Choosing a cast-iron, stone or metal stove for a bath

Engi­neers have long come up with a cen­tral hot water sup­ply, but peo­ple still con­tin­ue to bathe in the bath. It’s much longer than just tak­ing a show­er. The bath requires a long heat­ing of the room, and the process of wash­ing in it is a whole rit­u­al. In addi­tion, a bath is more expen­sive than a show­er. Build­ing a bath is not a cheap plea­sure. But peo­ple still build baths in sum­mer cot­tages and in the yards of pri­vate hous­es. Bathing is more than just a process of keep­ing your­self clean. In the bath, they relax, rest their soul and body, meet friends. That is why each of the baths must be indi­vid­ual and at the same time ide­al­ly com­ply with all fire safe­ty stan­dards.

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Baths can be heat­ed with elec­tric­i­ty, but then the air in the room becomes dry and the famous Euro­pean bath turns into a sauna. The stan­dard type of heat­ing is sol­id fuel. This has been done since time immemo­r­i­al, and even with the devel­op­ment of tech­nol­o­gy, wood-burn­ing bath heat­ing is con­sid­ered the pre­dom­i­nant and most con­ve­nient. When design­ing a bath, spe­cial atten­tion will be paid to its heart — the stove. There are sev­er­al types of fur­naces depend­ing on the mate­ri­als:

  • cast iron;
  • Stone;
  • Met­al.

Mounting

First of all, the own­ers are con­cerned about the instal­la­tion of equip­ment in a new­ly built bath. In this case, the instal­la­tion of a met­al fur­nace will be much eas­i­er. Stain­less alloy steels are used as mate­r­i­al for fur­naces. This mate­r­i­al is not afraid of the high humid­i­ty of the bath, does not rust dur­ing pro­longed con­tact with water, and thanks to alloy­ing, man­u­fac­tur­ers achieve the nec­es­sary strength and per­for­mance char­ac­ter­is­tics. Alloy­ing is a process of arti­fi­cial enrich­ment of a mate­r­i­al with var­i­ous addi­tives to obtain spe­cial phys­i­cal and mechan­i­cal prop­er­ties of the mate­r­i­al.

The light met­al from which the stove is made allows you to install it on the ceil­ing of the bath. This great­ly saves labor costs dur­ing con­struc­tion.

Furnace installation

With cast iron heaters, the sit­u­a­tion is some­what more com­pli­cat­ed. This mate­r­i­al is heat-con­sum­ing and at the same time very heavy. If you install a cast-iron stove on the floors of the first floor of a house or a bath, the struc­ture will not have suf­fi­cient strength, there­fore, when design­ing, it is nec­es­sary to think over the loca­tion of the steam room in advance and pro­vide an addi­tion­al foun­da­tion cush­ion for the cast-iron stove. Instead of arrang­ing a full-fledged foun­da­tion, it is allowed to sim­ply fill the site with a cement-sand mix­ture. In this case, it must be addi­tion­al­ly rein­forced with rein­forc­ing mesh for the fur­nace. Such a pil­low will even­ly dis­trib­ute the weight of the cast iron instal­la­tion over the base.

Most of the effort will have to be spent on the instal­la­tion of a stone struc­ture. It def­i­nite­ly needs its own foun­da­tion. It is no dif­fer­ent from the usu­al foun­da­tion for load-bear­ing walls. The mass of the stone oven is about four tons, includ­ing the chim­ney. None of the floors can with­stand such a large weight. It is nec­es­sary to start the con­struc­tion of a new bath from the foun­da­tion for the fur­nace:

  1. Clay soils lie in many areas, when they freeze, they increase in vol­ume due to the mois­ture con­tained inside, this prop­er­ty is called radi­ance. to com­bat the unpleas­ant prop­er­ties of clays and loams, builders install a sand and grav­el cush­ion under the foun­da­tion. It allows you to even­ly dis­trib­ute the load and cre­ate an arti­fi­cial base with very good prop­er­ties.
  2. The area of ​​a con­ven­tion­al sauna stove is usu­al­ly 1 — 2 square meters. The first slab installed under the foun­da­tion should exceed this val­ue sev­er­al times. The pil­low is installed below the freez­ing depth of the soil. This val­ue is cal­cu­lat­ed depend­ing on the aver­age tem­per­a­ture of the cold­est five-day peri­od. For each region, this val­ue is known and includ­ed in the ref­er­ence val­ues.
  3. After that, you can mount the rest of the foun­da­tion. In sum­mer cot­tages, it will be eas­i­est to make a mono­lith­ic foun­da­tion. To do this, rein­force­ment is placed in the pit and poured into it with a strong con­crete mix­ture.
  4. After pour­ing, the foun­da­tion will hard­en in a few days, and it will gain strength with­in 28 days. For prop­er solid­i­fi­ca­tion of the foun­da­tion, high humid­i­ty is required; work car­ried out in too dry con­di­tions will be per­formed poor­ly.

brick oven

To increase the humid­i­ty at first, the con­crete can be over­laid with wet rags and fur­ther moist­ened as they dry.

