your autonomous heating system with antifreeze, you need to carefully and balancedly approach this issue.

Antifreeze as a coolant. Main properties and characteristics


For water heating in a private house, the main aspect is the compliance of the coolant with the basic requirements. The substance poured into the system must:

  • fully ensure efficient heat transfer;
  • for a long time not to lose their basic physical and chemical properties;
  • not form scale and other by-products of operation as a result of heating;
  • withstand low temperatures, preventing freezing.

Evaluating water as a coolant, judging by the characteristics described above, the conclusion suggests itself — ordinary water is not very suitable for these purposes. A warm house with such a coolant becomes unreliable. Despite the fact that water has a high heat capacity and good fluidity, water has a high corrosive effect and quickly loses its basic physical properties under the influence of low temperature. For heating, the quality and composition of water is of great importance. A large percentage of calcium and magnesium content in water causes scale formation as a result of prolonged heating to temperatures above 800C. If the water quality is poor, the water boiler, the pipes in the system are covered with scale from the inside, which significantly affects the quality of heating. Antifreeze for the heating system of a country house in this case compares favorably with water, significantly increasing the operational capabilities of an autonomous heating system.

Antifreeze is known to most of us thanks to its use in automotive technology. The name already says that the main quality of this substance is the absence of a reaction to the effects of low temperatures. The freezing point of this liquid can reach -650C. Only when the temperature drops below -700With comes the process of crystallization of the substance. The reason for this behavior of the liquid is the high concentration of active components in the substance itself.

Read more about choosing a liquid for heating a house.

Due to its properties and good interaction with water, antifreeze can be added to the water heating system, thereby adjusting the freezing temperature of the entire coolant. The non-freezing composition added to the water in a ratio of 50/50 provides it with the necessary fluidity even at a temperature of -400C. The boiler and the piping system in this case are reliably and well protected from freezing during a rapid decrease in the temperature of the atmospheric air. The higher the percentage of antifreeze in water, the lower the freezing point of the coolant and, accordingly, the higher the boiling point.

Today, antifreeze of various brands is quite widely represented on the market. The main qualities and characteristics depend on the type of additives used in the fluid. Each additive endows the substance with certain properties, allows it to better perform the tasks assigned to it. For example, to improve the efficiency of autonomous heating, additives are often used that provide:

  • protection of metal components from corrosion;
  • dissolution and removal of by-products of heating the coolant;
  • protection of various kinds of synthetic gaskets and seals from premature destruction.

Water heating in a house based on antifreeze is an effective tool to ensure the safety of heating during the cold period, to increase the life of the main elements of the heating system. A heating complex filled with a coolant with the addition of antifreeze will make a warm house reliable and comfortable.

Important! Having given preference to antifreeze as a coolant for home heating, it is necessary to use a substance that meets the technological requirements of a water boiler and other parameters of the main elements of the heating system.


How to choose antifreeze for your home heating system

Currently, domestic industry and foreign manufacturers produce various types of antifreeze. The main difference in each brand is the base component. For heating, the best option is antifreeze, which is based on a saline solution, an alcohol base. There are more expensive brands that use propylene glycol or ethylene glycol. When choosing the most acceptable brand, it is important to pay attention to the additive that is part of the liquid. It is necessary to choose a liquid, taking into account the parameters of the water boiler, in the user instructions of which the manufacturer usually indicates the existing restrictions and requirements for the brand of antifreeze.

This type of antifreeze is available as a concentrate or as a ready-to-use solution. As a rule, these antifreezes are called household.

At the household level, propylene glycol-based antifreezes are successfully used. According to its physical properties, this substance has the characteristics necessary for an ideal coolant. The only drawback is the relative high cost of this brand of antifreeze. The priority advantage of propylene glycol antifreeze is the environmental safety of the main components and harmlessness to the human body.

A cheaper option would be to use ethylene glycol-based antifreeze. The substance does not freeze at -600C. These grades meet all the necessary technical requirements for coolants, including fluidity and good heat transfer. Nevertheless, heating a country house with antifreeze on ethylene glycol has lost its relevance today due to the toxicity of ethylene glycol. The low cost and rather high technological characteristics of the substance, in comparison with the threat to health safety, are no longer a priority. Which antifreeze to give preference to, you choose. In any case, the choice is associated with the need to compare a number of technical parameters.

There are also antifreezes on sale based on a solution of bischofite and glycerin, which have an absolutely neutral state with respect to the external environment and are not aggressive.

Having familiarized yourself with the advantages of antifreeze for an autonomous heating system, you should not rush headlong into the store and make a premature purchase. With all the apparent advantages of using antifreeze, there are a number of negative points that must be considered.

Before pouring antifreeze into the heating system, you must remember! You should never pour pure antifreeze into the heating system, which only contains propylene glycol dissolved in water. The absence of additives in the liquid will create additional difficulties for you in the future.

Neglect of safety measures and technical instructions will lead to the fact that the piping system at the joints may leak. Rubber exposed to pure propylene glycol tends to warp. Additives prevent the occurrence of chemical processes, the result of which is damage to the connecting seals. With the help of additives, you can also avoid the rapid formation of scale and foam in the system.

Competent and rational use of antifreezes in the operation of autonomous heating systems will allow you to forget about defrosting batteries forever. With the use of additives, as part of antifreeze, you will significantly increase the life of the water boiler and all other components of the heating system of a private house.


How to install metal-plastic pipes with compression fittings


The water supply system from metal-plastic pipes includes connecting elements called fittings.

Connecting elements

What are compression fittings for metal-plastic pipes? How to install them correctly? What to do if the connection starts to leak? You will learn the answers to these questions by reading the article.

