Do-it-yourself brick chimney: laying steps, tips

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truba-na-kryshe

Hav­ing decid­ed to build a brick chim­ney with your own hands, you will fol­low the path of the name­less mas­ters who laid stoves one and a half, and two hun­dred years ago.

There­fore, you should not “rein­vent the wheel” if you can use their expe­ri­ence.

How to make a chim­ney accord­ing to all the rules will be dis­cussed fur­ther in our new arti­cle.

Advantages and disadvantages of a brick chimney

Despite the fact that the met­al pipe is no longer exot­ic, chim­neys con­tin­ue to be made of brick. In some ways, this looks like an anachro­nism, but there are good rea­sons why you should not aban­don the clas­sic tech­nol­o­gy of lay­ing smoke ducts.modern brick chimney

The main one — brick has a high ther­mal iner­tia. Exhaust hot gas­es heat it weak­ly, which sig­nif­i­cant­ly reduces the fire haz­ard of the heat­ing device. We must not for­get about anoth­er aspect — the tem­per­a­ture of the smoke at the upper cut of the pipe should not fall below 60–70 degrees. Oth­er­wise, con­den­sa­tion will flow through it. The brick plays the role of a ther­mos shell and does not allow the smoke to cool too much.

But there are two fatal flaws:

  1. The com­plex­i­ty of the mason­ry.
  2. The weight.

On the pipe with all the ele­ments, depend­ing on the height of the attic, it takes from 400 to 800 pieces of bricks weigh­ing 3.8 kilo­grams.

A col­umn hav­ing a base area of ​​not more than 0.25 sq. meters, the whole mass press­es on the stove. This is a con­cen­trat­ed load. If the total height of the pipe exceeds 5 meters, then it is placed on a sep­a­rate base, and con­nect­ed to the heater with a tran­si­tion pipe.

Brick chimney as an engineering structure

The chim­ney, for all its exter­nal unpre­ten­tious­ness, is a com­plex engi­neer­ing struc­ture, to which seri­ous require­ments are imposed. They relate to strength, fire safe­ty, the abil­i­ty to effec­tive­ly remove hot gas­es. There­fore, the instal­la­tion of a chim­ney in a wood­en house should begin with an acquain­tance with its device.

Main elements

brick chimney elements with names

  1. Inter­nal chim­ney — is con­duct­ed from the ceil­ing of the fur­nace to a lev­el below the ceil­ing by four rows of brick­work.
  2. Cut­ting (fluff) — expan­sion of the wall thick­ness of the pipe when it pass­es through the ceil­ing.
  3. Exter­nal chim­ney — con­duct­ed through the attic to the lev­el of the roof.
  4. Otter — anoth­er expan­sion of the thick­ness of the walls of the chim­ney, arranged to cov­er the gap between it, the roof sheath­ing and its cov­er­ing.
  5. Neck — con­tin­u­a­tion of the exter­nal chim­ney.
  6. head­room — thick­en­ing of the walls, which plays the role of a deflec­tor.

Requirements for a brick chimney

The main one is the dis­tance “from smoke” to com­bustible struc­tures. It is equal to 250 mm — this is the full length of a sol­id ceram­ic brick.

The sec­ond require­ment is the strict ver­ti­cal­i­ty of the struc­ture. Devi­a­tion from it by more than 3 degrees (per one meter of height) is not allowed. Also, there should be no through cracks in the brick­work.

Chimney calculation

The main cri­te­ri­on is the inter­nal sec­tion. The abil­i­ty to remove hot gas­es main­ly depends on it. The more pow­er­ful the stove, the wider the chim­ney should be. There are three stan­dard sizes used for one or anoth­er type of heat­ing device.chimney "six"

  1. “Four” — a row of which is formed by four bricks. Sec­tion 125 by 125 mm. It is used for cook­ing stoves or heat­ing stoves of low pow­er.
  2. “Five” — ​​a rec­tan­gu­lar chim­ney, formed by a row of five bricks. Sec­tion 250 by 125 mm. It is used for heat­ing and heat­ing-cook­ing fur­naces. Chim­neys for fire­places small­er than this sec­tion are not rec­om­mend­ed.
  3. “Six” — a square pipe, a row of six bricks. Sec­tion 250 by 250 mm. It is used for fire­places and Euro­pean stoves — wher­ev­er a min­i­mum resis­tance to the move­ment of hot gas­es is required.