Thus, we can say that the eas­i­est to install met­al stoves for a bath, and if the own­ers are going to put ther­mal equip­ment in an already built bath, then met­al becomes the most ratio­nal option.

Safety

The bath is a source of increased dan­ger. Baths are tra­di­tion­al­ly heat­ed with wood, stoves have an open fire­box, where addi­tion­al fuel is con­stant­ly thrown. To ensure safe oper­a­tion in front of any fire­box­es, it is nec­es­sary to equip a plat­form made of non-com­bustible mate­r­i­al for the fall of coals.

If we talk about the safe­ty of peo­ple in the bath, then the stone or brick ver­sion of the stove wins here. When touch­ing such equip­ment, a per­son will receive a slight burn, and if you touch a red-hot met­al fur­nace, then the traces of such con­tact will heal for a very long time.

Furnace location

This fea­ture of brick ovens is due to the abil­i­ty of the mate­r­i­al to even­ly dis­trib­ute heat through­out its entire vol­ume, due to which the heat­ing of air and an inad­ver­tent­ly out­stretched hand does not occur so sharply.

All fur­naces in places of con­tact with wood­en walls are lined with non-com­bustible mate­ri­als: basalt or Kevlar. Thanks to this, the wood does not heat up, fire does not reach it and the risk of fire is reduced.

Efficiency

The effi­cien­cy of the instal­la­tion is the main cri­te­ri­on that mat­ters for the own­ers of a bath­house or a house. There are sev­er­al para­me­ters by which the qual­i­ty of the device is eval­u­at­ed:

  • Depend­ing on the heat­ing rate, one of the options is cho­sen: a steel stove will warm up the room in no more than half an hour, it will take about an hour to get heat from a cast-iron stove, and a stone stove made of ceram­ic bricks will first warm up itself and only then begin to warm up the sur­round­ing space.
  • For steam rooms of dif­fer­ent sizes, you should choose dif­fer­ent mate­ri­als for stoves. A large vol­ume can be effi­cient­ly heat­ed with a brick stove, and a cast-iron stove is suit­able for small steam rooms. Very small spaces can be entrust­ed to steel mod­els, the vol­ume heat­ed by them is lim­it­ed to 30 m3.
  • The dura­tion of cool­ing is impor­tant if a lot of peo­ple take turns wash­ing in the bath or the own­ers do not want to con­stant­ly add anoth­er por­tion of fuel. Best of all in this case, the stone brick ver­sion will show itself. Such ovens are able to retain heat for about 12 hours. In this case, you can once flood the stone oven for the house, and at the same time it will main­tain a com­fort­able tem­per­a­ture.
    Steel mod­els can­not boast of such good char­ac­ter­is­tics, they cool down almost instant­ly and the own­ers have to con­stant­ly add fuel through­out the entire time they are in a bath­house or coun­try house.
    Cast iron prod­ucts can retain their heat a lit­tle longer, but they will still cool down after an hour.
  • Steel or cast iron stoves can heat water due to the pres­ence of a water tank. When using brick build­ings, you will have to addi­tion­al­ly take care of the avail­abil­i­ty of hot water in the steam room or in the house.

The prin­ci­ple of oper­a­tion of fur­naces is also dif­fer­ent. Cast iron and steel mod­els heat the air near­by, accord­ing to the laws of physics, it ris­es, and cold air comes in its place, after which it also heats up, ris­es up and this process is repeat­ed again. From this we can con­clude that the need for con­stant cir­cu­la­tion of air mass­es in the room.

Unlike cast iron, brick­work is capa­ble of not only heat­ing the cold air touch­ing it, but also using infrared radi­a­tion to raise the tem­per­a­ture of all objects in the room.

Price

Anoth­er cri­te­ri­on that wor­ries future own­ers of the fur­nace is its cost.

The cheap­est option is a steel fur­nace. It not only costs a lit­tle, but also does not require addi­tion­al actions on the part of the installer. They can be locat­ed on the floors of the first floor, which makes such stoves very cheap. How­ev­er, in the baths, bricks are often laid over the iron stove. This is done to increase its heat capac­i­ty. Such heaters can retain heat longer than their “naked” coun­ter­parts. Due to the uni­form dis­tri­b­u­tion of ther­mal ener­gy, the stoves will not be very aggres­sive to care­less touch­es, but it is not rec­om­mend­ed to touch even a stove lined with brick­work.

The aver­age price is a cast-iron stove, a high-qual­i­ty mod­el is sev­er­al times more expen­sive than a steel ver­sion. Such struc­tures require addi­tion­al arrange­ment of the site to even­ly dis­trib­ute the load on the base.

Stone stoves for the home will cost the largest amount. This is due to the skill of the stove-mak­er. It has been very dif­fi­cult to find real pro­fes­sion­als in their field late­ly, usu­al­ly they are called on the advice of friends. Only when work­ing with a proven per­son, you can hope for his con­sci­en­tious work.

