Increasingly, old cast-iron sewer pipes are being replaced with new ones made of PVC. Polyvinyl chloride is a modern material, best suited for laying and installing pipes for water supply and sewerage.
To create an internal sewage system, products made from high-quality material are used in the factory, where the necessary production control measures are carried out. Fittings, fasteners and structural elements of the PVC system are designed for installation of external sewerage of a gravity system for transporting wastewater at a maximum temperature of up to 60°C for 2 minutes. Permissible water supply temperature up to 100 degrees.
Technical characteristics of PVC products
Polyvinyl chloride products are made from thermoplastic, which retains its properties and shape even after heat treatment. The main components used in production are ethylene and stabilized chlorine. In addition to them, stabilizers are used, as well as additives to improve the quality of technical characteristics.
Main technical indicators:
- Density — 1.4 kg / m3.
- The fluidity limit of the liquid is 50–56 MPa.
- Thermal conductivity — 0.15–0.25 W / m.
- Tensile strength — 30–50 MPa.
- Installation at extreme temperatures of plastic sewer pipes — from ‑5°C to +90°C.
- Plasticity and maximum bending radius — at 20°C — 300mm.
Due to its excellent characteristics, PVC products have gained particular popularity among builders. Plastic products have a number of distinctive advantages:
- Light weight.
- Resistant to the appearance of blockages, the growth of dirt on the walls.
- Not subject to corrosive processes.
- Convenient to assemble. Therefore, the installation of sewage from plastic pipes can be done by hand.
- Strong and durable. The service life of the pipeline with the condition of proper laying is 80 years.
- Resistant to acids, alkaline substances.
- Low price.
- High internal pressure range, depending on wall thickness and pipe diameter.
- A wide selection of elements, as well as fasteners, allowing you to create a design of any complexity.
There is a small drawback — plastic does not tolerate high temperatures, so this material is not suitable for creating heating systems. But he shows himself perfectly when creating sewers:
The names quite accurately reflect the essence of the design. It is possible to lay sewer pipes of these systems in a private house and in an apartment. To create a reliable drainpipe, you need to know the installation rules, the nuances of its construction.
Laying sewerage in a private house
The fundamental difference between sewerage and plumbing is the thickness of the walls. There is no great pressure in the sewer system, pressure surges, so the walls are chosen thinner. For owners of cottages or private houses, sewerage installation is divided into two parts: internal and external.
Features of the internal design
For internal work, products of small diameter 50, 100 and 110 mm are used. The widest is used when laying a drain from the toilet to the collector. To connect other plumbing fixtures, a diameter of 50 mm is sufficient. When arranging the internal system, you must follow the rules:
- The width of the fan pipe should not be less than the main main branch.
- The connection of branches adjacent horizontally is carried out only using beveled tees.
- Draw up a design scheme, work should be carried out where it will be more convenient. The location should take into account accessibility for repairs in the event of an emergency. Most often this is the basement.
- The main part of the structure is assembled in the warm part, the final part is taken out into the street.
- A mandatory requirement is the presence of a protective, exhaust valve.
- Turns must be equipped with revisions — this is access to the inside of the structure. It is necessary, since it is in these places that the most problematic situations happen.
- Particular attention should be paid to the installation of the fan pipe.
- Sewerage is installed at an angle of 45 degrees.
- The exit to the street must be securely sealed.
After clarification of all the subtleties, you can proceed to the assembly of the internal sewage system. To do this, you need to prepare the tools:
Preparation begins with marking the circuit from the entrance of the tee to the riser to all plumbing fixtures. Marks are set taking into account the required slope. Clamps for attaching sewer pipes to walls and ceilings are installed according to the diameter.
A feature of the internal wiring of the sewerage system is gravity. Wastewater flows down by gravity according to the laws of physics. Therefore, the assembly is carried out under a slope of 1–1.5 degrees. Another important point is the selection of the diameter of prefabricated elements:
- For the riser and corrugations under the toilet choose a diameter of 100mm.
- For laying the line to the bathroom and sink — 50mm.
- Drainage from household appliances (washing machine) — 32 mm.
