Details about domestic gas heating boilers

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At present, in apart­ments and pri­vate hous­es one can still find old-style heat­ing equip­ment that no longer meets the increased require­ments — inef­fi­cient, uneco­nom­i­cal and does not meet safe­ty con­di­tions. For a long time, the main type of house­hold gas-heat­ing equip­ment was AOGV gas floor-stand­ing boil­ers (autonomous heat­ing and hot water sup­ply). These house­hold boil­ers — heat­ing gas units were equipped with atmos­pher­ic type burn­ers and pro­vid­ed heat­ing of hous­ing by nat­ur­al cir­cu­la­tion of hot coolant in the heat­ing sys­tem. Sig­nif­i­cant advan­tages of this tech­nique are ener­gy inde­pen­dence and high reli­a­bil­i­ty. AOGV was equipped with prim­i­tive automa­tion, which quick­ly failed, but the heater con­tin­ued to suc­cess­ful­ly per­form its func­tions with­out it. Such a house­hold gas boil­er is the only heat­ing unit that does not con­sume elec­tric­i­ty.

Mod­ern house­hold gas heat­ing boil­ers of domes­tic and for­eign pro­duc­tion rep­re­sent a new gen­er­a­tion of heat­ing equip­ment that meets not only the increased require­ments for safe­ty and effi­cien­cy, but also the aes­thet­ic needs of the con­sumer.

Let us con­sid­er in more detail what mod­ern boil­er equip­ment is, and how func­tion­al this heat­ing tech­nique is.

Gas boiler — the main element of an autonomous heating system

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An autonomous domes­tic water heat­ing sys­tem based on a gas boil­er con­sists of the fol­low­ing main parts:

  • heat­ing boil­er with pump;
  • automa­tion sys­tem;
  • ven­ti­la­tion sys­tem;
  • pipe wiring of the coolant;
  • radi­a­tors.

The main ele­ment of the heat­ing sys­tem is a gas boil­er that pro­vides heat­ing and cir­cu­la­tion of the coolant. Let’s con­sid­er this unit in more detail.

Purpose and functions of gas water heating boilers

The main task of gas boil­ers is to heat the inte­ri­or and pro­vide DHW (hot water sup­ply sys­tems). House­hold autonomous boil­ers, gas heat gen­er­a­tors use nat­ur­al gas as fuel, sup­plied to the autonomous heat­ing sys­tem of hous­ing from the cen­tral high­way. The use of gas heat­ing boil­ers for domes­tic heat­ing and hot water sys­tems is due to their fol­low­ing char­ac­ter­is­tics:

  • com­pact­ness;
  • per­for­mance (pow­er) gra­da­tion;
  • rel­a­tive ease of instal­la­tion;
  • prof­itabil­i­ty;
  • effi­cien­cy;
  • ease of use due to a high degree of automa­tion.

Iden­ti­cal indus­tri­al equip­ment dif­fers from house­hold equip­ment in pow­er, dimen­sions and tech­ni­cal equip­ment, there­fore the oper­a­tion of indus­tri­al gas boil­ers requires pro­fes­sion­al­ism and con­stant mon­i­tor­ing of the oper­a­tion of the unit from the ser­vice per­son­nel.

The use of gas boil­ers in every­day life should be safe, so the man­age­ment and main­te­nance of these units should be sim­ple and do not require the con­sumer to have spe­cial skills. Mod­ern mod­els of gas boil­ers, due to the use of spe­cial tech­nolo­gies in their pro­duc­tion, ful­ly meet the require­ments.

Mod­ern heat­ing boil­ers, unlike out­dat­ed mod­els, have an effi­cien­cy close to 90%. In addi­tion to heat­ing the inte­ri­or, mod­ern house­hold gas-heat­ing equip­ment of the lat­ter is able to auto­mat­i­cal­ly ensure the oper­a­tion of the hot water sup­ply sys­tem for hous­ing.

