Cast iron accordion

Cast iron radi­a­tors: Goth­ic 2 (Beau­mont Cast Iron) (a), antique, and durable 2K60P (“Min­sk Heat­ing Equip­ment Plant”) (b)

Pho­to by D. Minkin
Best­seller of the times of the Europe- cast iron sec­tion­al radi­a­tor series MC-140. Per­haps these mod­els heat your apart­ment as well.

Devices “Clas­sic” (Knner) are primed at the fac­to­ry to facil­i­tate sub­se­quent paint­ing

A new gen­er­a­tion of pow­er­ful domes­tic cast-iron heaters: MS-110–300 (a) and MS-110P-500 (b) (“San­tehlit”)

Cast iron radi­a­tors “Mod­ern” (a) and “Olympic” (b) are not infe­ri­or to alu­minum in design and sur­pass them in dura­bil­i­ty (Kner)

Pho­to by V. Nefe­dov
A room with a bay win­dow in a coun­try house was orig­i­nal­ly heat­ed by con­vec­tors. How­ev­er, they did not effec­tive­ly heat the low­er zone of the room. The prob­lem was solved after the place of the con­vec­tors in the win­dow sill nich­es was occu­pied by cast-iron sec­tion­al radi­a­tors

LBT (Biasi) (a) and Neo Cla­si­co (Roca) (b)

Styl series radi­a­tors (Viadrus) fit per­fect­ly into the inte­ri­or of a mod­ern home. ATthe appear­ance of these devices suc­cess­ful­ly com­bines smooth curves and sharp cor­ners, which gives the heaters a unique charm

Fea­ture Radi­a­tors
Valves mount­ed at the out­let, dec­o­rate the device, sim­pli­fy its main­te­nance

Fea­ture Radi­a­tors
At the entrance to the cast-iron radi­a­tor, a beau­ti­ful valve is often placed to man­u­al­ly adjust the heat trans­fer.

DemirDkm tints cast iron radi­a­tors with col­ored epoxy enam­els

Fin­ish­ing of instru­ment sec­tions Roco­co Clas­sique (Beau­mont Cast Iron) is car­ried out man­u­al­ly. Cop­per (a) and Bur­nished Cast Iron (b)- two out of ten pos­si­ble fin­ish­es

Retro radi­a­tors (DemirDkm) have been on sale for years. The work­ing pres­sure of these devices is 0.9 MPa, and the war­ran­ty peri­od is- 10 years

The appear­ance of cast iron heaters of the Epoca series from Roca (a) and Flo­re­al by Chappee (b)- beyond praise


The sur­faces of cast-iron radi­a­tors, made by artis­tic cast­ing, are dec­o­rat­ed with grace­ful pat­terns.

In EU and the CIS coun­tries, cast-iron sec­tion­al radi­a­tors heat about 50% of apart­ments and coun­try hous­es. ATRecent­ly, many new mod­els have appeared on sale, fea­tur­ing an inter­est­ing design, com­pact­ness and increased strength. Othem and will be dis­cussed.

In a build­ing mate­ri­als store, a cast-iron radi­a­tor can be bought for just 1–2thou­sandrub. They also sell elite mod­els made by the method of artis­tic cast­ing (though, main­ly by pre-orders). Some­times you have to wait 2–3 for their deliv­erymonths, and the cost of each such device reach­es sev­er­al tens of thou­sands of rubles.

By design, bud­get and elite radi­a­tors are very sim­i­lar. They usu­al­ly con­sist of one or more colum­nar ele­ments.- sec­tions made in iron foundries from gray cast iron, with round or ellip­ti­cal chan­nels. When assem­bling the device, the sec­tions are con­nect­ed using nip­ples, alter­nat­ing with seal­ing gas­kets made of heat-resis­tant rub­ber, paronite or oth­er mate­r­i­al.

