Engineers have long come up with a central hot water supply, but people still continue to bathe in the bath. It’s much longer than just taking a shower. The bath requires a long heating of the room, and the process of washing in it is a whole ritual. In addition, a bath is more expensive than a shower. Building a bath is not a cheap pleasure. But people still build baths in summer cottages and in the yards of private houses. Bathing is more than just a process of keeping yourself clean. In the bath, they relax, rest their soul and body, meet friends. That is why each of the baths must be individual and at the same time ideally comply with all fire safety standards.
Baths can be heated with electricity, but then the air in the room becomes dry and the famous European bath turns into a sauna. The standard type of heating is solid fuel. This has been done since time immemorial, and even with the development of technology, wood-burning bath heating is considered the predominant and most convenient. When designing a bath, special attention will be paid to its heart — the stove. There are several types of furnaces depending on the materials:
- cast iron;
First of all, the owners are concerned about the installation of equipment in a newly built bath. In this case, the installation of a metal furnace will be much easier. Stainless alloy steels are used as material for furnaces. This material is not afraid of the high humidity of the bath, does not rust during prolonged contact with water, and thanks to alloying, manufacturers achieve the necessary strength and performance characteristics. Alloying is a process of artificial enrichment of a material with various additives to obtain special physical and mechanical properties of the material.
The light metal from which the stove is made allows you to install it on the ceiling of the bath. This greatly saves labor costs during construction.
With cast iron heaters, the situation is somewhat more complicated. This material is heat-consuming and at the same time very heavy. If you install a cast-iron stove on the floors of the first floor of a house or a bath, the structure will not have sufficient strength, therefore, when designing, it is necessary to think over the location of the steam room in advance and provide an additional foundation cushion for the cast-iron stove. Instead of arranging a full-fledged foundation, it is allowed to simply fill the site with a cement-sand mixture. In this case, it must be additionally reinforced with reinforcing mesh for the furnace. Such a pillow will evenly distribute the weight of the cast iron installation over the base.
Most of the effort will have to be spent on the installation of a stone structure. It definitely needs its own foundation. It is no different from the usual foundation for load-bearing walls. The mass of the stone oven is about four tons, including the chimney. None of the floors can withstand such a large weight. It is necessary to start the construction of a new bath from the foundation for the furnace:
- Clay soils lie in many areas, when they freeze, they increase in volume due to the moisture contained inside, this property is called radiance. to combat the unpleasant properties of clays and loams, builders install a sand and gravel cushion under the foundation. It allows you to evenly distribute the load and create an artificial base with very good properties.
- The area of a conventional sauna stove is usually 1 — 2 square meters. The first slab installed under the foundation should exceed this value several times. The pillow is installed below the freezing depth of the soil. This value is calculated depending on the average temperature of the coldest five-day period. For each region, this value is known and included in the reference values.
- After that, you can mount the rest of the foundation. In summer cottages, it will be easiest to make a monolithic foundation. To do this, reinforcement is placed in the pit and poured into it with a strong concrete mixture.
- After pouring, the foundation will harden in a few days, and it will gain strength within 28 days. For proper solidification of the foundation, high humidity is required; work carried out in too dry conditions will be performed poorly.
To increase the humidity at first, the concrete can be overlaid with wet rags and further moistened as they dry.
Thus, we can say that the easiest to install metal stoves for a bath, and if the owners are going to put thermal equipment in an already built bath, then metal becomes the most rational option.
The bath is a source of increased danger. Baths are traditionally heated with wood, stoves have an open firebox, where additional fuel is constantly thrown. To ensure safe operation in front of any fireboxes, it is necessary to equip a platform made of non-combustible material for the fall of coals.
If we talk about the safety of people in the bath, then the stone or brick version of the stove wins here. When touching such equipment, a person will receive a slight burn, and if you touch a red-hot metal furnace, then the traces of such contact will heal for a very long time.
This feature of brick ovens is due to the ability of the material to evenly distribute heat throughout its entire volume, due to which the heating of air and an inadvertently outstretched hand does not occur so sharply.
All furnaces in places of contact with wooden walls are lined with non-combustible materials: basalt or Kevlar. Thanks to this, the wood does not heat up, fire does not reach it and the risk of fire is reduced.
The efficiency of the installation is the main criterion that matters for the owners of a bathhouse or a house. There are several parameters by which the quality of the device is evaluated:
- Depending on the heating rate, one of the options is chosen: a steel stove will warm up the room in no more than half an hour, it will take about an hour to get heat from a cast-iron stove, and a stone stove made of ceramic bricks will first warm up itself and only then begin to warm up the surrounding space.
- For steam rooms of different sizes, you should choose different materials for stoves. A large volume can be efficiently heated with a brick stove, and a cast-iron stove is suitable for small steam rooms. Very small spaces can be entrusted to steel models, the volume heated by them is limited to 30 m3.
- The duration of cooling is important if a lot of people take turns washing in the bath or the owners do not want to constantly add another portion of fuel. Best of all in this case, the stone brick version will show itself. Such ovens are able to retain heat for about 12 hours. In this case, you can once flood the stone oven for the house, and at the same time it will maintain a comfortable temperature.