 

Boil­ers of mod­ern mod­els are opti­mal­ly auto­mat­ed, the degree of automa­tion depends on the pur­pose of the unit and the per­for­mance class. The con­sumer mar­ket for water heaters is rep­re­sent­ed by house­hold appli­ances of var­i­ous types and types. Cus­tomers have a wide vari­ety of mod­els at their dis­pos­al, from pow­er­ful floor-stand­ing house­hold boil­ers for heat­ing large pri­vate hous­es to com­pact wall-mount­ed units for city apart­ments. For each type of hous­ing and oper­at­ing con­di­tions, you can choose a boil­er of the appro­pri­ate type — a sin­gle-cir­cuit or dou­ble-cir­cuit gas boil­er, a unit with an open fire­box or with a closed-type com­bus­tion cham­ber, boil­ers with cast-iron or bimetal­lic heat exchang­ers.

Impor­tant! The high degree of automa­tion of gas boil­ers has reduced the share of human par­tic­i­pa­tion in their oper­a­tion, but has not reduced its role — the ful­fill­ment of all the require­ments for the safe use of gas heat­ing equip­ment set out in the oper­at­ing instruc­tions is strict­ly nec­es­sary.

Classification of domestic gas boilers

A review of house­hold gas boil­ers will be incom­plete with­out con­sid­er­ing the types of clas­si­fi­ca­tion of these heat­ing units:

  • by loca­tion;
  • by func­tion­al­i­ty.

Location classification

Depend­ing on the loca­tion and method of instal­la­tion, autonomous gas domes­tic boil­ers are pro­duced in two types:

  • floor exe­cu­tion;
  • wall type.

House­hold gas boil­ers in the floor ver­sion are more pow­er­ful units (up to 1000 kW), capa­ble of pro­vid­ing heat and hot water to large hous­es. The per­for­mance of the boil­er is indi­cat­ed in the instruc­tions for its use in order to facil­i­tate the choice of the unit for spe­cif­ic areas and oper­at­ing con­di­tions.

 

Impor­tant! The large vol­ume of the water tank caus­es a sig­nif­i­cant weight and dimen­sions of such units, there­fore, for the instal­la­tion of out­door equip­ment, it is nec­es­sary to spe­cial­ly equip a sep­a­rate boil­er room, equipped with a chim­ney and ven­ti­la­tion.

The require­ments for a home boil­er room are deter­mined by GOST and are manda­to­ry. In par­tic­u­lar, for gas boil­ers with a pow­er of up to 30 kW, the area of ​​u200bu200bthe room must be at least 4 square meters, and the vol­ume — 8 cubic meters.

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A house­hold wall-mount­ed gas heat­ing boil­er has a com­pact size, but its pow­er is lim­it­ed, since mount­ing a boil­er with a large water tank on the wall places increased demands on the bear­ing capac­i­ty of the base.

Boil­ers of wall mod­els can be eas­i­ly installed in the util­i­ty room, in the kitchen, in the bath­room. To save space, you can use the exist­ing niche in the wall for instal­la­tion. In this case, it is not required to allo­cate a sep­a­rate room for the heat­ing boil­er, the nec­es­sary air flow into the com­bus­tion cham­ber and the out­put of com­bus­tion prod­ucts to the out­side will pro­vide a dou­ble-act­ing chim­ney — coax­i­al, replac­ing bulky tra­di­tion­al struc­tures.

When it is installed on the wall, accord­ing to the loca­tion of the boil­er, mark­ing is per­formed, and then a hole is made along the diam­e­ter of the coax­i­al chim­ney with an addi­tion of 3–4 cm for sub­se­quent com­plete seal­ing of the gaps with a caulk or oth­er method. The instal­la­tion of addi­tion­al air ducts or the con­nec­tion of this chim­ney to the com­mon shaft of the house is not required.

