“Electro-independent” heating systems

Uni­ver­sal boil­ers of the P series30 off ROCA allow you to quick­ly switch from sol­id fuel to gas or diesel fuel
Archi­tect A.Grace Pho­to by K.Manko
PROTERM Appear­ance of the boil­er Pro­term TLO

Uni­ver­sal boil­er “Ziosab-45” from “ZIOSAB”
Boil­er “Don” from “CONORD”
The con­trol and mon­i­tor­ing equip­ment is hid­den under the front pan­el (Pro­term TLO)
Boil­er KChM‑5 P from “KIROVSKY PLANT”
Open heat­ing cir­cuit of a res­i­den­tial build­ing with nat­ur­al cir­cu­la­tion of the coolant. Two-pipe wiring: 1 — boil­er;
2 — cold water;
3 — water heater;
4 — open expan­sion tank
Mem­brane tanks for closed sys­tems with nat­ur­al coolant cir­cu­la­tion can be select­ed for any required vol­ume
Scheme of the con­trol and mon­i­tor­ing sys­tem used in Pro­term TLO boil­ers:
AGK — auto­mat­ic gas valve;
TP — ther­mo­cou­ple mount­ed on the pilot burn­er;
TG — ther­mo­gen­er­a­tor;
AT — emer­gency coolant tem­per­a­ture con­trol sen­sor;
DT — trac­tion con­trol sen­sor;
RT — work­ing ther­mo­stat;
KT — room ther­mo­stat
Scheme of con­nect­ing the boil­er to an open heat­ing sys­tem with nat­ur­al cir­cu­la­tion of the coolant:
1 — boil­er;
2 — sup­ply ris­er;
3 — over­flow pipe;
4 — expan­sion tank;
5 — fun­nel;
6 — “hot” line;
7 — pipeline for con­nect­ing the heater;
8 — heater;
9 — return (“cold”) line;
10 — valve for feed­ing the sys­tem with water;
11 — coolant drain valve
Electrically independent heating systemsMas­sive cast iron boil­er series V22 from VIADRUS
Electrically independent heating systemsAuto­mat­ic elec­tri­cal­ly inde­pen­dent gas valve VS820 from HONEYWELL for large domes­tic heat­ing boil­ers
Electrically independent heating systemsBoil­er for all types of sol­id fuel Dacon FB

As it turned out, pow­er out­ages occur not only in EU, but also in Amer­i­ca and Cana­da. It’s just that in EU they hap­pen more often.- here you have rolling black­outs, and just over­lays in the oper­a­tion of worn-out sys­tems. How, in case of con­stant­ly occur­ring inter­rup­tions, to entrust the con­trol of the heat­ing sys­tem to devices that use elec­tric­i­ty for their work? One of the ways out in such a sit­u­a­tion is the use of heat­ing sys­tems with nat­ur­al cir­cu­la­tion of the coolant and an appro­pri­ate boil­er.

Exist­ing heat­ing sys­tems can be divid­ed into two large groups: sys­tems with nat­ur­al (EC) and forced cir­cu­la­tion (PC) of the coolant (it can be either water or antifreeze). The first ones (EC) are sim­pler than the sec­ond ones (PC), in which the liq­uid is direct­ed through the sys­tem by a cir­cu­la­tion pump and which, in the absence of volt­age, cease to sup­ply heat. ATIn the EC sys­tem, the coolant moves through the pipes due to the force aris­ing from the dif­fer­ence in den­si­ty in the sup­ply and return pipes. The coolant in the boil­er heats up, its den­si­ty decreas­es, as a result of which it begins to move up the sup­ply ris­er. Then the hot liq­uid spreads through the hor­i­zon­tal pipelines extend­ing from the ris­er, and through the descend­ing pipes (mov­ing from top to bot­tom) enters the heat­ing devices. Here it cools, giv­ing off heat to the air of the room. The den­si­ty of the coolant increas­es- it “gets heav­ier” and returns to the boil­er through the return pipeline, “dis­plac­ing” a new por­tion of the heat­ed liq­uid from it. That is, cir­cu­la­tion occurs with­out the help of elec­tri­cal appli­ances.- nat­u­ral­ly, due to the forces of grav­i­ty. The absence of elec­tri­cal appli­ances and, con­se­quent­ly, the need for elec­tric­i­ty to pow­er them (elec­tron­ic inde­pen­dence) is pre­cise­ly the main advan­tage of the sys­tem.