Types, purpose, prices

Compression fittings are used for:

  1. Connections of water pipes of the same and different diameters.
  2. Plumbing branches.
  3. Additional equipment installations (filters, flasks, etc.)
  4. Changes in the direction of the water supply.
  5. Connections of a metal-plastic pipe with metal or plastic.

Depending on the purpose, they can be divided into types.

Corner metal

Used to change the direction of the pipeline. Elements with an angle of 90 and 120 degrees are in demand.

Angle metal fitting

In professional slang, corner elements are called bends, so this name is often used for metal corner fittings for metal-plastic pipes.

The corner element is used to connect a water pipe of the same diameter, it has a crimp fastener on both sides. There are branches for the metal-plastic system, in which there is a thread on one side, external or internal. Such elements are designed for corner connection with various equipment.

Another variety is water outlets. They have the form of an angle with a crimp fastening on one side and an internal thread on the other. Additionally, they have a platform with holes designed for rigid fixation with self-tapping screws.

Metal tees

Tees — types of fittings for metal-plastic water pipes, which are used to branch from the main pipe, connect taps or other elements.

metal tee


Depending on the version, it differs in the combination of fasteners. For example, two sides are a crimp fastener of the same diameter, the third is threaded or vice versa.

For the convenience of customers, the manufacturer marks the tees according to the size of the pipes or threads. As an example, consider the designation 20×1/2″x20. This is a tee, because there are three numbers in the designation, two ends of which are intended for installing a pipe, and the third has a thread. The diameter of the pipe for which the tee is intended is 20 mm, threaded connection ½ inch.


This type is designed to connect pipes of the same or different diameters. At the outputs it has a crimp mount.


The dimensions of the coupling depend on the diameter for which it is intended. The most common:

  • 20×16;
  • 20×20;
  • 32×16;
  • 32×20.

Couplings can be made with internal or external threads on one side. In this case, the marking will look like 16×3/4″. The first number is the diameter, the second is the thread size. Couplings with a threaded connection are used when it is necessary to switch from a metal pipeline to a metal-plastic one.



To connect the type of metal-plastic pipe — a collector, a special connecting fitting is used.

Connecting fitting

Depending on the type of collector, the version may differ. As a rule, the marking of the connecting fitting indicates the letter designation of the type of manifold for which it is intended. For example: EK — indicates that the element is used for manifolds with eurocone outlet.


Connecting element with four outlets. Outlet fasteners can be crimped or threaded, combined in different ways.

Cross connection

They are mounted like ordinary metal structures, except for cases when one of the outlets has a threaded connection. In such a situation, installation begins with a threaded connection.

Fittings by material

Connecting elements for pipes made of metal-plastic can be made of various materials. The most common are brass with a different coating. The coating is designed to protect the metal from corrosion and extend the life of the part. On sale you can find:

  1. Nickel-plated brass.
  2. Tin plated brass.
  3. Nickel plated brass with tin plating.
  4. Brass chrome plated.

Nickel-plated and chrome-plated brass options are popular.

There are also steel and copper, but they are less popular. Copper due to high price, steel due to low corrosion resistance and short service life.

Device and principle of operation


Structurally, a compression fitting consists of three parts: a base, a clamping nut and a compression ring (cone). The system works according to the collet principle, i.e. in the process of tightening the nut, it presses on the conical ring, which is compressed and securely presses the pipe to the base. It sounds complicated, but it’s actually much simpler. The base has a seat for a hose of a certain diameter. It has rubber pads. The diameter of the seat corresponds to the inner diameter of the hose, the nut has a hole equal to the outer diameter of the pipe.

Assembly order

The fitting is installed on a metal-plastic pipe according to a certain algorithm.

fitting installation

First, a nut is put on the pipe so that the thread is directed towards the base (joint). Next, a compression ring is put on. After that, the pipe is put on the seat. The ferrule is pushed towards the base of the fitting until it is possible to bait the clamping nut onto the threads. At the last stage, using an adjustable wrench, the nut is tightened to the stop.

Important! Over time, the pipe at the fitting installation site may begin to leak, to eliminate the leak, it is necessary to tighten the fitting.

Features of installing a threaded fitting

To connect a metal pipe with a metal-plastic pipe at an angle, a brass fitting with a threaded connection on one side is used. When installing such a fitting, there is a feature that must be considered. It is necessary to start the installation with the installation of a threaded connection, because. otherwise, the connection will fail.

It should be borne in mind that the threaded connection is not always tight, it is better to use sealants or fumlent to prevent leakage.

Another nuance that must be taken into account when installing a fitting is the quality of the edge (installation site) of the pipe. The butt should be straight cut, not bent or stretched.

Advantages and disadvantages of metal crimp connections


Compared to other types of connections, crimp designs have several advantages, the main of which is the possibility of reuse. Due to the fact that the design has a threaded connection and a clamping ring, it is possible to mount and dismantle the fitting almost endlessly.

The main malfunction that may occur due to frequent re-assembly is the rupture of the sealing gum. This is easy to fix by installing a new rubber band from a repair kit that is sold everywhere.

repair kit

The advantages include a high speed of assembly of connections, the possibility of combining. With the help of metal fittings, you can easily lengthen the pipe or repair it at the point of a rupture.

The disadvantage of metal fittings is that they are prone to corrosion. Over time, the connection will rust, rot, and may start to leak. In some cases, pulling the connection nuts will not help eliminate the leak, the fitting will have to be changed.