The num­ber of sec­tions in the radi­a­tor is select­ed based on heat needs- depends on the width of the device. Their height can be 350‑1500mm, depth (con­struc­tion)- 65–500mm or more. ATIn rooms, radi­a­tors are usu­al­ly locat­ed under the win­dows, on brack­ets attached to the wall. Atsome mod­els have feet for floor mount­ing.

Advantages and disadvantages

Pig-iron radi­a­tors reg­u­lar­ly heat both res­i­den­tial and util­i­ty rooms of var­i­ous heights. The rat­ed heat out­put of each sec­tion is approx­i­mate­ly 100–300Tue About 35% of the total heat flow from the sur­face of the heat­ing device enters the rooms in the form of long-wave ther­mal radi­a­tion (as from a fire or hearth), the rest 65%- due to con­vec­tion (the air near the sec­tions heats up and ris­es, it is replaced by a cool­er andt.d.). Due to ther­mal radi­a­tion, cast-iron radi­a­tors even­ly heat the low­er part of the room where there are peo­ple and fur­ni­ture. BUTmod­er­ate con­vec­tive flow does not gen­er­al­ly increase the tem­per­a­ture near the ceil­ing exces­sive­ly (which is often the case with con­vec­tors).

High cor­ro­sion resis­tance of cast iron as a struc­tur­al mate­r­i­al- guar­an­tee of dura­bil­i­ty of the radi­a­tors made of it. Man­u­fac­tur­ers, out of cau­tion, assure that the ser­vice life of these devices is 10–50years. How­ev­er, in real­i­ty, this is not the lim­it for good cast iron.- he is quite capa­ble of cen­ten­ni­al ther­mal marathons. ATPre-rev­o­lu­tion­ary cast-iron radi­a­tors still work in some hous­es of both Euro­pean cap­i­tals, and the own­ers of the apart­ments in which they are installed do not intend to refuse the ser­vices of such “dinosaurs” of the heat­ing world.

Prac­tice shows that even the con­stant pres­ence of a hot aggres­sive coolant from open heat­ing sys­tems sup­plied to hous­es from a ther­mal pow­er plant through many kilo­me­ters of heat­ing mains does not cause much harm to cast-iron sec­tion­al radi­a­tors. In terms of its chem­i­cal com­po­si­tion, this mois­ture is often akin to alka­li.- its pH is 9.5–10.5, and some­times more. ATsuch a coolant is usu­al­ly a lot of all sorts of garbage- sand, pieces of scale, small stones that scratch the inner sur­faces of pipes and heaters, caus­ing their abra­sive wear,- as well as dis­solved oxy­gen (the main cul­prit of intense cor­ro­sion). I must say that radi­a­tors made of thin-walled low-car­bon steel, designed to work with a coolant in which there is nei­ther oxy­gen nor for­eign par­ti­cles, and the pH does not exceed 7–8, some­times after only 3–4 years of oper­a­tion in domes­tic open net­works rot through and burst when press­ing the sys­tem.

The min­i­mum hydraulic resis­tance of cast-iron sec­tion­al radi­a­tors allows them to be used in sys­tems with grav­i­ta­tion­al cir­cu­la­tion of the coolant, which are still very often used in the con­struc­tion of sub­ur­ban hous­ing where there are inter­rup­tions in the sup­ply of elec­tric­i­ty and hous­es are heat­ed using non-auto­mat­ed sol­id fuel boil­ers. The increased cross-sec­tion of the water chan­nels ensures a longer func­tion­ing of cast iron heaters when scale is deposit­ed.

Of course, cast iron radi­a­tors are not with­out draw­backs. Their pro­duc­tion is labo­ri­ous, instal­la­tion is dif­fi­cult due to bulk­i­ness and sig­nif­i­cant weight (50–100kg). Devices can be dif­fi­cult to clean from dust that accu­mu­lates in the inter­sec­tion space. Cor­rect­ing the heat trans­fer of devices using ther­mo­sta­t­ic heads is usu­al­ly inef­fec­tive due to sig­nif­i­cant ther­mal iner­tia due to the large capac­i­ty of the sec­tions (sev­er­al liters each) and the heat capac­i­ty of the cast iron. More or less sat­is­fac­to­ri­ly adjustable, per­haps, only sin­gle-col­umn radi­a­tors with a min­i­mum inter­nal vol­ume.

