Basic rules for installing sewerage from plastic pipes with your own hands

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Increas­ing­ly, old cast-iron sew­er pipes are being replaced with new ones made of PVC. Polyvinyl chlo­ride is a mod­ern mate­r­i­al, best suit­ed for lay­ing and installing pipes for water sup­ply and sew­er­age.

To cre­ate an inter­nal sewage sys­tem, prod­ucts made from high-qual­i­ty mate­r­i­al are used in the fac­to­ry, where the nec­es­sary pro­duc­tion con­trol mea­sures are car­ried out. Fit­tings, fas­ten­ers and struc­tur­al ele­ments of the PVC sys­tem are designed for instal­la­tion of exter­nal sew­er­age of a grav­i­ty sys­tem for trans­port­ing waste­water at a max­i­mum tem­per­a­ture of up to 60°C for 2 min­utes. Per­mis­si­ble water sup­ply tem­per­a­ture up to 100 degrees.

Arrange­ment of sew­er­age in a pri­vate house

Technical characteristics of PVC products

Polyvinyl chlo­ride prod­ucts are made from ther­mo­plas­tic, which retains its prop­er­ties and shape even after heat treat­ment. The main com­po­nents used in pro­duc­tion are eth­yl­ene and sta­bi­lized chlo­rine. In addi­tion to them, sta­bi­liz­ers are used, as well as addi­tives to improve the qual­i­ty of tech­ni­cal char­ac­ter­is­tics.

Main tech­ni­cal indi­ca­tors:

  • Den­si­ty — 1.4 kg / m3.
  • The flu­id­i­ty lim­it of the liq­uid is 50–56 MPa.
  • Ther­mal con­duc­tiv­i­ty — 0.15–0.25 W / m.
  • Ten­sile strength — 30–50 MPa.
  • Instal­la­tion at extreme tem­per­a­tures of plas­tic sew­er pipes — from ‑5°C to +90°C.
  • Plas­tic­i­ty and max­i­mum bend­ing radius — at 20°C — 300mm.
Vari­eties of pre­fab­ri­cat­ed ele­ments for PVC sew­er­age

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Due to its excel­lent char­ac­ter­is­tics, PVC prod­ucts have gained par­tic­u­lar pop­u­lar­i­ty among builders. Plas­tic prod­ucts have a num­ber of dis­tinc­tive advan­tages:

  • Light weight.
  • Resis­tant to the appear­ance of block­ages, the growth of dirt on the walls.
  • Not sub­ject to cor­ro­sive process­es.
  • Con­ve­nient to assem­ble. There­fore, the instal­la­tion of sewage from plas­tic pipes can be done by hand.
  • Strong and durable. The ser­vice life of the pipeline with the con­di­tion of prop­er lay­ing is 80 years.
  • Resis­tant to acids, alka­line sub­stances.
  • Low price.
  • High inter­nal pres­sure range, depend­ing on wall thick­ness and pipe diam­e­ter.
  • A wide selec­tion of ele­ments, as well as fas­ten­ers, allow­ing you to cre­ate a design of any com­plex­i­ty.
Plas­tic ele­ments, adapters

There is a small draw­back — plas­tic does not tol­er­ate high tem­per­a­tures, so this mate­r­i­al is not suit­able for cre­at­ing heat­ing sys­tems. But he shows him­self per­fect­ly when cre­at­ing sew­ers:

  • inter­nal;
  • out­door;
  • pres­sure;
  • grav­i­ty.

The names quite accu­rate­ly reflect the essence of the design. It is pos­si­ble to lay sew­er pipes of these sys­tems in a pri­vate house and in an apart­ment. To cre­ate a reli­able drain­pipe, you need to know the instal­la­tion rules, the nuances of its con­struc­tion.

Laying sewerage in a private house

The fun­da­men­tal dif­fer­ence between sew­er­age and plumb­ing is the thick­ness of the walls. There is no great pres­sure in the sew­er sys­tem, pres­sure surges, so the walls are cho­sen thin­ner. For own­ers of cot­tages or pri­vate hous­es, sew­er­age instal­la­tion is divid­ed into two parts: inter­nal and exter­nal.