Another disadvantage of metal compounds is the condensate that accumulates on the surface. When installed in a cold water supply system in conditions of insufficient ventilation, condensate constantly accumulates on the surface, which can drain and accumulate in one place. This phenomenon can lead to a number of negative consequences that can be avoided when using other types of compounds.

Tools required for installation


Installation of metal-plastic pipes with metal compression fittings requires a minimum number of tools. In most cases, two wrenches are required, one for holding the base and one for the nut. In everyday life, it is convenient to use adjustable wrenches, because. they fit any fitting size. It is also necessary to have pipe scissors, with which it is convenient to cut and trim the edges.

Pipe shears

How to choose fittings

The choice of connecting elements for a water pipe depends on its design and specific location, therefore it should be carried out at the planning stage. Having a plan, it is easy to understand what fittings will be needed for the connection, determine the number of corners, diameter.

As a material, it is better to choose brass options, they are cheaper and more practical. If there is no cost limit, then copper can be used, they have a long service life and are resistant to temperature extremes.

In conclusion of the article, I would like to note that a large number of connections for plastic pipes are presented on the construction market, in which you can get confused and buy the wrong thing. Sales consultants who are familiar with the assortment and are familiar with the principles of installing fittings will help you choose the right one.


Choosing a double-circuit gas boiler


Autonomous gas heating will only be effective and economical when all the technical nuances and everyday needs of the inhabitants of the house are taken into account during its design and installation. A gas boiler is a key element of an autonomous heating system, therefore, at the design stage, it is necessary to decide on the type and type of gas heating equipment. Finding out which boiler is better in each case, floor and wall, one-pipe or two-pipe, is a difficult task and deserves a separate article. Let’s try to deal with the situation, how to choose a double-circuit gas boiler for the house, if you decide to stay on units of this particular type.

In this case, you will have to choose according to many criteria. Each aspect has a certain value, plays a corresponding role in the operation of a home heating system. Ultimately, the level of home comfort depends on your choice.

What determines your choice?

If you are the owner of a city apartment or the owner of a small private house, your choice in favor of double-circuit boilers is quite reasonable and obvious. The main aspect that most often determines such a decision is the desire of homeowners to receive several engineering and technical solutions at once, “two in one”, independent heating and hot water supply. Information for the layman on the topic of gas boiler equipment today is provided in a huge amount. Let’s try to figure out what exactly we need, which model to give preference to, and what technical parameters of double-circuit boilers should be paid attention to.

To begin with, it is necessary to clearly outline the range of requirements for an autonomous heating system, which follow from the existing technical living conditions and their own domestic needs. For example:

  • what area of ​​​​your house, apartment, country house requires heating;
  • what are the climatic conditions of your region;
  • at what time of the year the operation of the heating system is most relevant;
  • how long is the heating period for your home;
  • what is the cycle of turning on / off the gas boiler;
  • the actual number of inhabitants of a residential building;
  • the level of domestic comfort in the house, including the intensity of heating, the degree of housing arrangement with external thermal insulation and the possibility of hot water supply;

Having answered these questions, you will already be able to approach the solution of the task in more detail and independently choose the model of a double-circuit gas boiler for your apartment or private house. Often, the choice determines the cost of the units, the methods and conditions for installing gas boilers in specific conditions.


The first thing to pay attention to is whether a double-circuit boiler is suitable for your water supply system. Failures in the operation of the cold water supply system can lead to serious damage to the heating equipment.

Important! When choosing a model of a gas boiler, it is necessary to find out the ability of the structure to respond to changes in operating pressure in the cold water system. Manufacturers usually indicate in the accompanying documentation the minimum threshold for the operating water pressure required to turn on the boiler and its subsequent operation.

Double-circuit boilers are usually used for heating in small residential facilities where hot water supply is not associated with a long pipeline length. An essential point is the number of inhabitants in the house. If several hot water taps are used simultaneously and intensively, there is a high probability that the volume of hot water will be insufficient for domestic needs.

For example: it is better to install a gas boiler in the kitchen or in the bathroom, where there is no need to lay a long water supply pipe. If the hot water pipe is longer than 7 m, the waiting time for hot water to flow from the faucet will be long.


What is a double-circuit gas boiler?

The first thing that captivates you in double-circuit boilers is their compactness. Indeed, in terms of their dimensions, such models simply fit perfectly into the layout of a city apartment, are convenient and practical for installation in a small private house. Having studied in detail the technological capabilities of each model and their functionality, you can choose a gas boiler that best meets your needs and technical requirements.

Most often, double-circuit boilers are mini-boiler rooms equipped with all the functions necessary for domestic use. The wall-mounted option is more practical and convenient. Modern models are able to effectively solve the problem of heating residential premises and provide residents with hot water for household needs. The presence of automation provides a high degree of reliability of the units.

Features of the internal structure and technical parameters of the units

Wall-mounted double-circuit boilers are today the most common type of heating equipment that can be found in a city apartment. In comparison with single-circuit models of boilers, such units are much cheaper. It affects the optimization of all equipment installed inside the structure itself.

For comparison: the lightness of the entire unit is achieved through the use of stainless steel heat exchangers and bimetallic material in the design. Instead of a storage tank for hot water, the design uses a flow-through method of heating. To create the necessary pressure in the system, usually one, less often two circulation pumps are installed. All other structural elements — sensors, automation, main and safety valves, gas burner — are small in size, interact closely with each other and are arranged in a small volume.

The diagram shows the device of a two-pipe domestic gas boiler and the principle of its operation.