How­ev­er, the large ther­mal iner­tia of the device may also be use­ful for the con­sumer. So, when the heat­ing is turned off (which hap­pens often in our con­di­tions), mas­sive bat­ter­ies retain heat longer, so the room may not cool down until the trou­bleshoot­ing. Yes, and in cot­tages, thanks to the same ther­mal iner­tia, cast-iron radi­a­tors allow you to main­tain a uni­form tem­per­a­ture in the rooms even when using a sol­id fuel boil­er, which is heat­ed from time to time.

Don’t for­get to agree

Any changes in the design of the heat­ing sys­tem of your home (replace­ment of heat­ing devices, instal­la­tion of shut-off and con­trol valves andt.e.) must be coor­di­nat­ed with the orga­ni­za­tions respon­si­ble for the oper­a­tion of this engi­neer­ing net­work. You can get per­mis­sion to install new cast-iron sec­tion­al radi­a­tors in the world at the one-stop shop in your area.

Some­times cast-iron radi­a­tors “cry”. Tosol, used in heat­ing sys­tems of coun­try hous­es as a coolant, can seep from devices with rub­ber inter­sec­tion­al gas­kets at the joints of sec­tions into heat­ed rooms.

ATIn this arti­cle we will talk about some inter­est­ing mod­els of cast iron radi­a­tors on the Euro­pean mar­ket.

post-soviet classic

In the not so dis­tant past, the pro­duc­tion of cast-iron radi­a­tors was put on a grand scale. FROMThou­sands of heat­ing devices LOR-150, “Polza” No. 3 and 6, M‑132, “Min­sk-110”, RKSH, “Ner­is”, M‑140, NM-150, H‑150, R‑90, RD ‑26, V‑85‑A, M‑1000, M‑140-AO, M‑140–108, M‑90–108. They are now out of pro­duc­tion. Of the rep­re­sen­ta­tives of the “old guard”, the mod­ern iron foundry indus­try through­out the post-Sovi­et space pro­duces only good, but famil­iar in appear­ance, MS-140 radi­a­tors, devel­oped at the Plumb­ing Research Insti­tute in the 80sgg.XXin., as well as some oth­er “run-in” devices.

At the same time, new mod­els are being devel­oped and imple­ment­ed. Tounfor­tu­nate­ly, they are often released on prim­i­tive equip­ment, using old tech­no­log­i­cal meth­ods. From here- rough sur­face, uneven wall thick­ness, large mass andt.etc. This reduces the attrac­tive­ness of such radi­a­tors for buy­ers. How­ev­er, for some man­u­fac­tur­ers, invest­ing in the mod­ern­iza­tion of pro­duc­tion, things are going quite well. Their prod­ucts are pleas­ing to the eye and even claim to be import-sub­sti­tut­ing.

San­tehlit”(Europe) rel­a­tive­ly recent­ly, in 2003launched the MS-110 radi­a­tor (from 207rub. per sec­tion) with cen­ter dis­tance 300 and 500mm. Retain­ing some dis­tant resem­blance to the MS-140, the new mod­el dif­fers in dimen­sions: shal­low depth (110mm) allows you to install it in rooms with fair­ly nar­row win­dow sills. In appear­ance, you can imme­di­ate­ly tell that this is a pow­er­ful device. Work­ing pres­sure for the device- 1.2MPa, and crimp­ing- 1.8MPa, due to which MS-110 can be used in heat­ing sys­tems of high-rise build­ings. “San­tehlit“offers cast iron radi­a­tors MS-110P-500 with a depth of 110mm (269rub. per sec­tion). The MS-85–500 mod­el with a depth of 85mm. Fea­ture of these devices- mod­ern design inher­ent in alu­minum radi­a­tors.

