Do-it-yourself heating system for a private house: types, installation

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Scheme of the system of a private house

When build­ing a pri­vate house, at some point the ques­tion aris­es about the orga­ni­za­tion of its heat­ing sys­tem, which, of course, dif­fers from that in mul­ti-apart­ment build­ing hous­es.

And it is not at all nec­es­sary to resort to the help of out­side ser­vices and com­pa­nies spe­cial­iz­ing in heat­ing pri­vate hous­es, since each home­own­er can arrange it inde­pen­dent­ly.

In the inde­pen­dent orga­ni­za­tion of heat­ing a pri­vate house, the most dif­fi­cult is the ini­tial stage of cal­cu­la­tion and selec­tion of equip­ment. There­fore, with almost absolute inde­pen­dence of heat­ing, it is rec­om­mend­ed to con­sult with spe­cial­ists in order to avoid mis­takes at this stage.

What types of heating systems are there?

All types of heat­ing sys­tems in a pri­vate house are dis­tin­guished from each oth­er by the type of coolant that gen­er­ates ther­mal ener­gy.

Such types of sys­tems are used that are able to even­ly heat the entire room and not leave cold air mass­es in remote places of the room.

There are the fol­low­ing heat­ing sys­tems:

  • Water heating with underfloor heatingWater. The key ele­ment of this vari­ety is the boil­er, which heats the water and deliv­ers it to the pipes. In each room of a pri­vate house, radi­a­tors are installed, to which pip­ing is suit­able, and water cir­cu­lates in the result­ing closed cir­cuit. Thus, hot water comes from the boil­er and returns to the same boil­er, which ensures its con­stant heat­ing.
  • Steam. The prin­ci­ple of oper­a­tion of this type of heat­ing a pri­vate house is sim­i­lar to the above. The excel­lent thing is that heat­ed water from the boil­er enters through pipes in the form of steam, reach­es the radi­a­tor sys­tem and, giv­ing off ther­mal ener­gy, con­dens­es back into water, return­ing to the boil­er. It is espe­cial­ly impor­tant that the steam type of heat­ing is not cur­rent­ly used in pri­vate build­ings, since a large-sized boil­er is dif­fi­cult and even dan­ger­ous to oper­ate in a res­i­den­tial build­ing.
  • Air. The key ele­ment of this type of heat­ing of a pri­vate house is a heat gen­er­a­tor, the func­tion of which is to heat the air and send it through the air duct sys­tem direct­ly to the premis­es. The cold air is replaced with warm air, and the cold air rush­es through the air ducts back to the heat gen­er­a­tor. As a result, a kind of con­tin­u­ous cir­cu­la­tion of air mass­es occurs.
  • Elec­tri­cal. This kind of orga­ni­za­tion of heat­ing is car­ried out using infrared heaters, elec­tric con­vec­tors or under­floor heat­ing sys­tems. The lat­ter option allows you to even­ly heat the room by occu­py­ing the full area under the floor of the room. But there are a num­ber of dis­ad­van­tages of elec­tric heat­ing, first of all, it is its inef­fi­cien­cy with large expen­di­tures on elec­tri­cal ener­gy. There­fore, home­own­ers often install a boil­er for gas heat­ing at home with it.

Which heat pump to choose for heat­ing a pri­vate house?

Why do I need an expan­sion tank for a closed heat­ing sys­tem? Use­ful tips for selec­tion.

Which boiler is better to choose?

Of course, of all types of heat­ing and boil­ers, it is nec­es­sary to choose the most eco­nom­i­cal, com­pact and con­ve­nient for instal­la­tion in a pri­vate house with sub­se­quent oper­a­tion.