The floor boiler is much more powerful and heavier. Cast iron or steel heat exchangers, a storage tank for hot water (boiler with indirect heating) — all this and much more has significant dimensions and weight, which imposes increased requirements on the strength of the floor of the room. To install a floor-standing double-circuit gas boiler, you will need a special place or even a separate room in which there must be a good exhaust hood and a chimney. Such units are usually installed in large country houses, in private residential buildings with two or more floors.

As for the choice of a specific model of a wall-mounted gas boiler, then here, you should not rush. For the efficient operation of gas-heating equipment, thrust is required, due to which the combustion of fuel in the furnace is carried out. Some models are designed for natural draft, others, on the contrary, are equipped with fans for forced ventilation. Comparing both options, there is a lower cost of units with natural draft and an open combustion chamber. On the other hand, in this case, you will need to organize a chimney, which must clearly comply with all technical norms and standards.

On a note: a bulky chimney pipe is not suitable for a city apartment. Which of your neighbors will like the smoke in their apartment from your chimney.

Models with a closed firebox and forced ventilation are more expensive, however, more practical and reliable in operation. For a double-circuit boiler with a closed combustion chamber, a coaxial chimney is installed, which is a compact pipe that acts on the inlet and outlet. Such designs are not overall, do not require much space, and can be installed in a city apartment.

What to look for: with intensive use of hot water in the house, it is better to equip the heating system with a gas boiler with an additional storage tank for hot water. Stock of 50-60 liters. will be appropriate in any situation. The built-in boiler will ensure constant water pressure in the system and maintain the required temperature of hot water.


For gas-heating appliances, one of the most important design elements is automation. Today, not a single model of a gas boiler is produced without automatic control devices for the operation of heating equipment, which can be mechanical or electronic. The choice of equipment in this case is up to the consumer.

Almost all models of foreign manufacturers are equipped with electronic automation devices. This approach makes modern heating equipment high-tech devices capable of operating in various modes and independently monitoring the current state of all elements of a single mechanism. A significant obstacle for many consumers is the cost of such boilers. In some cases, gas boilers equipped with electronics become hostages of the power supply system. No electricity, no heating. Frequent breakdowns and failure of gas boilers with electronics entail additional costs for the repair and maintenance of equipment.

For reference: gas boilers equipped with electronic automation often fail due to a breakdown of the electronic components of the system (every second boiler breaks down due to malfunctions with electronics). Frequent power outages in the network, power surges adversely affect the operation of gas-heating units with electronic automation devices.

Optimal for our conditions will be the option of purchasing a boiler with an independent power supply or with mechanical control devices. Such models are a budget option. In work they are practical and unpretentious.

Boiler power. What to pay attention to?

The key points that influence your choice may be the power of the boiler. Do not immediately dwell on high-power gas two-pipe boilers. The technical progress that we have achieved allows us to produce models designed for different household needs. The main thing is to objectively approach the requirements that you impose on an autonomous heating system. The choice of a double-circuit gas boiler will be successful if you have a ready-made project at hand and you listen to the advice of specialists.

The table clearly shows how you can determine the optimal boiler power in each case.

It should be noted that many owners of apartments and private houses mistakenly approach the issue of determining the optimal power of the heating unit. There was an erroneous idea that all mounted models of double-circuit gas boilers have a power of 24 kW. A detailed acquaintance with the offer on the market will clarify the situation for you. Typically, the power of such models varies between 17-35 kW. A key aspect of determining power is the number of hot water points in the house. It is necessary to select a double-circuit gas boiler taking into account the rule — the more hot water taps, the more boiler power will be required.

For example: private house with an area of ​​200 m2 it will completely heat a double-circuit boiler with a power of 24 kW. However! If the house has two bathrooms, then this capacity will not be enough for normal hot water supply. Therefore, when buying a boiler, it is necessary to take into account the number of hot water intake points.


A third of the total boiler power is spent on heating, that is, 5-10 kW. The remaining kilowatts are used to heat water in the hot water supply system of a residential building. In other words, 30-40% of the boiler power is enough to heat the house, the rest of the power is necessary for the normal operation of the DHW system.

Having settled on the optimal power parameters of a gas boiler, add another 10-20% to this figure, taking into account the heat losses that are inevitable during the operation of an autonomous heating system. In many ways, the amount of heat loss depends on the heat efficiency of a residential facility. Timely work done on the insulation of residential premises in the house or complex insulation of apartments will allow you to bring the operation of the heating equipment to optimal modes.

What should be the heat exchanger in a double-circuit boiler?

Having set out to provide maximum comfort in the apartment, you should not go to extremes and try to buy everything at once. It is important to remember: «better is the main enemy is good.» Modern wall-mounted models of double-circuit boilers are available with two types of heat exchangers:

  • separate products;
  • bithermic devices;

Units with separate products are boilers in which there are two heat exchangers. The main or main heat exchanger is used to heat the coolant in the heating system, while the secondary heat exchanger is designed to heat water in the hot water supply system. In the first type, the main work is carried out to heat the heat exchanger responsible for the operation of the heating system. The secondary heat exchanger is already by indirect heating due to the heated water coolant in the DHW system.

Choosing such a model for yourself, be guided by its rather high cost. The reason for the high price is more individual elements and additional functions.

On a note: A significant advantage of boilers with separate heat exchangers is the absence of scale formation in the heat exchanger, which provides indirect heating. In addition, this scheme completely eliminates the boiling of water in the system.

The second option — boilers with bithermic heat exchangers have dual elements. During the operation of the boiler, simultaneous heating of the heat carrier for heating and water for the DHW system is carried out. Accordingly, in such systems, scale forms faster, the permeability of the coolant and hot water in the pipeline worsens.