Self-execution of work

Many own­ers do not trust hired work­ers or want to fig­ure out the issue of installing stoves on their own. For such peo­ple, there are a num­ber of instruc­tions where you can find infor­ma­tion on how to make and install steel or stone stoves with your own hands.

Stone

For self-assem­bly of a stone oven, you will have to try hard, but the result can exceed all expec­ta­tions:

  1. First you need to choose a place to install the equip­ment. This may be the cen­ter of the house, then the heat­ing will be most con­ve­nient­ly dis­trib­uted through­out the liv­ing space. The fire­place stove is locat­ed in the side of the com­mon room, where it simul­ta­ne­ous­ly heats the space and gath­ers the house­hold around it.

    When the stove is locat­ed in the cen­ter of the house, it is allowed to cross with par­ti­tions that divide the space into rooms.

  2. After deter­min­ing the instal­la­tion site, it is nec­es­sary to install the foun­da­tion.
    Foundation for the furnace
  3. While con­crete is gain­ing max­i­mum strength, and this process takes 4 weeks, you can take care of acquir­ing the nec­es­sary mate­ri­als:
  • Refrac­to­ry bricks are excel­lent for lin­ing the fire­box and the inner sur­face of the pipe. Such mate­r­i­al is able to with­stand extreme­ly high tem­per­a­tures and at the same time retain all its prop­er­ties.
    Refractory brick
  • Ceram­ic mate­ri­als are used to build the rest of the kiln. They accu­mu­late ther­mal ener­gy well and, as befits a fur­nace, give it to space.
    ceramic brick
  • Sil­i­cate bricks are not suit­able for stoves, it is bet­ter to leave it to dec­o­rate the facade of the house.
    silicate brick

You can not use hol­low bricks for the con­struc­tion of fur­naces. Clay should com­plete­ly fill their vol­ume.

  1. After select­ing the basic mate­ri­als, you need to buy acces­sories, includ­ing grilles, doors, han­dles and a pok­er.
  2. Before start­ing work, the stove-mak­ers are advised to pre-assem­ble the entire struc­ture with­out mor­tar, make sure that there are enough mate­ri­als, and the stove is obtained as intend­ed, and only after that you can start lay­ing.
  3. First lay the foun­da­tion — the base lay­er. Dur­ing these works, you can use a solu­tion, some­times instead of bricks they fill it with rub­ble.
  4. When lay­ing the first row, it is espe­cial­ly impor­tant to mon­i­tor the posi­tion of the bricks in space. The line of the out­er wall must be strict­ly par­al­lel to the ground and walls. You can check this with a lev­el. The more often the mas­ter will apply the lev­el, the bet­ter the oven will turn out.
  5. The fur­nace wall clos­est to the wall should be equipped with a sec­ond lay­er of brick to cre­ate addi­tion­al pro­tec­tion against fire and exces­sive heat­ing of com­bustible mate­ri­als.
  6. The removal door is installed with mor­tar in the sec­ond or third row.
  7. Above the small door is a grate.
  8. After that, they mount a large door lead­ing to the fire­box, it serves to lay fire­wood and should allow fuel to be placed inside with­out prob­lems.
  9. Dampers must be installed in the chim­ney.

After the work is com­plet­ed and the pipe is installed, the work can be con­sid­ered com­plet­ed. Now it remains only to remove the con­struc­tion debris, let the solu­tion grab and pro­ceed with the tri­al kin­dling.

Cast iron

For the man­u­fac­ture of cast-iron fur­naces, cast­ing is required, so only steel­work­ers at the fac­to­ry can make it on their own. Such instal­la­tions must be pur­chased from trust­ed com­pa­nies with good reviews.

But after the acqui­si­tion, you can con­nect this heat source on your own. To do this, it is enough just to place the stove in its place of per­ma­nent res­i­dence and ensure the exit of com­bus­tion prod­ucts to the street. The walls clos­est to the instal­la­tion must be fin­ished with non-com­bustible mate­r­i­al. Basalt fab­ric is used as it. You can mount met­al sheets, it will be much cheap­er, but the met­al near the fur­nace will cer­tain­ly heat up and will pose a threat to slop­py peo­ple pass­ing by.

Steel

Installing a steel oven is the eas­i­est. To do this, you do not even have to ask the movers to deliv­er it to the place. Steel mod­els weigh a lit­tle and there­fore their instal­la­tion can be han­dled with­out out­side help. As in the case of cast iron instal­la­tions, steel instal­la­tions require a chim­ney and pro­tec­tion from non-com­bustible mate­r­i­al.

The choice of stove depends on the require­ments of the own­ers of the house. steel options are cho­sen by lovers of sum­mer hol­i­days in the coun­try. The equip­ment can be mount­ed inde­pen­dent­ly, it does not require main­te­nance and, if nec­es­sary, heats the room very quick­ly.

Cast iron stoves can be used all year round, are durable and will appeal to peo­ple com­ing for week­ends all year round.

A stone oven is an ide­al option for peo­ple who per­ma­nent­ly live out­side the city or come to the coun­try with envi­able reg­u­lar­i­ty.

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