  • Gas equip­ment. Among its advan­tages are high effi­cien­cy, espe­cial­ly in the EU, avail­abil­i­ty and ease of instal­la­tion. The dis­ad­van­tages include the need for reg­u­lar wet clean­ing of radi­a­tors in the premis­es, explo­sive­ness and the impos­si­bil­i­ty of spon­ta­neous shut­down in win­ter. It is also nec­es­sary that there is a gas pipeline near the pri­vate house, with­out which the gas boil­er sim­ply will not work. The effi­cien­cy of gas boil­ers lies in the range of 70–96%, which depends on the par­tic­u­lar type of boil­er.
  • Elec­tric boil­ers. The main advan­tage of this type of equip­ment is that the pow­er line almost always runs next to every pri­vate house. Also, the oper­a­tion of the elec­tric boil­er does not cre­ate noise inter­fer­ence, is high­ly auto­mat­ed, has a pre­cise con­trol of the pow­er of the boil­er and the tem­per­a­ture in the premis­es. Par­tic­u­lar atten­tion deserves the absence of harm to the envi­ron­ment and the need to build a chim­ney. The dis­ad­van­tages include the high cost of oper­a­tion, which direct­ly depends on the size of a pri­vate house and the oper­at­ing time of the boil­er. The effi­cien­cy is about 95%.
  • Sol­id fuel boil­ers. They are equip­ment that runs on sol­id fuels (coal, peat, wood). Sol­id fuel equip­ment does not depend on the pres­ence or absence of gas or elec­tric­i­ty, it is avail­able, safe and cheap in terms of pric­ing. How­ev­er, among the short­com­ings, the need for peri­od­ic clean­ing of the fur­nace and con­stant replen­ish­ment of fuel reserves in it is high­light­ed. The effi­cien­cy of this type of boil­ers is not more than 5–10%.
  • Com­bined boil­ers. This type is able to work on dif­fer­ent types of fuel, which is its great advan­tage. Also, when using them, there is a reli­able secu­ri­ty of the entire sys­tem and the inde­pen­dence of the boil­er oper­a­tion process. The advan­tage is that com­bined equip­ment is often used as a reserve. Despite all the advan­tages, this type of road heat­ing equip­ment is low in capac­i­ty and requires a sep­a­rate stor­age room for all types of fuel. The effi­cien­cy is 80–90%.
  • alter­na­tive ener­gywhich includes solar col­lec­tors and heat pumps. This type of equip­ment uses the ener­gy of the envi­ron­ment and cre­ates heat in a pri­vate house. The advan­tages are reduced dan­ger of fires in the house, no unpleas­ant odors, no need to con­stant­ly change the fuel, cost-effec­tive­ness in terms of finances and ener­gy. The dis­ad­van­tage is the low lev­el of prof­itabil­i­ty, but it is this type of equip­ment that is con­sid­ered pro­gres­sive and look­ing to the future.
  • Stove heat­ing. It uneven­ly heats the entire vol­ume of the room, there­by pro­vid­ing a per­cep­ti­ble dif­fer­ence in tem­per­a­tures. Only a small-sized house can be ful­ly heat­ed with a stove, which indi­cates the need to use a more mod­ern type of heat­ing sys­tem.



Double-circuit gas heating boilerFor the cor­rect pur­chase of a suit­able boil­er, its cal­cu­la­tion by area is required. To do this, you need to know the area of ​​u200bu200bthe room in m2 and the spe­cif­ic pow­er deter­mined specif­i­cal­ly for each region of the coun­try. Boil­er spe­cif­ic pow­er is cal­cu­lat­ed as the prod­uct of the area and the stan­dard pow­er for each area, divid­ed by 10. The result is in kilo­watts.

Design and schemes of the water heating system

There are a num­ber of stan­dard schemes accord­ing to which plan­ning is car­ried out first, and then the instal­la­tion of a heat­ing sys­tem in a pri­vate house. In some cas­es, their clas­si­fi­ca­tion is based on the pres­ence or absence of a spe­cial­ized tank for col­lect­ing con­den­sate, in oth­er cas­es, the num­ber of pipes in the main sys­tem wiring.

There are open and closed cir­cuits of heat­ing sys­tems:

  • in open loop there is a spe­cial, not com­plete­ly sealed expan­sion tank for the accu­mu­la­tion of con­den­sate and its sub­se­quent send­ing to the boil­er after cool­ing the water mass­es. Such a sys­tem is very sim­ple and inde­pen­dent of ener­gy, since the coolant cir­cu­lates under the action of nat­ur­al forces. Water cir­cu­la­tion occurs at a slow pace. For this cir­cuit, the instal­la­tion of gas, sol­id fuel types of boil­ers is suit­able. The open cir­cuit is used in coun­try and sub­ur­ban pri­vate build­ings.
  • In a closed cir­cuit there is an inde­pen­dent return of con­den­sate to the boil­er using a pipe, bypass­ing the expan­sion tank. This is due to the tight­ness of all com­po­nents of the heat­ing sys­tem, thus, the coolant does not evap­o­rate, and the cir­cu­la­tion of water is ensured by the oper­a­tion of the pump. A sig­nif­i­cant advan­tage of a closed cir­cuit is that by adjust­ing the vol­ume of the coolant, it is pos­si­ble to con­trol the tem­per­a­ture lev­el of the room. How­ev­er, this cir­cuit needs pow­er sup­ply. The closed sys­tem is used in cot­tage build­ings.
Scheme of a heating system with natural circulation

Scheme of a heat­ing sys­tem with nat­ur­al cir­cu­la­tion

By the num­ber of pipes involved in the wiring, sys­tems are dis­tin­guished:

  • one-pipe or Leningrad;
  • two-pipe;
  • col­lec­tor (mul­ti­cir­cuit).

One-pipe or Leningrad scheme has as its dis­tinc­tive fea­ture the absence of a sep­a­rate out­let for cold water. Thus, all the water, being and cir­cu­lat­ing in a closed cir­cuit in the direc­tion from the pre­vi­ous radi­a­tor to the next, is heat­ed to dif­fer­ent tem­per­a­tures in dif­fer­ent sec­tions of the entire sys­tem. Clos­er to the periph­er­al­ly locat­ed radi­a­tors, the water is cool, and near the boil­er, on the con­trary, it can be too hot, which only wors­ens the heat­ing effi­cien­cy of the whole house.

It should also be not­ed that when one radi­a­tor stops work­ing, all sub­se­quent ones are turned off. But there are also advan­tages of a sin­gle-pipe scheme: it is quite easy to install, even on its own.

Two-pipe scheme dif­fers in bet­ter heat­ing of all rooms in a pri­vate house, since two pipes are con­nect­ed to each of the radi­a­tors in its com­po­si­tion.

One of them is designed for the out­flow of cooled water back to the boil­er, and the sec­ond one is for deliv­er­ing hot water from the boil­er.

Thus, all radi­a­tors in this cir­cuit are tem­per­a­ture equal­ized, ensur­ing the effi­cien­cy of the sys­tem.

Video about one-pipe and two-pipe heat­ing sys­tems:

With a col­lec­tor (mul­ti-cir­cuit) scheme on the radi­a­tors there is a spe­cial device — a col­lec­tor. It is designed to divide the total water flow into sev­er­al lines and use sev­er­al cir­cuits. Two pipes still fit to the radi­a­tors, but they are no longer con­nect­ed to each oth­er, but, pass­ing through the col­lec­tor, they direct water to the boil­er.

When choos­ing the three above schemes, water is the best coolant.

Calculation and selection of radiators

When choos­ing the type of radi­a­tor suit­able for your heat­ing sys­tem, you should focus on pro­vid­ing them with:

  • sta­ble heat trans­fer to the premis­es;
  • good appear­ance;
  • ease of use.

Accord­ing to the design fea­tures, radi­a­tors are dis­tin­guished:

  • Sec­tion­al. Includes a num­ber of depart­ments — sec­tions.
  • Tubu­lar. They con­sist of curved tubes through which the coolant cir­cu­lates.
  • Pan­el. Made in the form of cast pan­els with con­tain­ers for the heat car­ri­er.
  • lamel­lar. Rep­re­sent­ed by plates, on which the heat­ing ele­ment is addi­tion­al­ly fixed.

Accord­ing to the mate­r­i­al used, radi­a­tors are dis­tin­guished:

  • Steel. The way they trans­fer heat is by con­vec­tion, they are high­ly effi­cient, easy to install, con­ve­nient and very eco­nom­i­cal.
  • Cast iron. Just as effec­tive and cheap, but the appear­ance is more bulky, and there is an increased like­li­hood of unplanned break­throughs when the pres­sure in the pipes increas­es.
  • Alu­minum. They are more aes­thet­ic, light, the lev­el of heat trans­fer is high.
  • Bimetal­lic. Dur­ing their oper­a­tion, it is pos­si­ble to use any type of heat car­ri­er, in addi­tion, they are able to with­stand greater pres­sure in the sys­tem.