We create the necessary level of comfort


The choice of boiler equipment must fully comply with the requirements that are put forward for an autonomous heating system. What can affect the efficiency of a double-circuit boiler? Changes in outdoor temperature depending on the climatic conditions of the region in which you live.

An extensive range of double-circuit boilers allows you to independently determine for yourself which method of controlling gas-heating equipment suits you best. Today, models of units are produced with the following types of power control system:

  • single-stage;
  • two-stage;
  • three-stage.

The most common and popular are models that use a two-stage boiler power adjustment system. It is these boilers that are easy to adapt to seasonal and daily fluctuations in air temperature. The ability to adjust the operation in two modes ensures optimal heating of the coolant in the system, depending on whether it is warm outside or cold. Adjusting the intensity of heating significantly extends the life of the burner and heat exchanger.

Boilers with a single-stage adjustment system are less convenient in operation. Such models are much cheaper, and this, of course, is due to their limited technological capabilities.

Gas boilers equipped with three-stage power adjustment devices are an order of magnitude more perfect than other options. Such units are completely universal and autonomous in operation, however, the high cost limits the popularity of the use of these high-tech devices.

Which manufacturer to choose?

Autonomous heating is not a one-day undertaking. Your comfort depends on the choice of the boiler model, other elements of the system, not only today, but also in subsequent years, so saving on equipment in this case is not worth it. The only way out of this situation is to carefully study the offers on the market and take into account the reputation of manufacturers.

Well-known in the world companies and firms engaged in the production of heating equipment, they try to keep their brand and value their reputation. Models of boilers from leading manufacturers are reliable, practical and easy to use. The insignificant difference in cost is compensated by the absence of problems with the equipment during operation.

However, blindly believing in the reliability of models of foreign manufacturers is not worth it. It is not uncommon for imported equipment to be completely unsuitable for our realities. The quality of the coolant can affect the efficiency of the gas boiler. It is also important to have a repair and maintenance base in your area. Buying a unit for which it is necessary to get components and spare parts for pipes, besides, which will have to be repaired in an artisanal way, is the most ridiculous mistake. Treat your choice responsibly in all aspects! The ideal choice is the purchase of equipment adapted by the manufacturer to Russian conditions.


Comparison of heating in a private and apartment building


When planning the construction of a private house, each of us is faced with a dilemma — which type of heating to give preference to. We are concerned about the issue. How to make your home warm, cozy and comfortable, while managing to save your own money on heating. The types of heating used in a private and multi-apartment building differ from each other and are very diverse. Systems differ both in terms of efficiency and cost of installation and subsequent operation. In each case, the choice remains with the owners of the house, who have to take into account the presence of various factors. The main criteria that the types of heating used in a private house must meet are high efficiency and economy.

Various heating equipment is presented on the domestic market today, starting with gas boilers and units operating on solid fuel and electricity, ending with alternative technical heating options. The variety of options offered can satisfy any consumer, but their use has a number of nuances that must be considered when choosing.

Important! The heating system should provide living quarters with the necessary amount of kilocalories of heat, creating a comfortable microclimate in a city apartment or in a private house.

Habitual for many of us, the option of heating a private house — autonomous gas water heating is the most common today. Heating systems with autonomous gas boilers are also the most acceptable option for an apartment building. High manufacturability, compactness and efficiency of gas heating for a city apartment is not disputed. Another thing is the private sector or the construction of a house in a remote area from the main infrastructure facilities. In such a situation, home owners are forced to think about how to heat their home, what energy source to choose: gas, coal, wood or electricity.

When designing the heating system of a residential building, the following aspects are guided:

  • the feasibility of this type of heating in these conditions;
  • manufacturability of the system, practicality of maintenance and operation;
  • availability of the main components and assemblies of the system for subsequent repair and maintenance;
  • energy costs required for high-quality heating of residential premises of a certain area and size
  • economy and efficiency.

It is necessary to take into account the availability of fuels, connection methods, the climatic conditions in which we live and the very design of a residential building. Heating will only give the desired effect when the building itself will have low heat losses, and the fuel used to heat the boiler will be inexpensive and affordable.

Gas heating is the main heating option for any home.

City apartments, especially in new buildings, today mostly have autonomous gas heating. The centralized hot water supply and batteries, which begin to heat up only during the heating season, are becoming a thing of the past. The organization of heating of apartment buildings using gas is the most practical and technological way to provide heat to large living areas, to create conditions for the individual use of heating devices by a large number of consumers.

Other types of heating used in the house are inappropriate for use in a house with a large number of apartments and in many cases unsafe in terms of manufacturability and fire safety.

The main gas pipeline, as a rule, is a widespread phenomenon in cities and towns. In this situation, the issue with the choice of fuel for heating apartment buildings is not worth it. All other options in such a situation are not even considered. The only possibility that can be used in such cases is the installation of electric heaters as an auxiliary option.

Gas heating is ideal for operation in urban skyscrapers; this type of heating is also convenient for the private sector. The important thing here is that a home gas boiler can always be adjusted to the required mode of operation, creating the optimum temperature in the living room. The operation of autonomous gas heating can be carried out in the mode of daily living, creating a comfortable temperature inside the residential building. If necessary, you can always reduce gas consumption and lower the temperature in the apartment if you are absent or leave your home for a long time.

For a country house, in the absence of a centralized gas supply, the very idea of ​​\u200b\u200bgas heating should not be discounted. By installing a gas storage on your site — a gas tank, you will be able to provide yourself with a sufficient amount of blue fuel for the entire cold period.