The sec­ond most impor­tant cri­te­ri­on in the cal­cu­la­tion is height. It depends on the place of its out­put to the roof rel­a­tive to the ridge:

  1. Pipes installed on a ridge or at a dis­tance of no more than 1.5 meters from it rise 0.5 meters above the roof.
  2. Chim­neys pass­ing through the roof at a dis­tance of one and a half to three meters to the ridge are made with a height equal to it.
  3. If the dis­tance is more than three meters, then the angle between the ridge and the upper cut of the pipe should be 10 degrees.



Chimney masonry

laying steps

There is no fun­da­men­tal dif­fer­ence between the lay­ing of an array of stoves and chim­neys. It is car­ried out on a clay-sand mor­tar using the same tools — an oven ham­mer, a trow­el and a plumb line. How­ev­er, ele­ments such as fluff and otter are laid out using a large num­ber of pieces of brick 1/8, 1/4, 1/2 and 3/4 of the whole.

To avoid split­ting and tes­ka, which are accom­pa­nied by clouds of brick dust and rarely give the desired result, it is worth using a “grinder” with a dia­mond wheel for ceram­ics. This guar­an­tees the accu­ra­cy of work, elim­i­nates tedious work and a lot of use­less brick bat­tle.

Solution

For mason­ry up to the roof lev­el, a mix­ture of sand and clay is used, since it has a coef­fi­cient of lin­ear expan­sion sim­i­lar to brick, which is a cer­tain guar­an­tee against the appear­ance of cracks. mason's tool

The pure clay used as a binder can be either oily or lean. In some places, deposits come across where the pro­por­tion­al ratio of the amount of clay to sand is nat­u­ral­ly opti­mal: one to three or four.

With an increase in the vol­ume frac­tion of clay, the solu­tion cracks after dry­ing, and with a decrease, it crum­bles. To deter­mine the opti­mal ratio of vol­u­met­ric parts, it is nec­es­sary to knead the fin­ished solu­tion in the fin­gers. It should not be notice­ably slip­pery or rough, like sand­pa­per.

The exca­vat­ed clay is soaked in an iron con­tain­er for 3–4 days. The result should be a homo­ge­neous clay pulp with­out stones, sim­i­lar in con­sis­ten­cy to liq­uid sour cream.

The sand tak­en in the flood­plain of streams and rivers is very fine, dusty. It is not suit­able for lay­ing. It is bet­ter to use one that con­sists of grains of 0.8–1 mm. It is rough to the touch.

Clay and sand are mixed by vol­ume in a ratio of one to three or four. Water is added grad­u­al­ly, in small por­tions. The fin­ished solu­tion should leave traces on the trow­el (but not stick to it) and not drain from it.

To avoid errors in pro­por­tions, it is bet­ter to buy ready-made dry clay-sand mason­ry mix­ture. Please note that the one marked “refrac­to­ry” is not suit­able for mason­ry.

Brick

solid red brickSol­id burnt red brick is used.

Its edges should be even, with­out cracks, and the sound made by a light blow on it with an oven ham­mer should be sonorous.

The stan­dard size used for mason­ry is 250 long, 125 wide and 75 mm high.

Internal chimney masonry

It begins imme­di­ate­ly after the damper is installed and the fur­nace over­lap is com­plet­ed. The mason­ry tech­niques are the same — apply­ing a lay­er of mor­tar, lay­ing bricks, “shak­ing” it with your hand and light­ly tap­ping it with a pick. Ver­ti­cal­i­ty and hor­i­zon­tal­i­ty are checked after lay­ing each row. Fin­ish it for four brick heights to the ceil­ing.

Fluff masonry

make fluff in the roof

The expan­sion of the chim­ney wall thick­ness is car­ried out to com­ply with the require­ment that com­bustible struc­tures be locat­ed at a dis­tance of 250 mm “from smoke”. The usu­al wall thick­ness of the chim­ney is 125 mm. To dou­ble it, you need to fold four rows, each of which moves out­ward by 1/8 of the width of the brick rel­a­tive to the bot­tom — just the amount that allows the brick to lie with­out being thrown over. The mason­ry prin­ci­ple for all three sizes is the same:

  1. The inner sur­face (to the smoke) of the first row is laid out in 1/8 parts. The gaps between the out­er bricks are filled in 1/4 incre­ments.
  2. In the sec­ond row, the parts increase, respec­tive­ly, to 1/4 and 1/2.
  3. On the third row, 1/2 and 3/4 parts are used.
  4. The out­er belt of the fourth row of fluff is laid out with whole bricks.

