When building a private house, at some point the question arises about the organization of its heating system, which, of course, differs from that in multi-apartment building houses.
And it is not at all necessary to resort to the help of outside services and companies specializing in heating private houses, since each homeowner can arrange it independently.
In the independent organization of heating a private house, the most difficult is the initial stage of calculation and selection of equipment. Therefore, with almost absolute independence of heating, it is recommended to consult with specialists in order to avoid mistakes at this stage.
What types of heating systems are there?
All types of heating systems in a private house are distinguished from each other by the type of coolant that generates thermal energy.
Such types of systems are used that are able to evenly heat the entire room and not leave cold air masses in remote places of the room.
There are the following heating systems:
- Water. The key element of this variety is the boiler, which heats the water and delivers it to the pipes. In each room of a private house, radiators are installed, to which piping is suitable, and water circulates in the resulting closed circuit. Thus, hot water comes from the boiler and returns to the same boiler, which ensures its constant heating.
- Steam. The principle of operation of this type of heating a private house is similar to the above. The excellent thing is that heated water from the boiler enters through pipes in the form of steam, reaches the radiator system and, giving off thermal energy, condenses back into water, returning to the boiler. It is especially important that the steam type of heating is not currently used in private buildings, since a large-sized boiler is difficult and even dangerous to operate in a residential building.
- Air. The key element of this type of heating of a private house is a heat generator, the function of which is to heat the air and send it through the air duct system directly to the premises. The cold air is replaced with warm air, and the cold air rushes through the air ducts back to the heat generator. As a result, a kind of continuous circulation of air masses occurs.
- Electrical. This kind of organization of heating is carried out using infrared heaters, electric convectors or underfloor heating systems. The latter option allows you to evenly heat the room by occupying the full area under the floor of the room. But there are a number of disadvantages of electric heating, first of all, it is its inefficiency with large expenditures on electrical energy. Therefore, homeowners often install a boiler for gas heating at home with it.
Which boiler is better to choose?
Of course, of all types of heating and boilers, it is necessary to choose the most economical, compact and convenient for installation in a private house with subsequent operation.
- Gas equipment. Among its advantages are high efficiency, especially in the EU, availability and ease of installation. The disadvantages include the need for regular wet cleaning of radiators in the premises, explosiveness and the impossibility of spontaneous shutdown in winter. It is also necessary that there is a gas pipeline near the private house, without which the gas boiler simply will not work. The efficiency of gas boilers lies in the range of 70–96%, which depends on the particular type of boiler.
- Electric boilers. The main advantage of this type of equipment is that the power line almost always runs next to every private house. Also, the operation of the electric boiler does not create noise interference, is highly automated, has a precise control of the power of the boiler and the temperature in the premises. Particular attention deserves the absence of harm to the environment and the need to build a chimney. The disadvantages include the high cost of operation, which directly depends on the size of a private house and the operating time of the boiler. The efficiency is about 95%.
- Solid fuel boilers. They are equipment that runs on solid fuels (coal, peat, wood). Solid fuel equipment does not depend on the presence or absence of gas or electricity, it is available, safe and cheap in terms of pricing. However, among the shortcomings, the need for periodic cleaning of the furnace and constant replenishment of fuel reserves in it is highlighted. The efficiency of this type of boilers is not more than 5–10%.
- Combined boilers. This type is able to work on different types of fuel, which is its great advantage. Also, when using them, there is a reliable security of the entire system and the independence of the boiler operation process. The advantage is that combined equipment is often used as a reserve. Despite all the advantages, this type of road heating equipment is low in capacity and requires a separate storage room for all types of fuel. The efficiency is 80–90%.
- alternative energywhich includes solar collectors and heat pumps. This type of equipment uses the energy of the environment and creates heat in a private house. The advantages are reduced danger of fires in the house, no unpleasant odors, no need to constantly change the fuel, cost-effectiveness in terms of finances and energy. The disadvantage is the low level of profitability, but it is this type of equipment that is considered progressive and looking to the future.
- Stove heating. It unevenly heats the entire volume of the room, thereby providing a perceptible difference in temperatures. Only a small-sized house can be fully heated with a stove, which indicates the need to use a more modern type of heating system.
For the correct purchase of a suitable boiler, its calculation by area is required. To do this, you need to know the area of u200bu200bthe room in m2 and the specific power determined specifically for each region of the country. Boiler specific power is calculated as the product of the area and the standard power for each area, divided by 10. The result is in kilowatts.