With this fuel source you will get:

  • full autonomy of its heating system;
  • environmentally friendly source of heat and hot water in the house;
  • high efficiency of autonomous heating system during the cold period.

Heating the boiler with gas is always the cleanest heating option. The advantages of such a system include clean exhaust, installation and installation of small, compact boilers and chimneys. Today, there are already ready-made installation schemes for autonomous gas heating using a gas tank, tested from an engineering and technical point of view, corresponding to SNiP and other regulatory documents.

For reference: A gas tank installed on the territory of a private household is not a cheap pleasure. Refueling is associated with transportation costs, and installation requires obtaining permits. On top of that, your gas facility and the condition of your heater connections will be constantly inspected by gas service personnel.

In most cases, the choice in favor of gas is explained by the traditional desire of homeowners to protect themselves from unnecessary troubles and worries with the operation of the heating system in the future. The ability to install a gas tank or the presence of a main gas pipeline only contributes to the decision in favor of gas heating. However, the lack of free access to gas forces us to look for other sources of energy, to focus on other types of autonomous heating in a private or country house.

We bet on electricity

Electricity continues to be by far the cleanest form of energy. Given the development of modern infrastructure, today it is difficult to find a settlement, a territory that is not covered by a centralized energy supply system. The main advantages of electricity are the environmental friendliness of this type of energy and availability.

In the absence of gas, electric autonomous heating systems as the main heating method are a convenient, practical and least troublesome option. Electric boilers have the highest efficiency compared to other types of boilers. The ease and simplicity in maintenance of electric heating equipment makes the operation of such a system very convenient for a country house, due to its non-permanent residence.

Important to remember! When making calculations, do not forget that low initial costs for the purchase of electrical equipment, new economical models of boilers and subsequent installation can be misleading. Today, electricity is not the cheapest form of energy, so the subsequent operation of electric heating will significantly affect your budget. Do not discount the periodic shutdowns of centralized power supply systems.

For the normal operation of the electric heating system in the house, you will have to change the wiring, trying to significantly strengthen it. The best option for the normal functioning of an electric boiler with a power exceeding 9 kW would be a three-phase wiring with a voltage of 380V. The cross section of the wire is calculated separately, taking into account its length, material and current strength. In parallel with the use of electric boilers for heating country houses, convectors, infrared emitters, and other household electric heaters are actively used at the household level.

Heating systems of private houses using electricity can be regarded as alternatives to gas heating or as auxiliary options. Connections of alternative and other heat sources are carried out already during the subsequent operation of housing. In most cases, homeowners are already focusing on the economic component of heating in the house or are trying to improve the heating of their homes due to the deteriorating climate situation.

New electric convectors and infrared heating devices have a number of advantages, among which it is worth noting:

  • minimum initial installation costs;
  • high efficiency;
  • elementary operating conditions;
  • operational safety;
  • a minimum of engineering and technical measures for organizing a heating system.

Having listed the pros and cons, it is important to remember the disadvantages of such heating systems. Basically, the disadvantages are associated with the additional costs of reinforcing the wiring and installing additional distribution and control devices in the home electrical network. When installing, use proven wiring diagrams for electric heating.

Alternative options for gas and electric heating systems

Gas and electricity have advantages that are hard to ignore. The advantages of heating systems on gas or using electricity are obvious, but in some cases it is necessary to look for alternative sources of energy supply, to study the technical conditions of other types of home heating.

As an alternative to gas and electricity, there are the following types of heating systems for a private house:

  • liquid fuel heating;
  • solid fuel heating system;
  • combined heating systems for the home;
  • autonomous heating system using a heat pump;
  • solar collectors.

The listed types of heating are effective in their own way for organizing the heating of residential premises. There are both pros and cons to each option. For most residents of city apartments, there are no effective heating systems for an apartment building other than a gas and electric boiler. Connecting other sources of energy supply in a private house is quite acceptable and feasible.

Important! Giving preference to new alternative energy sources, it is necessary to take into account the technological features of residential premises, the size of the house, the intensity of heating and the number of residents. A superficial solution to the problem of heating can lead to unreasonable spending of funds and will not give a tangible effect.

By doing a comparative analysis of the effectiveness of today’s autonomous heating systems, taking into account all the technical nuances and applicability in an apartment or a private house, you can choose the best option for your specific conditions.

The main focus is on the use of certain fuel sources in the long term. Cheap fuel rarely has a good calorific value. The autonomy of the system is also an important factor when choosing the type of fuel. Combining various types of fuel and heating systems into a single complex can solve the problem at a certain stage. Only an accurate calculation will allow you to determine the efficiency of heating in your home.


Grounding a gas boiler: how to do it and why?


Grounding a gas boiler is one of the basic safety requirements that must be met in order to obtain permission from the relevant authorities to operate the heating system.

Why do it?

Grounding a gas or other boiler in a private house is a measure to ensure the safety of the operation of gas equipment, which consists in laying an electrical wire connecting the heating system with a special device — a ground loop.

Grounding functions:

  • in the event of a short circuit of the wiring to the case, the possibility of electric shock to a person when touching the equipment is excluded;
  • static electricity does not accumulate in the system;
  • the influence on the automation of the electromagnetic field is reduced.

In addition to grounding, the gas heating system must be equipped with a backup device for automatically shutting off the gas supply when the electrical wiring is closed.

Important! Grounding is a mandatory measure to ensure the safety of operation of gas equipment, regardless of the planned duration of use of the boiler. In the absence of grounding, a permit for the operation of the heating system will not be issued by the supervisory technical services.

