Electric heating systems: economic attractiveness

As you know, in our coun­try, gas is the cheap­est fuel avail­able for use in the heat­ing sys­tems of build­ings and struc­tures. Despite this, many of our com­pa­tri­ots choose heat­ing schemes (CO), in which elec­tric­i­ty acts as an ener­gy car­ri­er.

The types of home heat­ing with elec­tric­i­ty will be dis­cussed in this pub­li­ca­tion.


Types of electric heating

Today, our com­pa­tri­ots have access to five options for heat­ing their own homes with elec­tric­i­ty that are dif­fer­ent in design, prin­ci­ple of oper­a­tion and effi­cien­cy.

  • Water sys­tem using an elec­tric boil­er.
  • With elec­tric con­vec­tors.
  • Heat­ing the house with fan heaters.
  • Using IR pan­els.
  • Appli­ca­tion of the “elec­tric floor heat­ing” sys­tem.

Next, con­sid­er each type of elec­tric CO in more detail.

Electric heating boiler systems

The prin­ci­ple of oper­a­tion of elec­tric heat­ing water heaters is based on the trans­fer of ther­mal ener­gy to a heat car­ri­er, which gives off the accu­mu­lat­ed heat to the air in the room. Today, on the Euro­pean mar­ket of cli­mate tech­nol­o­gy there are three types of elec­tric boil­ers oper­at­ing in water heat­ing sys­tems at home.

  • Boil­ers with heat­ing ele­ments (heat­ing ele­ments).
  • Elec­trode hot water devices.
  • Induc­tion instal­la­tions.

TEN elec­tric heat­ing boil­ers are the most in demand among the Euro­pean con­sumer. The prin­ci­ple of oper­a­tion of this equip­ment is sim­ple: the heater heats the mov­ing coolant, which, in turn, heats the bat­ter­ies. The cir­cu­la­tion of the coolant along the cir­cuit is pro­vid­ed by a cir­cu­la­tion pump, which can be a sep­a­rate ele­ment or part of the design of the boil­er plant. The pow­er of such boil­ers varies from 3 to 50 kW.

Electric boilerThe main advan­tage of this design is that the coolant does not direct­ly con­tact with elec­tric­i­ty, which elim­i­nates the risk of high volt­age dam­age to the own­er. The dis­ad­van­tage is the lim­it­ed resource of the heat­ing ele­ments.

The prin­ci­ple of oper­a­tion of elec­trode boil­ers is as fol­lows: a con­stant elec­tric cur­rent flows through the installed elec­trodes. The coolant (water, and most often brine) is not a dielec­tric and con­ducts cur­rent well, as a result of which it is heat­ed.

The main advan­tages are reli­a­bil­i­ty and small dimen­sions. Dis­ad­van­tages — high require­ments for the coolant.

The prin­ci­ple of oper­a­tion of induc­tion-type heat­ing instal­la­tions is as fol­lows: the boil­er heat exchang­er (through which the coolant moves) is heat­ed under the influ­ence of a pow­er­ful mag­net­ic field. When the heat exchang­er is heat­ed, ther­mal ener­gy is trans­ferred to the heat car­ri­er.

Advan­tages: reli­a­bil­i­ty, prac­ti­cal­ly no scale is formed, high degree of safe­ty. Dis­ad­van­tages: sig­nif­i­cant dimen­sions, weight and instal­la­tion cost.

Impor­tant! Before installing a large capac­i­ty elec­tric boil­er, con­sult a qual­i­fied elec­tri­cian about the wiring in your home.

Heating the house with electric convectors

Elec­tric con­vec­tors for home heat­ing are wall-mount­ed or floor-mount­ed devices in which air is heat­ed by an elec­tric heat­ing ele­ment enclosed in a ceram­ic case.

Electric convectorsThe air is heat­ed by a heat­ing ele­ment locat­ed at the bot­tom of the device. Ris­ing the upper part of the device, heat­ed air gives way to cold­er air. This is how the air cir­cu­lates, heat­ing the room. Most mod­els have a built-in ther­mo­stat to reg­u­late and main­tain the most com­fort­able air heat­ing tem­per­a­ture. These prod­ucts are made of steel or alu­minum and have the appear­ance of mod­ern heat­ing radi­a­tors.

The main advan­tages of heat­ing a house with elec­tric con­vec­tors: instal­la­tion in any place con­ve­nient for this; with cor­rect­ly cal­cu­lat­ed pow­er, the room warms up quick­ly enough and with­out human inter­ven­tion. Cons: rel­a­tive­ly low pow­er of one con­vec­tor, which varies from 0.5 to 3 kW.

IR heaters

There is an opin­ion that the heat­ing of premis­es with IR radi­a­tion is the most eco­nom­i­cal and as close as pos­si­ble to nat­ur­al. The prin­ci­ple of oper­a­tion of these devices is that IR rays do not heat the air in a heat­ed room, but objects that are locat­ed in the area of ​​​​the emit­ter. In this case, all sur­faces in the room are already heat exchang­ers that give off their heat to the air.

Ceiling IR heaterIR heaters are ceil­ing and (rarely) wall-mount­ed. These devices have many advan­tages:

  • Oxy­gen is not burned dur­ing oper­a­tion.
  • There are no instal­la­tion prob­lems.
  • These devices do not cir­cu­late air and do not under­stand dust.
  • Ser­vice life more than 30 years.
  • Eco­nom­i­cal and fire­proof.

The only dis­ad­van­tages of heat­ing a house with IR emit­ters are the rather high iner­tia and the rel­a­tive­ly high cost of the pan­els.

Impor­tant! Most often, infrared heaters are used to heat coun­try hous­es and small build­ings.

“Warm floor”

Struc­tural­ly, the “elec­tric floor heat­ing” sys­tem is made of heat­ing ele­ments laid under the floor cov­er­ing (linoleum, lam­i­nate) or con­crete screed, which can be cable or film. As a result of the work, the floor is heat­ed and, as a result, the air in the room. Con­nec­tion to the house­hold pow­er sup­ply is made through a cur­rent reg­u­la­tor, thanks to which you can set the required degree of heat­ing in a heat­ed room.

Advan­tages: uni­form dis­tri­b­u­tion and heat­ing of the room. The dis­ad­van­tage is the com­plex­i­ty of instal­la­tion.

In addi­tion to the con­sid­ered elec­tric COs, var­i­ous types of fan heaters are quite pop­u­lar for heat­ing small rooms. Their advan­tages: mobil­i­ty and fast heat­ing of a heat­ed room. Dis­ad­van­tages: high wiring require­ments, fire haz­ard and uneco­nom­i­cal.

Advice! If you decide to cre­ate an elec­tric CO in your home, then before decid­ing on the use of one or anoth­er option, care­ful­ly weigh all the advan­tages and dis­ad­van­tages of each and be sure to con­sult with a spe­cial­ist.


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