If you want to have at home, in addi­tion to heat­ing, an autonomous hot water sup­ply, a wall-mount­ed boil­er should be select­ed with a heat capac­i­ty of at least 24 kW (not to be con­fused with the elec­tri­cal pow­er con­sump­tion of the unit).

Cascade system of gas boilers

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When design­ing the heat­ing of pri­vate hous­es of a large area, in order to save mon­ey, they use the use of a cas­cade of gas boil­ers of small and medi­um pow­er, unit­ed by a sin­gle sys­tem of hydraulics and electrics (not to be con­fused with the par­al­lel con­nec­tion of a group of boil­ers, where each of them is con­trolled sep­a­rate­ly).

This tech­nol­o­gy, depend­ing on the time of year and the need for hot water, makes it pos­si­ble to use not the only avail­able huge floor-stand­ing unit, but the required num­ber of boil­ers from the cas­cade.

Ways to con­trol the cas­cade sys­tem of units can include not only the use of a cer­tain num­ber of cas­cade boil­ers, but also a com­bi­na­tion (using a cas­cade con­troller) of heat­ing devices oper­at­ing with dif­fer­ent pow­er set­tings.

The cas­cade use sys­tem is mount­ed both from floor-mount­ed boil­ers and from wall-mount­ed units.


In addi­tion to heat­ing pri­vate hous­ing, the cas­cade tech­nol­o­gy for installing heat­ing equip­ment, but from units of high­er pow­er, is used for heat­ing pub­lic build­ings (train sta­tions, shop­ping cen­ters, exhi­bi­tion and con­cert halls).

It’s impor­tant to know! For heat­ing an apart­ment with an area of ​​​​50–70 m2 5–10 kW of the total heat out­put of the boil­er is suf­fi­cient. The rest of the pow­er will be required to heat water in the DHW sys­tem. The more hot water intake points, the more pow­er­ful the boil­er should be.

If the pow­er of the unit is not suf­fi­cient to pro­vide the GHS in the required vol­ume, the instal­la­tion of an addi­tion­al device is used — an indi­rect heat­ing boil­er, which is con­nect­ed to the gas boil­er by pip­ing.

Classification by functionality

The divi­sion of boil­ers accord­ing to the type of place­ment is direct­ly relat­ed to the func­tion­al­i­ty of the gas unit, which depends on the num­ber of cir­cuits in the design of the device — one or two.

Sin­gle-cir­cuit boil­ers are used only for heat­ing res­i­den­tial premis­es, which is pro­vid­ed by the only water cir­cuit avail­able in the design of the unit.

For the full life sup­port of a res­i­den­tial facil­i­ty, dou­ble-cir­cuit gas boil­ers look more attrac­tive, which, in addi­tion to heat­ing, ensure the func­tion­ing of the hot water sup­ply sys­tem, using its sec­ond cir­cuit for this. Dou­ble-cir­cuit heat­ing devices dif­fer in the method of heat­ing the coolant:

  • flow­ing;
  • capac­i­tive.

 

With a small con­sump­tion of hot water and a small num­ber of hot water intake points (1 or 2), it is bet­ter to use dou­ble-cir­cuit boil­ers with instan­ta­neous water heat­ing. Such devices have less pow­er and are eco­nom­i­cal.

With a sig­nif­i­cant need for hot water, you should pur­chase a dou­ble-cir­cuit boil­er with a capac­i­tive method of heat­ing water, but even in this case, its con­sump­tion has lim­its — if the con­sump­tion of hot water with a tem­per­a­ture of +450With and above exceeds 20–40 liters per day, the boil­er will not be able to cope with space heat­ing, as it will work only for heat­ing water.