It must be understood that as a result of friction of mechanism parts against each other and gas on the inner surface of the pipes, a static charge accumulates on the system case, which is not only unpleasant when touched, but also is a spark-forming factor and can cause a gas explosion when it leaks. In addition, static electricity interferes with the operation of automation, which, in turn, leads to incorrect operation of the heating system as a whole.

If you are going to make the grounding of a gas boiler yourself, you need to understand that for this you need to have certain knowledge in electrical engineering. If you are not an expert in this area, it is better to contact specialists. This will eliminate doubts about the correct execution and ensure the safety and durability of equipment operation.

Basic Rules

It should be noted right away that higher requirements are imposed on the grounding of a gas boiler than on an identical operating condition for conventional electrical appliances. Therefore, this issue must be taken seriously.

There are several basic ways to create a ground:

  1. Buy a ready-made kit and mount it on site. It contains all the necessary elements. In this case, the installation is simple, and the connection to the boiler does not take long, regardless of whether it is single or double circuit. All you need is a small plot of land — no more than a square meter. Installation is possible near the house or even in the basement.
  2. Make your own grounding element. To do this, you need to have a welding machine, grinder, sledgehammer steel corner 60×60, 75×75 or 80×80 mm and strip steel 3 mm thick.

The grounding check is carried out before turning on the gas boiler by a specialist who understands this issue. He will determine not only the total resistance, but also conduct appropriate tests with soil conductivity.

Control authorities recommend buying ready-made designs in order to definitely not make a mistake. Although, if necessary, everything can be done with your own hands.

How to do it?

Grounding is a connection by an electrical wire of equipment with conductive electrodes of an external grounding circuit, capable of accepting and evenly discharging electric current to the ground in the event of a short circuit in the electrical wiring to the equipment case.

Many, although they know that this is necessary, nevertheless do not understand how to make grounding. At the same time, the work on the installation of grounding is not very laborious and does not require special professional skills.

External circuit device:

  1. Near the wall through which the ground wire will come out, according to the above scheme, markings are made for the structure.
  2. Along the vertices of a conditional triangle, electrode pins from a steel angle, 2-2.5 m long each, are driven into the ground with the help of a sledgehammer, their excess lengths are cut off at ground level. A trench is dug between the clogged pins to a depth of a shovel bayonet, and the rods are connected by electric welding with strip steel so that after filling the trench, the strip is 10-15 cm below ground level. Then another piece is welded to the triangle of strip steel to the wall of the house, and also along a dug trench, a strip is brought to the wall.
  3. The end of the strip is securely attached to the wall or brought into the house through the hole made, and the equipment ground wire is connected to it.


During the performance of work with your own hands, it is necessary to take into account the requirements that are set by the relevant authorities:

  1. drag coefficient. It can vary from 10 to 50 ohms — it all depends on the ground. In ordinary soil, regulatory organizations allow an indicator of 10 ohms.
  2. Conductivity. For normal soil, no more than 50 ohms are allowed.

Important! Resistance coefficient measurements can be carried out according to different documents. It is best to know in advance what standards will be assessed.

The measurement of ground resistance for a gas boiler is carried out with special devices of various modifications. They are relatively inexpensive. If your profession is not related to electricity, it is better to entrust the control measurement of resistance to a professional. It makes no sense to acquire and master the device because of a one-time need.

After the installation, connection and self-testing has passed, you can call the inspector for professional diagnostics and entering the device into the register. The inspector’s remarks are binding and postpone the commissioning of the system until they are corrected. It should be remembered that the supervisory participation of the inspector in assessing the condition of the installed gas equipment is, first of all, a guarantee of your personal safety and the safety of others, not to mention ensuring the durability of an expensive heating system.


The main steps and recommendations for installing roof ventilation pipes


A necessary condition for comfort in a private house is the creation of reliable ventilation. With proper design, the main problem will only be the installation and fastening of ventilation pipes on the roof. Its methods depend on the characteristics of the duct itself and on the external covering of the roof.

General view of the ventilation pipes on the roof of the house

Functional purpose and technological features

The task of any ventilation system is to maintain the freshness of the atmosphere in the house, remove odors and substances that do not meet sanitary standards. Forced ventilation is rarely used in residential buildings. And for the proper operation of the natural movement of air, it is necessary to create good traction in the outlet air line. It is ensured by the optimal location of the outlet pipe above the roof and the correct calculation of its height.

Full ventilation of the house should perform the following tasks:

  • ventilation of all rooms in the building;
  • air removal from household appliances (gas stoves and boilers);
  • ventilation of the sewer line.

It is optimal for each task to create a separate ventilation circuit with its own exit to the roof.

House ventilation functions

Varieties of ventilation pipes and requirements for them


Air ducts located inside the house and outside are exposed to completely different influences during operation. The main requirements are imposed for the final ventilation sections facing the roof of the building. They must meet the following conditions:

  • passage section not less than 150 mm in diameter;
  • smooth inner surfaces that do not impede the movement of air;
  • structural rigidity to withstand wind loads and the severity of snow in winter;
  • at the same time with strength, have a low weight to ensure ease of installation and not load the roof structure;
  • resistance to corrosion both outside and inside;
  • fire safety.

Most of these requirements are met by ventilation pipes made of various plastics or galvanized iron. But each material has its own characteristics, pros and cons.

Plastic air ducts

Their main advantages:

  • complete absence of a corrosive component,
  • ease of processing during installation — cutting of plastic of any section with a conventional hacksaw is allowed;
  • the absence of seams from welding ensures the smoothness of the entire inner surface,
  • low cost.

A significant drawback of plastic pipelines is their low resistance to fire, which affects the fire safety of the entire structure.