Design and schemes of the water heating system
There are a number of standard schemes according to which planning is carried out first, and then the installation of a heating system in a private house. In some cases, their classification is based on the presence or absence of a specialized tank for collecting condensate, in other cases, the number of pipes in the main system wiring.
There are open and closed circuits of heating systems:
- in open loop there is a special, not completely sealed expansion tank for the accumulation of condensate and its subsequent sending to the boiler after cooling the water masses. Such a system is very simple and independent of energy, since the coolant circulates under the action of natural forces. Water circulation occurs at a slow pace. For this circuit, the installation of gas, solid fuel types of boilers is suitable. The open circuit is used in country and suburban private buildings.
- In a closed circuit there is an independent return of condensate to the boiler using a pipe, bypassing the expansion tank. This is due to the tightness of all components of the heating system, thus, the coolant does not evaporate, and the circulation of water is ensured by the operation of the pump. A significant advantage of a closed circuit is that by adjusting the volume of the coolant, it is possible to control the temperature level of the room. However, this circuit needs power supply. The closed system is used in cottage buildings.
By the number of pipes involved in the wiring, systems are distinguished:
- one-pipe or Leningrad;
- collector (multicircuit).
One-pipe or Leningrad scheme has as its distinctive feature the absence of a separate outlet for cold water. Thus, all the water, being and circulating in a closed circuit in the direction from the previous radiator to the next, is heated to different temperatures in different sections of the entire system. Closer to the peripherally located radiators, the water is cool, and near the boiler, on the contrary, it can be too hot, which only worsens the heating efficiency of the whole house.
It should also be noted that when one radiator stops working, all subsequent ones are turned off. But there are also advantages of a single-pipe scheme: it is quite easy to install, even on its own.
Two-pipe scheme differs in better heating of all rooms in a private house, since two pipes are connected to each of the radiators in its composition.
One of them is designed for the outflow of cooled water back to the boiler, and the second one is for delivering hot water from the boiler.
Thus, all radiators in this circuit are temperature equalized, ensuring the efficiency of the system.
Video about one-pipe and two-pipe heating systems:
With a collector (multi-circuit) scheme on the radiators there is a special device — a collector. It is designed to divide the total water flow into several lines and use several circuits. Two pipes still fit to the radiators, but they are no longer connected to each other, but, passing through the collector, they direct water to the boiler.
When choosing the three above schemes, water is the best coolant.
Calculation and selection of radiators
When choosing the type of radiator suitable for your heating system, you should focus on providing them with:
- stable heat transfer to the premises;
- good appearance;
- ease of use.
According to the design features, radiators are distinguished:
- Sectional. Includes a number of departments — sections.
- Tubular. They consist of curved tubes through which the coolant circulates.
- Panel. Made in the form of cast panels with containers for the heat carrier.
- lamellar. Represented by plates, on which the heating element is additionally fixed.
According to the material used, radiators are distinguished:
- Steel. The way they transfer heat is by convection, they are highly efficient, easy to install, convenient and very economical.
- Cast iron. Just as effective and cheap, but the appearance is more bulky, and there is an increased likelihood of unplanned breakthroughs when the pressure in the pipes increases.
- Aluminum. They are more aesthetic, light, the level of heat transfer is high.
- Bimetallic. During their operation, it is possible to use any type of heat carrier, in addition, they are able to withstand greater pressure in the system.
For optimal heating of the entire private house, it is important to correctly calculate the power of selected radiators, taking into account the area of u200bu200bthe rooms, the climate conditions of the place of residence, as well as heat loss. The power of a radiator means how much heat energy it can transfer into the room in an hour, either as a whole or as a separate section.
In standard cast iron radiators, the power of one section is 160 W, which is very convenient for determining the power of the entire radiator by multiplying this value by the number of sections. By the same principle, the power of an aluminum radiator is considered, where the average value of the section power is 200 watts. If the radiator is panel steel, then it does not include sections and has a standard total power of 800‑1400 watts.
The thermal power of any selected radiator should compensate for the heat loss of the room, which is why it is so important to carefully select a radiator, taking into account all the main characteristics.
Selection and installation of a gas boiler, pipes, radiators, chimney
A mandatory step in the independent equipment of the heating system at home is the choice of pipes. There are several types of pipes for heating, differing from each other in a number of parameters. The main ones include:
- Polypropylene. It is the most popular type of pipe, featuring excellent inner surface and reliable wall thickness. Their range is significant, and the prices are economical. They can be used for 50 years and are not susceptible to corrosion. However, after installation, it is difficult to replace individual units of the entire system.