Steel models cannot boast of such good characteristics, they cool down almost instantly and the owners have to constantly add fuel throughout the entire time they are in a bathhouse or country house.
Cast iron products can retain their heat a little longer, but they will still cool down after an hour.
- Steel or cast iron stoves can heat water due to the presence of a water tank. When using brick buildings, you will have to additionally take care of the availability of hot water in the steam room or in the house.
The principle of operation of furnaces is also different. Cast iron and steel models heat the air nearby, according to the laws of physics, it rises, and cold air comes in its place, after which it also heats up, rises up and this process is repeated again. From this we can conclude that the need for constant circulation of air masses in the room.
Unlike cast iron, brickwork is capable of not only heating the cold air touching it, but also using infrared radiation to raise the temperature of all objects in the room.
Another criterion that worries future owners of the furnace is its cost.
The cheapest option is a steel furnace. It not only costs a little, but also does not require additional actions on the part of the installer. They can be located on the floors of the first floor, which makes such stoves very cheap. However, in the baths, bricks are often laid over the iron stove. This is done to increase its heat capacity. Such heaters can retain heat longer than their “naked” counterparts. Due to the uniform distribution of thermal energy, the stoves will not be very aggressive to careless touches, but it is not recommended to touch even a stove lined with brickwork.
The average price is a cast-iron stove, a high-quality model is several times more expensive than a steel version. Such structures require additional arrangement of the site to evenly distribute the load on the base.
Stone stoves for the home will cost the largest amount. This is due to the skill of the stove-maker. It has been very difficult to find real professionals in their field lately, usually they are called on the advice of friends. Only when working with a proven person, you can hope for his conscientious work.
Self-execution of work
Many owners do not trust hired workers or want to figure out the issue of installing stoves on their own. For such people, there are a number of instructions where you can find information on how to make and install steel or stone stoves with your own hands.
For self-assembly of a stone oven, you will have to try hard, but the result can exceed all expectations:
- First you need to choose a place to install the equipment. This may be the center of the house, then the heating will be most conveniently distributed throughout the living space. The fireplace stove is located in the side of the common room, where it simultaneously heats the space and gathers the household around it.
When the stove is located in the center of the house, it is allowed to cross with partitions that divide the space into rooms.
- After determining the installation site, it is necessary to install the foundation.
- While concrete is gaining maximum strength, and this process takes 4 weeks, you can take care of acquiring the necessary materials:
- Refractory bricks are excellent for lining the firebox and the inner surface of the pipe. Such material is able to withstand extremely high temperatures and at the same time retain all its properties.
- Ceramic materials are used to build the rest of the kiln. They accumulate thermal energy well and, as befits a furnace, give it to space.
- Silicate bricks are not suitable for stoves, it is better to leave it to decorate the facade of the house.
You can not use hollow bricks for the construction of furnaces. Clay should completely fill their volume.
- After selecting the basic materials, you need to buy accessories, including grilles, doors, handles and a poker.
- Before starting work, the stove-makers are advised to pre-assemble the entire structure without mortar, make sure that there are enough materials, and the stove is obtained as intended, and only after that you can start laying.
- First lay the foundation — the base layer. During these works, you can use a solution, sometimes instead of bricks they fill it with rubble.
- When laying the first row, it is especially important to monitor the position of the bricks in space. The line of the outer wall must be strictly parallel to the ground and walls. You can check this with a level. The more often the master will apply the level, the better the oven will turn out.
- The furnace wall closest to the wall should be equipped with a second layer of brick to create additional protection against fire and excessive heating of combustible materials.
- The removal door is installed with mortar in the second or third row.
- Above the small door is a grate.
- After that, they mount a large door leading to the firebox, it serves to lay firewood and should allow fuel to be placed inside without problems.
- Dampers must be installed in the chimney.
After the work is completed and the pipe is installed, the work can be considered completed. Now it remains only to remove the construction debris, let the solution grab and proceed with the trial kindling.
For the manufacture of cast-iron furnaces, casting is required, so only steelworkers at the factory can make it on their own. Such installations must be purchased from trusted companies with good reviews.
But after the acquisition, you can connect this heat source on your own. To do this, it is enough just to place the stove in its place of permanent residence and ensure the exit of combustion products to the street. The walls closest to the installation must be finished with non-combustible material. Basalt fabric is used as it. You can mount metal sheets, it will be much cheaper, but the metal near the furnace will certainly heat up and will pose a threat to sloppy people passing by.
Installing a steel oven is the easiest. To do this, you do not even have to ask the movers to deliver it to the place. Steel models weigh a little and therefore their installation can be handled without outside help. As in the case of cast iron installations, steel installations require a chimney and protection from non-combustible material.
The choice of stove depends on the requirements of the owners of the house. steel options are chosen by lovers of summer holidays in the country. The equipment can be mounted independently, it does not require maintenance and, if necessary, heats the room very quickly.
Cast iron stoves can be used all year round, are durable and will appeal to people coming for weekends all year round.
A stone oven is an ideal option for people who permanently live outside the city or come to the country with enviable regularity.