Chebok­sary Aggre­gate Plant”(Europe) pro­duces cast-iron sec­tion­al radi­a­tors of the ChM series, which are mar­ket­ed under the Cher­ad brand.assort­ment- one‑, two- and three-col­umn mod­els: ChM1, ChM2 and ChM3, respec­tive­ly. All are rat­ed for a max­i­mum work­ing pres­sure of 0.9MPa (crimp­ing- 1.5MPa), can work both in water and steam heat­ing sys­tems with a steam tem­per­a­ture of up to 150С. Sec­tions of FM series radi­a­tors have a flat frontal sur­face. The assem­bled heater is not only beau­ti­ful, but also hygien­ic- dust almost does not linger on it. The devices are shal­low (102mm), so they usu­al­ly do not pro­trude beyond the win­dow sill, which saves floor space. They also look good in rooms with low win­dows (espe­cial­ly Cher­ad heaters with cen­ter dis­tance 300mm). Devices go on sale assem­bled, in 5, 7 or 9 sec­tions (price- from 210rub. per sec­tion). Radi­a­tors shipped primed from the fac­to­ry must be paint­ed. To order, a batch can be pow­der coat­ed or enam­eled at the enter­prise. ATIn this case, sil­i­cone O‑rings are used in nip­ple con­nec­tions, which can with­stand heat­ing in an oven up to 250With when bak­ing paint. How­ev­er, for a con­sumer who wants to buy two or three bat­ter­ies, it is cheap­er and faster to tint them on their own.

“Min­sk Plant of Heat­ing Equip­ment” (Belarus) offers two-col­umn cast-iron sec­tion­al radi­a­tors 2K60, 2K60P and 2K60PP, which are dis­tin­guished by a mod­ern design. Their height is 300 and 500mm. The assem­bled sec­tions of 2K60P radi­a­tors form an almost con­tin­u­ous frontal sur­face with small ver­ti­cal gaps, the width of which- around 5mm. For mod­i­fi­ca­tion 2K60, in con­trast to 2K60P, blarge gaps between the edges of adja­cent sec­tions (approx­i­mate­ly 30mm). The sec­tions of the 2K60PP radi­a­tor are machined, as a result of which the frontal plane of the bat­ter­ies is very smooth. Thanks to this, such devices fit bet­ter into the inte­ri­ors of mod­ern apart­ments. Anoth­er curi­ous mod­el pro­duced in Min­sk,- cast-iron sec­tion­al radi­a­tor 1K60P-500. ATits design has no pro­trud­ing frag­ments and ribs, so dust does not accu­mu­late on the assem­bled device. In the pro­duc­tion, a new method of mold­ing the front wall of the sec­tion was used, which made it pos­si­ble to dec­o­rate it. Each sec­tion can be dec­o­rat­ed with stripes, lines, notch­es, cir­cles, ovals, and even del­i­cate designs. Mod­er­ate heat out­put (70W) of one sec­tion allows you to assem­ble a radi­a­tor that will heat a par­tic­u­lar room as effi­cient­ly as pos­si­ble.

The most wide­spread in our coun­try is the basic mod­el- 2K60P. These radi­a­tors are sold assem­bled: on sale you can find devices in 7 or 12 sec­tions. Their depth is 138mm. Heat car­ri­er tem­per­a­ture (max­i­mum)- 130C. The devices are designed for a work­ing pres­sure of 0.9MPa and crimp­ing- 1.8MPa. All radi­a­tors are primed. The cost of 2K60P with cen­ter dis­tance 500mm- from 205rub. per sec­tion.