- Copper. Due to high prices and difficulties in installation, this type is almost not in demand for home heating. Although with a sharp decrease in temperature, their tightness does not suffer, which will only protect the house.
- metal-plastic. Affordable, but the parts used to connect them, on the contrary, are expensive. Easy to install, not subject to corrosion. They serve for 15 years.
- Steel. They are also almost never installed in private buildings due to installation difficulties, the need for grounding and susceptibility to corrosive processes.
Pipes are mounted in accordance with their typical features and purpose for cold or hot water. Referring to the prepared wiring diagram, the pipes are connected in series first to the boiler, then to each other and, finally, to the radiators. The connection is carried out using corners, adapters, couplings, tees, crosses, plugs and clamps.
After selecting all the necessary equipment, including the boiler, proceed to its independent installation in several stages. To do this, the parameters of the boiler room are initially taken into account: it should not be less than 5 m with a ceiling height of up to 2.5 meters, good ventilation, a window (when the boiler is placed in the basement, which is the most common place of choice), a chimney, a gas analyzer. The boiler is placed on a concrete floor or a sheet of metal with its vertical arrangement or hung on a wall — with a wall-mounted one.
If the boiler is placed on the wall, then a chimney is initially mounted with a hole for it leading to the street. Next, the boiler is suspended with hooks and bolts and connected to a pre-installed chimney, as well as to a common gas pipeline. Pipes are connected in accordance with the selected heating system, and electricity is connected. When installing the boiler on the wall, a strong load-bearing wall is selected, the optimal height and position of the boiler are determined.
If the boiler is placed on the floor, then a special concrete podium with a height of about 15–20 cm is made. Having installed the boiler on it, having spent a lot of effort on it, we prevent staggering. A connection is also made in the chimney, the hole for which is located on the wall behind the boiler. The chimney pipe is directed to the street in a downward direction. The chimney opening after complete installation is closed with a solution. The boiler is connected to a gas pipeline.
If an electric boiler is installed, it is not required to connect it to the chimney.
You can do the installation of the collector with your own hands. A place for it is chosen in a recess in the wall just above the floor or in a specially organized metal box. They take into account that many pipes will be connected to the collector, so they make their own supply for radiators.
It is important to install radiators. They are placed on the lower part of the walls not less than 10–15 cm from the window sill and 10 cm from the floor, and the distance from the radiator grille and the wall should be approximately 2–4 cm. Choose the most optimal mounting method:
- Lateral unilateral. This is the most common type of installation, in which the hot water pipe is attached to the top of the radiator, and the cold water pipe to the bottom.
- Lower. Both pipes are directed towards the floor, which creates a more advantageous aesthetic appearance.
- Diagonal. With it, the hot water pipe is connected to the top of the radiator on one side, and the cold water pipe to the bottom of the other side.
After the complete installation of the boiler, pipes, chimney, radiators, the heating system is started and filled with coolant. The boiler is usually started in the warm season. Under pressure, the coolant is distributed to all components of the heating system.
Video about the installation of the heating system in the house:
The cost of materials and work
The price for which you can independently install a heating system in a private house largely depends on the choice of coolant, the size of the house, the type of pipes, boiler, and the type of organization of the system.
On average, the cost of all materials and tools at the end of the installation will be from 250$ for gas heating, and for installing an electric floor heating — 20,000–300 dollars.
But it is worth recalling once again that everything very much depends on the type of equipment chosen. In some cases, the complete heating system of a private house costs 200,000 thousand rubles.
The cost of installing a heating system by specialists is more expensive, primarily because of the payment for their direct work. So, for the installation of various types of radiators it will take an average of 2000–25$, for the installation of a warm floor — about 5 dollars per square meter, for the installation of a boiler — about 3000–50 dollars. These amounts are added to the total cost of the equipment.
If you think at least a little about repairing and, for example, installing a water supply system, then installing a heating system in a private house on your own is much more profitable than using companies. This determines the choice of many homeowners to heat their home on their own.
Thus, there is a wide variety of types of equipment for installing heating in a private house, as well as ways to install it. When choosing the type of heating system, one should take into account not only the total cost of future work, but also one’s own strengths, capabilities, the size of the house and the climatic conditions of the region. Everyone can arrange the heating of their home, you just need to try hard for this.