 

 

Mod­els of wall-mount­ed boil­ers with instan­ta­neous heat­ing are com­pact and quick­ly heat hot water. The dis­ad­van­tages of the design of such equip­ment are high gas con­sump­tion and a drop in the tem­per­a­ture of the coolant with inten­sive con­sump­tion of hot water. The way out of this sit­u­a­tion is to install a stor­age boil­er, which will reduce fuel con­sump­tion and allow you to main­tain the desired tem­per­a­ture of the coolant. How­ev­er, this oper­a­tion will sig­nif­i­cant­ly increase the cost of arrang­ing the heat­ing sys­tem, in addi­tion, a cer­tain loca­tion is also required to install the boil­er.

For ref­er­ence: own­ers of pri­vate hous­es, who are less lim­it­ed in liv­ing space than apart­ment res­i­dents, and who have sin­gle-cir­cuit boil­ers at their dis­pos­al, can addi­tion­al­ly install an indi­rect heat­ing boil­er of the required capac­i­ty as an alter­na­tive to a dou­ble-cir­cuit unit.

Design features

House­hold gas heat­ing equip­ment can have sig­nif­i­cant design dif­fer­ences and fea­tures, includ­ing dif­fer­ing in the mate­r­i­al of man­u­fac­ture of heat exchang­ers, which are divid­ed into the fol­low­ing types accord­ing to this fea­ture:

  • steel — on the equip­ment of bud­get mod­els;
  • cast iron — for floor-stand­ing boil­ers;
  • stain­less steel — used in wall-mount­ed boil­ers;
  • bimetal­lic (bither­mic) — the most com­mon type.

 

Each type of heat exchang­er has its own advan­tages and dis­ad­van­tages, so the heat exchang­er must be select­ed with ref­er­ence to oper­at­ing con­di­tions and per­son­al pref­er­ences:

  • steel heat exchang­ers are cheap, but sub­ject to cor­ro­sion.
  • cast iron prod­ucts are prac­ti­cal and durable.
  • bimetal­lic prod­ucts are light­weight and there­fore are installed in wall-mount­ed mod­els of dou­ble-cir­cuit boil­ers.
  • stain­less steel heat exchang­ers are strong, durable, do not change the chem­i­cal com­po­si­tion of water, but due to the high cost of the mate­r­i­al and the com­plex­i­ty of man­u­fac­tur­ing tech­nol­o­gy, they have a high price.

Gas heat­ing boil­ers are also clas­si­fied accord­ing to the design of the com­bus­tion cham­ber:

  • open type;
  • closed fur­nace.

The dif­fer­ence between them is that when the wind blows, harm­ful com­bus­tion prod­ucts can enter the room. In addi­tion, the air nec­es­sary for the com­bus­tion of gas enters the open com­bus­tion cham­ber from the room, which leads to the burn­ing of oxy­gen in the room. Both of these fac­tors oblige to peri­od­i­cal­ly ven­ti­late hous­ing.

And the closed type of the com­bus­tion cham­ber iso­lates the com­bus­tion process from the atmos­phere of the room, the air enters there from the out­side, and the oxy­gen in the room does not burn out.

Cur­rent­ly, con­dens­ing gas boil­ers and tur­bocharged units are gain­ing pop­u­lar­i­ty, which, with less fuel con­sump­tion, have greater effi­cien­cy, but, accord­ing­ly, a high­er price.

See also: why does a gas boil­er blow out?

Conclusion

Each mod­el of a domes­tic gas boil­er has its own func­tion­al­i­ty and resource. When choos­ing a device mod­el for your­self, it is nec­es­sary to take into account the con­di­tions for the upcom­ing oper­a­tion of the unit and the tasks that it will have to solve. Bud­get mod­els are able to meet the min­i­mum require­ments of con­sumers, while expen­sive appli­ances sig­nif­i­cant­ly expand the capa­bil­i­ties of the inhab­i­tants of an apart­ment or res­i­den­tial build­ing.

Accord­ing to these reflec­tions, it is not worth sav­ing on heat­ing equip­ment, just as it is not worth pay­ing for the poten­tial of equip­ment that will not be in demand as unnec­es­sary.

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