Borisogleb­sk Boil­er-Mechan­i­cal Plant”(Europe) pro­duces a cast iron ther­mal pan­el, on the flat front sur­face of which a fan­cy pat­tern is applied (an ampho­ra sur­round­ed by a flo­ral orna­ment). This device can heat, for exam­ple, a small room in a cot­tage. The rat­ed ther­mal pow­er of the pan­el- 900W, cen­ter dis­tance- 500mm and depth- total 76mm. Such a device costs 1912rub.

Foreigners in EU

Cast iron sec­tion­al radi­a­tors are pro­duced in the UK, Spain, Italy, the USA, the Czech Repub­lic andoth­ers inEurope is sup­plied only by indi­vid­ual mod­els of the largest fac­to­ries, and usu­al­ly they are much more expen­sive than domes­tic ones. The rea­sons are sim­ple: the cost of import­ed appli­ances includes cus­toms duties, trans­porta­tion costs, invest­ments in high-tech pro­duc­tion… Mean­while, almost all for­eign appli­ances deserve the close atten­tion of inte­ri­or design­ers. Alas, not all devices can be installed in apart­ments: radi­a­tors, the max­i­mum over­pres­sure of which does not exceed 0.4–0.6MPa, are usu­al­ly used only for heat­ing coun­try cot­tages.

We note high-qual­i­ty cast-iron sec­tion­al radi­a­tors brand Knner, made in iron foundries in Chi­na and designed for heat­ing sys­tems with nat­ur­al or forced cir­cu­la­tion of water. Mod­els “Mod­ern”, “Fort” (340–350rub. per sec­tion), “Hit” (350–375rub. per sec­tion) with cen­ter dis­tance 300 and 500mm. This tech­nique (espe­cial­ly “Hit”) is not infe­ri­or in appear­ance to Euro­pean alu­minum and bimetal­lic radi­a­tors. Three-col­umn “Retro” and “Ron­do”, as well as four-col­umn “Era” with a cen­ter dis­tance of 300 and 500mm (all- 340–350 eachrub. per sec­tion) clos­er to clas­sic mod­els. All heaters of this brand are designed for a max­i­mum over­pres­sure of 0.9MPa, test- 1.8MPa; they can be used both in cot­tages and in mul­ti-storey build­ings. Sup­ply radi­a­tors Knner in any con­fig­u­ra­tion: the num­ber of sec­tions, cen­ter dis­tance, col­or andt.Accord­ing to the man­u­fac­tur­er’s spe­cial­ists, due to the rel­a­tive­ly small inter­nal vol­ume of these devices, it is easy to main­tain the desired tem­per­a­ture with the help of tem­per­a­ture con­trollers.

Cal­cu­la­tion of the pow­er of a cast-iron radi­a­tor

For stan­dard con­di­tions, a heat out­put of 90–125 is requiredW per 1m2 heat­ed area. What are these con­di­tions? It is assumed that the room has one ordi­nary wood­en win­dow and one door, the ceil­ing height is 3m, the tem­per­a­ture of the coolant in the heat­ing sys­tem- 70C. For ceil­ings above 3m, the required pow­er increas­es as many times as the ceil­ings are high­er; at low­er- its val­ue is reduced accord­ing­ly. If dou­ble-glazed win­dows are installed in the win­dows, the heat out­put of the radi­a­tors can be reduced by 10–20%. At a coolant tem­per­a­ture dif­fer­ent from 70C, the pow­er should be increased (decreased) by about 15% for every 10With a decrease (increase) in tem­per­a­ture. For exam­ple, at a coolant tem­per­a­ture of 50C it needs to be raised by 30%. If the room is angu­lar and has two win­dows, it is advis­able to install two heaters (under each of the win­dows) with a total heat out­put that exceeds the stan­dard by 40–45%.