Sew­er­age in the room

Features of the internal design

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For inter­nal work, prod­ucts of small diam­e­ter 50, 100 and 110 mm are used. The widest is used when lay­ing a drain from the toi­let to the col­lec­tor. To con­nect oth­er plumb­ing fix­tures, a diam­e­ter of 50 mm is suf­fi­cient. When arrang­ing the inter­nal sys­tem, you must fol­low the rules:

  • The width of the fan pipe should not be less than the main main branch.
  • The con­nec­tion of branch­es adja­cent hor­i­zon­tal­ly is car­ried out only using beveled tees.
  • Draw up a design scheme, work should be car­ried out where it will be more con­ve­nient. The loca­tion should take into account acces­si­bil­i­ty for repairs in the event of an emer­gency. Most often this is the base­ment.
  • The main part of the struc­ture is assem­bled in the warm part, the final part is tak­en out into the street.
  • A manda­to­ry require­ment is the pres­ence of a pro­tec­tive, exhaust valve.
  • Turns must be equipped with revi­sions — this is access to the inside of the struc­ture. It is nec­es­sary, since it is in these places that the most prob­lem­at­ic sit­u­a­tions hap­pen.
  • Par­tic­u­lar atten­tion should be paid to the instal­la­tion of the fan pipe.
  • Sew­er­age is installed at an angle of 45 degrees.
  • The exit to the street must be secure­ly sealed.
Instal­la­tion of a drain with a con­clu­sion under the toi­let

After clar­i­fi­ca­tion of all the sub­tleties, you can pro­ceed to the assem­bly of the inter­nal sewage sys­tem. To do this, you need to pre­pare the tools:

Prepa­ra­tion begins with mark­ing the cir­cuit from the entrance of the tee to the ris­er to all plumb­ing fix­tures. Marks are set tak­ing into account the required slope. Clamps for attach­ing sew­er pipes to walls and ceil­ings are installed accord­ing to the diam­e­ter.

A fea­ture of the inter­nal wiring of the sew­er­age sys­tem is grav­i­ty. Waste­water flows down by grav­i­ty accord­ing to the laws of physics. There­fore, the assem­bly is car­ried out under a slope of 1–1.5 degrees. Anoth­er impor­tant point is the selec­tion of the diam­e­ter of pre­fab­ri­cat­ed ele­ments:

  • For the ris­er and cor­ru­ga­tions under the toi­let choose a diam­e­ter of 100mm.
  • For lay­ing the line to the bath­room and sink — 50mm.
  • Drainage from house­hold appli­ances (wash­ing machine) — 32 mm.
Plas­tic pipes of dif­fer­ent diam­e­ters

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After fit­ting all the struc­tur­al ele­ments, they pro­ceed direct­ly to lay­ing. The algo­rithm of actions will be as fol­lows:

  • The inner sur­face is ground to a state of slight rough­ness. This will pro­vide bet­ter adhe­sion of the mate­r­i­al.
  • Degrease the edges of the parts with meth­yl­ene chlo­ride.
  • Ele­ments are glued togeth­er. For this, a swab or brush is used, with which a small lay­er of glue is applied to the inside of the sock­et, and a thick lay­er is applied to the out­er con­nect­ing sur­face.
  • The fit­ting is put on so that the marks cor­re­spond to the dimen­sions of the markup. Next, the details unfold accord­ing to the marks. They must match with each oth­er. They are held in this posi­tion for about 30 sec­onds.
  • The joint is coat­ed with sealant or glue.
Con­nect­ing plas­tic ele­ments with glue

Accord­ing to this scheme, the whole struc­ture is assem­bled. If you have a sol­der­ing iron, then you can con­nect plas­tic pipes with it, but the joints must be treat­ed with sealant. It will take no more than 3 hours to assem­ble the entire sew­er sys­tem, sub­ject to all the rules. This scheme also applies to installing drainage in an apart­ment with your own hands.

Building an external system

For the instal­la­tion of an exter­nal drainage sys­tem, orange pipes are used. Col­or­ing in this case indi­cates the use of these prod­ucts exclu­sive­ly out­side the premis­es.

To arrange a place for lay­ing a drain, a pil­low of sand and grav­el is cre­at­ed. The height of such a blan­ket is not more than 200 mm. The cre­ation of such a gas­ket is car­ried out under the pipes and on top of them. First, sand is poured, then rub­ble. The order of lay­ing should not be vio­lat­ed.