Elements of plastic ventilation pipes

Galvanized air ducts

Their popularity is not inferior to polymer options due to the following advantages:

  • small wall thickness (0.5 — 1.2 mm);
  • mechanical strength ensures the reliability of external elements;
  • high strength/weight ratio;
  • variety of shapes and sections;
  • availability of additional shaped elements of any configuration.
Galvanized ventilation pipe on the roof

Section shape


According to this parameter, ventilation pipes are:

  • round;
  • rectangular;
  • non-standard section.

Rectangular shapes are considered more convenient when forming a passage through the roof. The original shape can provide additional strength. But for the unhindered passage of air, the round duct remains the best.

Ventilation pipes with reinforced rigidity are made of galvanized steel using spiral wound technology. With the same dimensions, they can withstand much greater loads. But their shape can only be round.

Determination of outlet points for ventilation pipes

In many ways, they depend on the location of the air ducts inside the house. If possible, the location of the outlets of the ventilation pipes on the roof should coincide with the internal air duct risers. The outer end section of the ventilation itself must be directed vertically. But at the same time, it is desirable to design an exit near the roof ridge. With this arrangement, a minimum height of the outer part will be required. Therefore, the main air duct will be under the roof and will be protected from frost, snow and gusts of wind. And the whole structure will become more stable. An additional condition is the location next to the rafter beam. It will become an additional support to which the duct will be attached.

Fastening ventilation pipes to rafters

If the exit point is away from the supporting beams of the roof, then you will have to create a crate in the attic area through which the pipe will pass. And on the roof itself, install additional fastening elements to the roof.

Strengthening the duct on the roof with braces

Ventilation pipe height above different roof


This parameter largely determines the traction force in the entire system. The higher the upper part of the outdoor duct is located, the greater the exhaust efficiency will be. But too high a pipe is exposed to excessive wind loads. Therefore, there are norms and recommendations to ensure the optimal ratio of reliable traction and structural stability.

Flat roofs are usually not built over residential buildings. But such a calculation may be needed when installing garage ventilation. In this case, it is recommended to install a pipe at least 50 cm above the roof surface.

For a sloping roof, the required size is determined depending on the distance of the outlet riser from the roof ridge.

  • At a distance of less than 1.5 meters from it, the height above the roof must be at least 50 cm.
  • When removed within 1.5 — 3 m, the upper edge of the pipe must be at the level of the ridge or higher.
  • To calculate the height of a pipe installed at a distance of 3 meters or more, a little geometry is required. An imaginary line is drawn from the very top of the roof at an angle of 10 — 12 ° to the horizon. The top edge of the duct must be above it.

An additional factor may be the location of the ventilation riser near the chimney. In this case, the upper edge of the pipe must not be placed below it. Otherwise, with an unfavorable wind, smoke may enter the house back through the ventilation.

Roof mounting features

Main installation steps:

  • cutting holes in the roof for ventilation;
  • fixing the sealing gasket;
  • installation of the passage node;
  • removal of the pipe to the roof;
  • fixing it in the passage element;
  • sealing of the entire joint.

The set of fasteners and auxiliary elements depends on the material of the pipe and roofing. If the roof is insulated, then you will have to cut it through the entire depth of the roofing pie and install a passage element of the appropriate length.

Ventilation pipes are installed on a roof made of metal tiles using a flexible sheet of the appropriate profile. Only such fastening will provide reliable sealing.

But for any installation method, a set of parts and tools is required:

  • jigsaw for cutting holes in the roof;
  • scissors for metal or a hacksaw for plastic pipes;
  • level to determine the vertical;
  • sealing gasket, sealing cover or curved sheet for metal tiles and ondulin;
  • a passage element fixed in the roof;
  • drill;
  • self-tapping screws;
  • sealant.
Fixing the ventilation pipe to the roof


In conclusion, it is necessary to check the stability of the entire structure. If necessary, carry out additional strengthening. In the under-roof space — on brackets attached to a beam or crate. On the roof itself — braces.

Improving the performance of the ventilation system

The best way is to create forced air flow with roof fans. But it is very expensive and difficult.

At the same time, passive additions to the pipe can lead to improved air movement. Here is some of them:

  • Deflector. Special nozzle on the top of the ventilation pipe. Its internal structure under the action of the wind creates an area of ​​low pressure at the very outlet of the duct. This results in increased traction.
    Roof deflector


  • Protective caps and drippers. They are attached to the top of the ventilation pipe and prevent atmospheric precipitation from getting inside it. The absence of moisture in the system maintains its performance and reduces the risk of corrosion.
  • Roof aerators. Devices designed to improve ventilation in the gap between the roof itself and its thermal insulation. They do not directly affect the microclimate in the house, but they prevent the formation of condensate.

Practice shows that moisture protection and the installation of a deflector can increase the draft in the ventilation pipe by 10 — 30% in different weather conditions.

The main mistakes in the installation of ventilation

A typical mistake is to incorrectly determine the necessary stability of the entire ventilation riser. Fixing the pipe only on the upper part of the roof, without relying on rafters or another element of the crate, does not ensure the reliability of the structure.

It is necessary to calculate the ventilation output on the roof immediately, taking into account additional nozzles and devices. They not only increase the weight of the pipe, but also create additional windage during gusts of wind. Therefore, they need a certain margin of structural stability.

Sealing the passage of the pipeline through the roof must be carried out not only outside, but on the inside of the roof.

A serious mistake is unsystematic ventilation in the interior. Any additional turn of the line or an extra joint leads to a decrease in traction in the system and to a decrease in its efficiency.