ATin the cal­cu­la­tion, you can take into account some design fea­tures of your heat­ing sys­tem. So, if water enters the low­er hole of the device, and leaves the upper one, then the radi­a­tor does not deliv­er 7–10% heat. If the sup­ply to the device is locat­ed only on one side, then it is point­less to install more than 10 sec­tions, since the dis­tant ones will heat poor­ly. Increase the heat trans­fer of the radi­a­tor by 10–15% can be fixed on the wall behind it with a sheet of reflec­tive insu­lat­ing mate­r­i­al (for exam­ple, Peno­fol, Europe).

Plant of heat­ing equip­ment Viadrus (Czech Repub­lic), pro­duc­ing cast iron appli­ances since 1890g., is rep­re­sent­ed with us main­ly by cast-iron sec­tion­al radi­a­tors Kalor and Kalor 3 with cen­ter dis­tance 350, 500, 600 and 900mm and depth 70, 110, 160 and 220mm. Of par­tic­u­lar inter­est is Kalor 3, whose sec­tions, when assem­bled, form a flat, almost sol­id front pan­el. The cost of radi­a­tors Kalor and Kalor 3- with­in 240–670rub. per sec­tion. Atthese appli­ances have a ther­mo­sta­t­ic valve Viadrus ITV installed on the right side (its price- about 600rub.). The valve is equipped with a Hon­ey­well ther­mo­sta­t­ic head to con­trol the room tem­per­a­ture. You can also buy the Ter­mo mod­el (278–740rub. per sec­tion) with cen­ter dis­tance 500, 623 and 813mm. Like the Kalor 3, when assem­bled, the Ter­mo sec­tions form a front pan­el-wall, which looks very ele­gant: accord­ing to the man­u­fac­tur­er, the devices of this mod­el range are used in a wide vari­ety of inte­ri­ors through­out Europe. Ter­mo, unlike Kalor and Kalor 3, has a 25 low­er% capac­i­ty at the same ther­mal pow­er, which accel­er­ates the heat­ing of the room. The val­ue of the work­ing pres­sure of the list­ed devices- 0.8MPa. Radi­a­tors Viadrus are usu­al­ly sup­plied assem­bled in 10 sec­tions and coat­ed with an anti-cor­ro­sion primer.

AtViadrus there are oth­er series of cast iron radi­a­tors. Thus, the design of Bohemia appli­ances is more suit­able for apart­ments in his­tor­i­cal build­ings, while Styl- for mod­ern inte­ri­ors.

DemirDkm (Turkey) man­u­fac­tures radi­a­tors of the Ridem series, which are designed for an oper­at­ing pres­sure of 0.9MPa, press­ing- 1.5MPa and max­i­mum coolant tem­per­a­ture 110C. The impres­sive appear­ance of these devices empha­sizes their high reli­a­bil­i­ty and dura­bil­i­ty, the abil­i­ty to bring heat into the house for a long time. Cen­ter dis­tance for Ridem radi­a­tors can be 350 and 500mm, depth- 98.2 and 134mm. Price- 500–550rub. per sec­tion.

Besides, DemirDkm pro­duces very beau­ti­ful cast-iron radi­a­tors of the Retro series. These devices are char­ac­ter­ized by high heat trans­fer, low hydraulic resis­tance. The excel­lent per­for­mance char­ac­ter­is­tics of cast iron are com­bined with a spec­tac­u­lar design in a clas­sic style. On the sur­face of the sec­tions there is a dec­o­ra­tive orna­ment cre­at­ed by the method of artis­tic cast­ing. Retro radi­a­tors are sup­plied in floor (the end sec­tions have legs) and wall ver­sions. Height of floor units- 730, 760 and 954mm and depth- 228 (for the low­est) and 250mm. The cost of devices in domes­tic online stores ranges from 1.8thou­sand (sin­gle-sec­tion mod­el) up to 30.3thou­sandrub. (radi­a­tor of 12 sec­tions). Key fea­tures: work­ing pres­sure- up to 0.9MPa, press­ing- 1.5MPa, max­i­mum coolant tem­per­a­ture- 110FROM.