After fitting all the structural elements, they proceed directly to laying. The algorithm of actions will be as follows:
- The inner surface is ground to a state of slight roughness. This will provide better adhesion of the material.
- Degrease the edges of the parts with methylene chloride.
- Elements are glued together. For this, a swab or brush is used, with which a small layer of glue is applied to the inside of the socket, and a thick layer is applied to the outer connecting surface.
- The fitting is put on so that the marks correspond to the dimensions of the markup. Next, the details unfold according to the marks. They must match with each other. They are held in this position for about 30 seconds.
- The joint is coated with sealant or glue.
According to this scheme, the whole structure is assembled. If you have a soldering iron, then you can connect plastic pipes with it, but the joints must be treated with sealant. It will take no more than 3 hours to assemble the entire sewer system, subject to all the rules. This scheme also applies to installing drainage in an apartment with your own hands.
Building an external system
For the installation of an external drainage system, orange pipes are used. Coloring in this case indicates the use of these products exclusively outside the premises.
To arrange a place for laying a drain, a pillow of sand and gravel is created. The height of such a blanket is not more than 200 mm. The creation of such a gasket is carried out under the pipes and on top of them. First, sand is poured, then rubble. The order of laying should not be violated.
Sewerage is laid in specially prepared trenches. If the trench height is insufficient, the system may freeze. Therefore, you need to know how deep to bury the plastic sewer pipe. To determine this parameter, there are mandatory requirements:
- The path of the system must lie below the freezing level of the soil. This figure will vary by region. In the European part, this figure is 80 cm.
- At the entrance to the septic tank or sewage pit, the level drops to a mark of 100 cm.
- The depth of the trench at the exit under the foundation is 50 cm, provided that the wastewater temperature is above 15 degrees.
If it is not possible to lay the system at a given depth, the pipes are insulated with insulators or a heating cable. They will help keep the heat inside the system and will not protect the liquid from freezing and creating ice plugs.
Installation of sewer pipes is carried out as follows:
- The pipe is inserted into a special sleeve in the foundation.
- The processed edges with lubricant, with the established rubber sealant, are joined among themselves against the stop. The entrance of the end of the socket is carried out at 40–45 mm. It is undesirable to use silicone grease in this case in order to prevent rubber delamination.
- The drainage system is laid on a flat surface without displacement. If a change in direction is required, bends are used. A revision is installed on each branch.
- If the site is flat, but its length is over 20 meters, the installation of a well will also be required.
- The sewer system is led to a cesspool, septic tank or well. In this place, treatment stations are connected to obtain industrial water. It is convenient to use for hydroponic installation or cleaning the area.
- Further, the entire system is checked for leaks and tightness of the joints.
- Thermal insulation is laid on the assembled structure and covered with sand.
The bell-shaped method is used to connect pipes. It is unacceptable to assemble a structure from elements from various materials. Since they have different coefficients of thermal conductivity. Temperature fluctuations can deform the system and create leaks on the line.
How to check the system for leaks
Any assembled structure requires testing and verification of its functionality. The installed sewer system is tested according to the following algorithm:
- For the internal system, a 10 liter bucket is used. It is taken full and abruptly thrown into the sink to create the maximum volume of liquid in the sewer and pressure on the walls of the pipes. For the reliability of the tests, water transfusion is used several times in a row.
- Throughout the entire structure, all available plumbing fixtures are turned on to create maximum load along the entire length of the system. To do this, open all the taps, turn on the drain of the toilet and washing machine. Such a check will allow you to identify leaks, find out the throughput, and evaluate the tightness of the joints.
- If a problem is identified, it is fixed immediately. To do this, the place of leakage is disassembled and reassembled, paying special attention to the quality of the assembly and the tightness of the joints.
- If the problem reappears, the joint is additionally treated with silicone sealant. After drying, the test must be repeated.
If no new leaks are detected, the structure is ready for operation.
Assembling the sewer yourself is a laborious process, but it does not require special physical costs. The main thing for the master is the correct and high-quality connection of all structural elements. The most expensive part will be with digging a trench and laying an external system.
Provided that the instructions and recommendations for assembly, proper slope and quality work are followed, the process of arranging the sewer will not cause any special difficulties, and your system will work smoothly for many years.