Wiring of exter­nal sew­er­age in a pri­vate house

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Sew­er­age is laid in spe­cial­ly pre­pared trench­es. If the trench height is insuf­fi­cient, the sys­tem may freeze. There­fore, you need to know how deep to bury the plas­tic sew­er pipe. To deter­mine this para­me­ter, there are manda­to­ry require­ments:

  • The path of the sys­tem must lie below the freez­ing lev­el of the soil. This fig­ure will vary by region. In the Euro­pean part, this fig­ure is 80 cm.
  • At the entrance to the sep­tic tank or sewage pit, the lev­el drops to a mark of 100 cm.
  • The depth of the trench at the exit under the foun­da­tion is 50 cm, pro­vid­ed that the waste­water tem­per­a­ture is above 15 degrees.

If it is not pos­si­ble to lay the sys­tem at a giv­en depth, the pipes are insu­lat­ed with insu­la­tors or a heat­ing cable. They will help keep the heat inside the sys­tem and will not pro­tect the liq­uid from freez­ing and cre­at­ing ice plugs.

Trench lay­ing of drainage from the house

Instal­la­tion of sew­er pipes is car­ried out as fol­lows:

  • The pipe is insert­ed into a spe­cial sleeve in the foun­da­tion.
  • The processed edges with lubri­cant, with the estab­lished rub­ber sealant, are joined among them­selves against the stop. The entrance of the end of the sock­et is car­ried out at 40–45 mm. It is unde­sir­able to use sil­i­cone grease in this case in order to pre­vent rub­ber delam­i­na­tion.
  • The drainage sys­tem is laid on a flat sur­face with­out dis­place­ment. If a change in direc­tion is required, bends are used. A revi­sion is installed on each branch.
  • If the site is flat, but its length is over 20 meters, the instal­la­tion of a well will also be required.
  • The sew­er sys­tem is led to a cesspool, sep­tic tank or well. In this place, treat­ment sta­tions are con­nect­ed to obtain indus­tri­al water. It is con­ve­nient to use for hydro­pon­ic instal­la­tion or clean­ing the area.
  • Fur­ther, the entire sys­tem is checked for leaks and tight­ness of the joints.
  • Ther­mal insu­la­tion is laid on the assem­bled struc­ture and cov­ered with sand.
Drain out­let through the foun­da­tion

The bell-shaped method is used to con­nect pipes. It is unac­cept­able to assem­ble a struc­ture from ele­ments from var­i­ous mate­ri­als. Since they have dif­fer­ent coef­fi­cients of ther­mal con­duc­tiv­i­ty. Tem­per­a­ture fluc­tu­a­tions can deform the sys­tem and cre­ate leaks on the line.

How to check the system for leaks

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Any assem­bled struc­ture requires test­ing and ver­i­fi­ca­tion of its func­tion­al­i­ty. The installed sew­er sys­tem is test­ed accord­ing to the fol­low­ing algo­rithm:

  • For the inter­nal sys­tem, a 10 liter buck­et is used. It is tak­en full and abrupt­ly thrown into the sink to cre­ate the max­i­mum vol­ume of liq­uid in the sew­er and pres­sure on the walls of the pipes. For the reli­a­bil­i­ty of the tests, water trans­fu­sion is used sev­er­al times in a row.
  • Through­out the entire struc­ture, all avail­able plumb­ing fix­tures are turned on to cre­ate max­i­mum load along the entire length of the sys­tem. To do this, open all the taps, turn on the drain of the toi­let and wash­ing machine. Such a check will allow you to iden­ti­fy leaks, find out the through­put, and eval­u­ate the tight­ness of the joints.
  • If a prob­lem is iden­ti­fied, it is fixed imme­di­ate­ly. To do this, the place of leak­age is dis­as­sem­bled and reassem­bled, pay­ing spe­cial atten­tion to the qual­i­ty of the assem­bly and the tight­ness of the joints.
  • If the prob­lem reap­pears, the joint is addi­tion­al­ly treat­ed with sil­i­cone sealant. After dry­ing, the test must be repeat­ed.
Spe­cial device for detect­ing leaks

If no new leaks are detect­ed, the struc­ture is ready for oper­a­tion.

Conclusion

Assem­bling the sew­er your­self is a labo­ri­ous process, but it does not require spe­cial phys­i­cal costs. The main thing for the mas­ter is the cor­rect and high-qual­i­ty con­nec­tion of all struc­tur­al ele­ments. The most expen­sive part will be with dig­ging a trench and lay­ing an exter­nal sys­tem.

Pro­vid­ed that the instruc­tions and rec­om­men­da­tions for assem­bly, prop­er slope and qual­i­ty work are fol­lowed, the process of arrang­ing the sew­er will not cause any spe­cial dif­fi­cul­ties, and your sys­tem will work smooth­ly for many years.

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