For any boiler equipment, the most important component of successful operation is the presence of traction. From the point of view of physical processes, this is a complex, heterogeneous phenomenon, which is due to the physical state of substances. Warm, heated to a certain temperature, gaseous substances tend to rise up, while colder substances, on the contrary, are heavier and fall down. This principle underlies the process of operation of heating technology.
Solid fuel boilers, where carbon dioxide superheated as a result of fuel combustion and volatile solid particles rise up, fresh, cool air comes in their place. The force of thrust depends on how strong the gas exchange of hot masses and cold air is. The draft regulator for solid fuel boilers is precisely designed to solve the problem of the intensity of the mutual exchange of air masses, affecting the performance of the heating unit. Let us consider in detail what a mechanical draft regulator is. We will find out what is his direct participation in the operation of heating equipment, how important is the installation of this device for boilers.
Draft regulator — its importance for solid fuel boiler equipment
The operation of a heating device with an open and closed combustion chamber is 90% dependent on the state of draft in the heating system. The more stable the thrust parameters, the better the heating unit works. Under the action of draft in the combustion chamber, solid fuel burns better, combustion products easily escape through the chimney. With normal thrust, the fuel burns more intensively, heat exchange processes improve, and the efficiency of boiler equipment increases accordingly.
Despite the fact that today most of the models of solid fuel heaters are equipped with automation, mechanical control and adjustment devices are still the most efficient and effective. Energy dependence is the most important drawback of solid fuel boiler automation. There is no electricity in the house, the battery that feeds the UPS is dead, the boiler becomes uncontrollable. A device with a mechanical drive, installed on the boiler and adjusted in accordance with the set temperature parameters of the boiler, is able to fully control the intensity of combustion.
The main advantages that a mechanical draft thermostat has are as follows:
- the simplest design and reliable operation, unlike automatic devices equipped with electronics;
- non-volatile (automatic traction control requires uninterrupted power supply);
- convenient and clear installation of the device;
- low cost.
The simple design and principle of operation allow such a device to be made by hand, installed and configured. The mechanism has a scientific and technical name — a thermostat for a boiler. To get the maximum possible effect from the existing heating unit, it is enough to correctly install the thermostat. Subsequent calibration of the device is carried out in accordance with the main functions of the exhaust ventilation and the specified temperature parameters.
Important! Installing a draft regulator allows you to adjust the operation of the entire heating system depending on the technological and design features of the boiler equipment, to compensate for the insufficiently efficient operation of the chimney and the quality of the fuel.
Draft thermostat device
The thermostat is a fairly simple and reliable mechanism. Tentatively, the diagram shows the device of the draft regulator, what elements the design of the device consists of.
The main task in the mechanism is performed by a temperature-sensitive element, which, when interacting with a spring, plays the role of a boiler temperature control sensor. When the temperature of the boiler rises and falls beyond the established norm, the spring and the temperature-sensitive element actuate the working part of the device. The immersion sleeve interacts with the stem, which is directly connected to the actuator.
Due to the mechanical drive, the working part is connected with the damper of the draft hole. The current draft regulator, under certain conditions, closes or slightly opens the damper, adjusting the area of the inlet. The simplest mechanical action acts as a temperature controller for the heating unit. The damper is more closed, the boiler switches to the mode of poor air supply. The damper is ajar more, more air enters the furnace, the intensity of combustion increases accordingly, the heating temperature of the coolant increases. Everything is simple and clear.
Important! Proper installation of the fixture ensures the normal movement of all elements of a simple design. Otherwise, the traction control will perform work that does not correspond to the specified parameters.
Installation of the regulator is described in detail in the technical documentation for the boiler equipment. The instruction tells how to properly install the device on an existing boiler and how to set it up.
Do-it-yourself installation and calibration of the draft regulator
A simple design allows you to install the device with your own hands. If we consider the boiler from all sides, in the projection, then the front or side surface of the unit is selected for the installation of the regulator. For this purpose, the product has a special hole. The regulator is mounted using a threaded connection. The diagrams show how to install the regulator and how not to install the fixture.
Note: In this case, there can be no middle solution. As indicated in the instructions, in this way, the draft regulator is installed on a solid fuel boiler.
Correct installation is determined by aligning the device vertically and horizontally. After the regulator is installed, all rotating elements are tightened, existing mating points are to be sealed with a special heat-resistant compound. The lever is placed in a position so that the hole through which the chain will pass is above the damper, in a vertical position.
If the first stage is quite clear and simple, then subsequent actions require special attention, accuracy and sequence of actions. Regulator calibration is the most important stage of its functionality.
By installing the regulator on your heating unit, you can start kindling. Bringing the temperature of the boiler water to 60 0C, record the same temperature on the flywheel (thermostat) of the draft regulator. The lever at this time must be connected by a chain to the damper.
Important! The chain must be in a taut state and not have mechanical interference from the side. The damper at the time of calibration is in a slightly open state, at a distance of 1–2 mm from the edge of the contour of the exhaust hole. During the adjustment phase, the flap position is manually determined by lengthening or shortening the chain.
Having fixed the damper in a certain position, with the regulator set at 60 degrees, we do the following.
The thermostat is set to 80 0C. If you installed the draft regulator correctly and performed all the previous steps according to the instructions, when the boiler heats up to the set temperature, the damper will automatically close. Air will stop flowing into the furnace, and the intensity of fuel combustion will decrease accordingly. The error in temperature measurement accuracy can reach +/- 5 0C, which is not critical for ordinary, simple heating devices of heating systems.
It is necessary to adjust the draft regulator as often as possible. Mechanical damage to the chain, a tightly moving shutter can cause a violation of the functionality of the device.
In terms of its accuracy, the mechanical method is undoubtedly inferior to the accuracy of automatic control devices. However, from the point of view of expediency, for a solid fuel boiler of the classical type, this equipment option is no less effective. In addition, setting up automation requires the participation of a specialist, a heating engineer and special electronic devices.
The installed temperature sensor responds to the operation of the boiler, automatically acting as a stoker. All subsequent temperature deviations in the heating system are recorded by the heating circuit temperature control devices.