Heating radiatorsFor opti­mal heat­ing of the entire pri­vate house, it is impor­tant to cor­rect­ly cal­cu­late the pow­er of select­ed radi­a­tors, tak­ing into account the area of ​​u200bu200bthe rooms, the cli­mate con­di­tions of the place of res­i­dence, as well as heat loss. The pow­er of a radi­a­tor means how much heat ener­gy it can trans­fer into the room in an hour, either as a whole or as a sep­a­rate sec­tion.

In stan­dard cast iron radi­a­tors, the pow­er of one sec­tion is 160 W, which is very con­ve­nient for deter­min­ing the pow­er of the entire radi­a­tor by mul­ti­ply­ing this val­ue by the num­ber of sec­tions. By the same prin­ci­ple, the pow­er of an alu­minum radi­a­tor is con­sid­ered, where the aver­age val­ue of the sec­tion pow­er is 200 watts. If the radi­a­tor is pan­el steel, then it does not include sec­tions and has a stan­dard total pow­er of 800‑1400 watts.

The ther­mal pow­er of any select­ed radi­a­tor should com­pen­sate for the heat loss of the room, which is why it is so impor­tant to care­ful­ly select a radi­a­tor, tak­ing into account all the main char­ac­ter­is­tics.

Selection and installation of a gas boiler, pipes, radiators, chimney

A manda­to­ry step in the inde­pen­dent equip­ment of the heat­ing sys­tem at home is the choice of pipes. There are sev­er­al types of pipes for heat­ing, dif­fer­ing from each oth­er in a num­ber of para­me­ters. The main ones include:

  • Polypropy­lene. It is the most pop­u­lar type of pipe, fea­tur­ing excel­lent inner sur­face and reli­able wall thick­ness. Their range is sig­nif­i­cant, and the prices are eco­nom­i­cal. They can be used for 50 years and are not sus­cep­ti­ble to cor­ro­sion. How­ev­er, after instal­la­tion, it is dif­fi­cult to replace indi­vid­ual units of the entire sys­tem.
  • Cop­per. Due to high prices and dif­fi­cul­ties in instal­la­tion, this type is almost not in demand for home heat­ing. Although with a sharp decrease in tem­per­a­ture, their tight­ness does not suf­fer, which will only pro­tect the house.
  • met­al-plas­tic. Afford­able, but the parts used to con­nect them, on the con­trary, are expen­sive. Easy to install, not sub­ject to cor­ro­sion. They serve for 15 years.
  • Steel. They are also almost nev­er installed in pri­vate build­ings due to instal­la­tion dif­fi­cul­ties, the need for ground­ing and sus­cep­ti­bil­i­ty to cor­ro­sive process­es.

Metal-plastic pipes for heatingPipes are mount­ed in accor­dance with their typ­i­cal fea­tures and pur­pose for cold or hot water. Refer­ring to the pre­pared wiring dia­gram, the pipes are con­nect­ed in series first to the boil­er, then to each oth­er and, final­ly, to the radi­a­tors. The con­nec­tion is car­ried out using cor­ners, adapters, cou­plings, tees, cross­es, plugs and clamps.

After select­ing all the nec­es­sary equip­ment, includ­ing the boil­er, pro­ceed to its inde­pen­dent instal­la­tion in sev­er­al stages. To do this, the para­me­ters of the boil­er room are ini­tial­ly tak­en into account: it should not be less than 5 m with a ceil­ing height of up to 2.5 meters, good ven­ti­la­tion, a win­dow (when the boil­er is placed in the base­ment, which is the most com­mon place of choice), a chim­ney, a gas ana­lyz­er. The boil­er is placed on a con­crete floor or a sheet of met­al with its ver­ti­cal arrange­ment or hung on a wall — with a wall-mount­ed one.

If the boil­er is placed on the wall, then a chim­ney is ini­tial­ly mount­ed with a hole for it lead­ing to the street. Next, the boil­er is sus­pend­ed with hooks and bolts and con­nect­ed to a pre-installed chim­ney, as well as to a com­mon gas pipeline. Pipes are con­nect­ed in accor­dance with the select­ed heat­ing sys­tem, and elec­tric­i­ty is con­nect­ed. When installing the boil­er on the wall, a strong load-bear­ing wall is select­ed, the opti­mal height and posi­tion of the boil­er are deter­mined.