Hav­ing reached the ceil­ing, it is laid, observ­ing the dress­ing of the seams, two or three more rows high­er. A gap of 2–3 cm is left between the ceil­ing and it, in order to exclude the pres­sure of the struc­ture on the mason­ry. It is cov­ered with min­er­al wool boards. Lay­ing up to the roof is car­ried out in the usu­al man­ner — with dress­ing of ver­ti­cal joints and con­trol of ver­ti­cal­i­ty.

Otter clutch

otter diagram

It begins after the edge of the chim­ney brick has risen above the roof. It is car­ried out out­side, in com­pli­ance with all safe­ty mea­sures when work­ing at height. You can use cement mor­tar. They start it from the edge that is low­er along the slope. The dis­tance from the smoke on each row is equal to 1/8 of the width of the brick. In total, the otter should have six rows. After it, they put the neck — the usu­al con­tin­u­a­tion of the chim­ney. The gaps between the roof and the chim­ney are closed with a “col­lar” made of sheet roof­ing steel.

head masonry

headroom on the roofThis is a chim­ney deflec­tor that pre­vents smoke from clog­ging into the chim­ney dur­ing air tur­bu­lence.

It is laid out in two rows, shift­ing the first from the smoke by 1/8 of the brick, and the sec­ond by 1/2.

For its pro­tru­sions, you can hook the clamps of a met­al cap, which pre­vents pre­cip­i­ta­tion from enter­ing the pipe.

How much will it cost

The brick chim­ney on the roof has man­aged to become a visu­al con­stant in three cen­turies. And a build­ing with such a fin­ish looks, accord­ing to sub­jec­tive esti­mates, much more attrac­tive.

It remains only to deter­mine how much it will cost you to com­ply with the canons. If you involve third-par­ty crafts­men, then the price of the work will be added to the cost of the brick. And she’s big. In the world and the region, for exam­ple, lay­ing one brick will cost from 50 to 90 rubles.

A sol­id sin­gle brick of the M 150 brand, which is used for lay­ing fur­naces, costs from 15 to 20 rubles apiece.

The solu­tion, if you pre­pare your­self, is free.

Five kilo­grams of the fin­ished mason­ry mix­ture cost 60–70 rubles. One pack­age is enough for 10–15 rows of pipes with a sec­tion of 125 by 250 mm (six).

Let’s com­pare the cost of a meter of a met­al sand­wich pipe with a diam­e­ter of 250 mm and a brick pipe with a cross sec­tion of 250 by 250 mm. Just the kind that can be used for installing fire­place chim­neys.

Brick (at a price of 15 rubles apiece) mason­ry mix­ture Mas­ter’s work Total, rubles
brick chim­ney 9 dol­lars 70 rubles 30 dol­lars 3970
met­al sand­wich pipe - - - 3800

As you can see, the prices are almost the same. Of course, it is worth adding the price of mason­ry fluff, otter and head. But, giv­en the best per­for­mance char­ac­ter­is­tics of brick pipes — no cor­ro­sion, high ther­mal resis­tance, it makes sense to spend mon­ey on such an acqui­si­tion. And if you are going to lay a brick chim­ney with your own hands, then it will cost almost half the price of met­al sand­wich pipes.

Secrets of the skill of stove-makers

  1. Before lay­ing, the brick must be soaked — low­ered into water and wait until the vio­lent erup­tion of air bub­bles stops. Wet ceram­ic blocks adhere more strong­ly to the mor­tar.
  2. For split­ting and tesky bricks, use a “grinder” with a dia­mond disc for stone.
  3. When lay­ing in the attic, hang a plumb line on the rafters, between the future pipe and the work­place. This will save you from hav­ing to touch it to check. To con­trol the ver­ti­cal­i­ty of the angle, it is enough to change the posi­tion of the head.

Do not for­get that a chim­ney in a pri­vate house is not only a con­ve­nience, but also a tech­ni­cal device that requires prop­er oper­a­tion and main­te­nance. Clean it of soot, inspect it for cracks, heat the stove or fire­place with dry wood and it will serve you well for many years.


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