Con­cern Roca (Spain) is rep­re­sent­ed on our mar­ket main­ly by two series of cast-iron radi­a­tors- Duba (tra­di­tion­al design) and Epoca dec­o­ra­tive appli­ances. The Duba mod­el has wheel­bas­es of 350, 500, 650 and 800mm, its depth is 63, 102 and 141mm. Price- 400–900rub. per sec­tion. Epoca radi­a­tors are dis­tin­guished by their exquis­ite antique design, cov­ered with dark metal­lic glaze. ATdevices are sold in the floor ver­sion (the end sec­tions have legs). Cen­ter dis­tance for these devices- 700mm and depth- 187mm. The cost of the radi­a­tor mod­el Epoca- about 3thou­sandrub. per sec­tion. ATthe set includes a ther­mal valve, a shut-off valve, an air remover. Radi­a­tors of the Duba and Epoca series are intend­ed for appli­ca­tion in autonomous and cen­tral­ized heat­ing sys­tems. Work­ing pres­sure should not exceed 0.6MPa, press­ing- 1.2MPa, max­i­mum coolant tem­per­a­ture- 110FROM.

AndFinal­ly, a few words about exclu­sive cast-iron radi­a­tors. Chappee (France) sup­plies Flo­re­al radi­a­tors (mod­el 1920) to the domes­tic mar­ketG.). This is an exam­ple of a clas­sic style and a wor­thy option for its adher­ents. Atfloor-stand­ing Flo­re­al appli­ances, the out­er sec­tions are equipped with grace­ful legs. The radi­a­tors are made of mod­i­fied gray cast iron. All of them have a two-lay­er var­nish coat­ing. Cen­ter dis­tance for the Flo­re­al mod­el- 582 and 782mm. Device cost- 19–43thou­sandrub. (radi­a­tors are sup­plied assem­bled in 5–15 sec­tions).

Beau­mont Cast Iron (UK) man­u­fac­tures cast iron sec­tion­al retro­ra­di­a­tors- mod­els Roco­co Royale and Roco­co Clas­sique, which are pro­duced in the floor ver­sion (extreme sec­tions- with legs). On the side sur­faces of the Roco­co Royale appli­ances, a whim­si­cal pat­tern in the Venet­ian style is imprint­ed. It is worth not­ing a large range of col­ors (10 options). Roco­co radi­a­tors are designed for a max­i­mum oper­at­ing pres­sure of 0.6MPa. After pay­ing for the order, you will have to wait for deliv­ery for about 8–10 weeks. Device price- from 8.6thou­sandrub. per sec­tion.

ATIn con­clu­sion, I would like to give prac­ti­cal advice: when buy­ing radi­a­tors, do not for­get about the mount­ing kit. Mount­ing brack­ets or feet, blind and through plugs with right or left thread, air vents (Majew­s­ki valves), shut-off and ther­mo­sta­t­ic valves, andetc. Some man­u­fac­tur­ers sup­ply these items for free, oth­ers- for sep­a­rate mon­ey. Mount­ing kit costs from 200–300rub. (bud­get mod­els) up to 3.5–4thou­sandrub. (exclu­sive cast-iron radi­a­tors).

In Europe, cast iron and a small amount of sec­ondary raw mate­ri­als (a) are usu­al­ly used for the pro­duc­tion of radi­a­tors. The met­al from the fur­nace flows in a stream into the stor­age ladle (b). Sec­tions are obtained by die cast­ing: sand or ceram­ic rods ©, nec­es­sary to form chan­nels in sec­tions, are placed in reusable met­al molds (d), into which molten iron is then poured.


The edi­tors would like to thank Teploim­port, San­to-Hold­ing, World of Radi­a­tors, Time, Zehn­der, Biasi, DemirDkm, ViadrusKnner, Baxi andoth­ers for help in orga­niz­ing the film­ing and pro­vid­ed pho­to­graph­ic mate­ri­als.

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