If the boil­er is placed on the floor, then a spe­cial con­crete podi­um with a height of about 15–20 cm is made. Hav­ing installed the boil­er on it, hav­ing spent a lot of effort on it, we pre­vent stag­ger­ing. A con­nec­tion is also made in the chim­ney, the hole for which is locat­ed on the wall behind the boil­er. The chim­ney pipe is direct­ed to the street in a down­ward direc­tion. The chim­ney open­ing after com­plete instal­la­tion is closed with a solu­tion. The boil­er is con­nect­ed to a gas pipeline.

electric boiler

Elec­tric boil­er — pho­to

If an elec­tric boil­er is installed, it is not required to con­nect it to the chim­ney.

You can do the instal­la­tion of the col­lec­tor with your own hands. A place for it is cho­sen in a recess in the wall just above the floor or in a spe­cial­ly orga­nized met­al box. They take into account that many pipes will be con­nect­ed to the col­lec­tor, so they make their own sup­ply for radi­a­tors.

It is impor­tant to install radi­a­tors. They are placed on the low­er part of the walls not less than 10–15 cm from the win­dow sill and 10 cm from the floor, and the dis­tance from the radi­a­tor grille and the wall should be approx­i­mate­ly 2–4 cm. Choose the most opti­mal mount­ing method:

  • Lat­er­al uni­lat­er­al. This is the most com­mon type of instal­la­tion, in which the hot water pipe is attached to the top of the radi­a­tor, and the cold water pipe to the bot­tom.
  • Low­er. Both pipes are direct­ed towards the floor, which cre­ates a more advan­ta­geous aes­thet­ic appear­ance.
  • Diag­o­nal. With it, the hot water pipe is con­nect­ed to the top of the radi­a­tor on one side, and the cold water pipe to the bot­tom of the oth­er side.

After the com­plete instal­la­tion of the boil­er, pipes, chim­ney, radi­a­tors, the heat­ing sys­tem is start­ed and filled with coolant. The boil­er is usu­al­ly start­ed in the warm sea­son. Under pres­sure, the coolant is dis­trib­uted to all com­po­nents of the heat­ing sys­tem.

Video about the instal­la­tion of the heat­ing sys­tem in the house:

The cost of materials and work

The price for which you can inde­pen­dent­ly install a heat­ing sys­tem in a pri­vate house large­ly depends on the choice of coolant, the size of the house, the type of pipes, boil­er, and the type of orga­ni­za­tion of the sys­tem.

On aver­age, the cost of all mate­ri­als and tools at the end of the instal­la­tion will be from 250$ for gas heat­ing, and for installing an elec­tric floor heat­ing — 20,000–300 dol­lars.

But it is worth recall­ing once again that every­thing very much depends on the type of equip­ment cho­sen. In some cas­es, the com­plete heat­ing sys­tem of a pri­vate house costs 200,000 thou­sand rubles.

The cost of installing a heat­ing sys­tem by spe­cial­ists is more expen­sive, pri­mar­i­ly because of the pay­ment for their direct work. So, for the instal­la­tion of var­i­ous types of radi­a­tors it will take an aver­age of 2000–25$, for the instal­la­tion of a warm floor — about 5 dol­lars per square meter, for the instal­la­tion of a boil­er — about 3000–50 dol­lars. These amounts are added to the total cost of the equip­ment.

If you think at least a lit­tle about repair­ing and, for exam­ple, installing a water sup­ply sys­tem, then installing a heat­ing sys­tem in a pri­vate house on your own is much more prof­itable than using com­pa­nies. This deter­mines the choice of many home­own­ers to heat their home on their own.

Thus, there is a wide vari­ety of types of equip­ment for installing heat­ing in a pri­vate house, as well as ways to install it. When choos­ing the type of heat­ing sys­tem, one should take into account not only the total cost of future work, but also one’s own strengths, capa­bil­i­ties, the size of the house and the cli­mat­ic con­di­tions of the region. Every­one can arrange the heat­ing of their home, you just need to try hard for this.


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