Features of the system with natural circulation

It is clear that the grav­i­ta­tion­al pres­sure devel­oped by the EC sys­tem is small (the dif­fer­ence in the den­si­ty of the “hot” and “cold” coolant is not so great). There­fore, the hydraulic resis­tance of the pipes through which the coolant moves must be min­i­mal, and the height dif­fer­ence between the hot and cooled liq­uid columns- as much as pos­si­ble. Hence, there are three main require­ments for the arrange­ment of EC sys­tems:

one. The boil­er must be locat­ed as low as pos­si­ble below the heat­ing radi­a­tors (the so-called cen­ter of ther­mal grav­i­ty of the boil­er must be locat­ed below the cen­ter of grav­i­ty of any of the radi­a­tors by at least 300mm).
2. The sup­ply ris­er should be made as hot as pos­si­ble, and the return- as cold as pos­si­ble (there­fore, the first is ther­mal­ly insu­lat­ed, and the sec­ond is left open).
3. It is nec­es­sary to mount the sys­tem using pipes of large diam­e­ter and a min­i­mum num­ber of turns, con­nect­ing and shaped ele­ments. The largest diam­e­ter should be at the sup­ply ris­er, through which the heat­ed coolant ris­es from the boil­er up. Experts cal­cu­late the diam­e­ter of the sup­ply ris­er using a spe­cial for­mu­la, how­ev­er, it is known from prac­tice that with a dwelling area of ​​​​50 to 100m2 the diam­e­ter of the ris­er pipe must be at least 40mm, and with a heat­ed area from 100 to 300m2- at least 52mm. The diam­e­ter of the hor­i­zon­tal pipes dis­trib­ut­ing the coolant should be equal to the diam­e­ter of the ris­er and grad­u­al­ly decrease as the coolant is dis­as­sem­bled through the down pipes, if there are sev­er­al of them. To ensure the “grav­i­ty flow” of the coolant and the removal of air trapped in the pipes, hor­i­zon­tal sec­tions must have a slope of 0.005 to 0.01 (each boil­er man­u­fac­tur­er rec­om­mends its own val­ue for this val­ue). It is this wiring idea that is most com­mon for EC sys­tems used in low-rise build­ings.

Nat­u­ral­ly, the use of large diam­e­ter pipes some­what increas­es the cost of the heat­ing sys­tem. In addi­tion, the large diam­e­ter makes it dif­fi­cult, and in some cas­es (depend­ing on the design and thick­ness of the walls of the house) prac­ti­cal­ly excludes the pos­si­bil­i­ty of hid­den instal­la­tion of pipes (which was not orig­i­nal­ly includ­ed in the project and was not imple­ment­ed dur­ing con­struc­tion, then it can be sim­ply impos­si­ble to do). The fact that each extra turn of the pipe increas­es the hydraulic resis­tance of the sys­tem, mak­ing it dif­fi­cult to work, also forces us to aban­don hid­den wiring. ATAs a result, the instal­la­tion of EC sys­tems is car­ried out, as a rule, in an open way, so it is nec­es­sary to pay spe­cial atten­tion to the accu­ra­cy of the work. ToThe advan­tages of such wiring include the fact that it can be per­formed after fin­ish­ing the premis­es.

Pipe mate­r­i­al. It is gen­er­al­ly accept­ed to use only steel in nat­ur­al cir­cu­la­tion sys­tems. Yes, this option is the cheap­est, but that’s just not par­tic­u­lar­ly aes­thet­ic. Expe­ri­enced installers offer a com­pro­mise option: make the main ris­er and dis­trib­ut­ing hor­i­zon­tal lines from a steel pipe (this is where the car­ri­er tem­per­a­ture is max­i­mum), and make down pipes from polypropy­lene using dif­fu­sion weld­ing. Polypropy­lene pipes will great­ly improve the design of the premis­es. Steel ris­ers, for the sake of aes­thet­ics, can be hid­den in a dec­o­ra­tive remov­able box (cas­ing). Occa­sion­al­ly, cop­per pipes are used for instal­la­tion- this option is cer­tain­ly beau­ti­ful, but expen­sive (1 lin­ear meter- from $1.7 at fif­teenmm to $8.5 at 40mm).

Fea­tures of wiring dia­grams. The dis­tri­b­u­tion of the coolant through the radi­a­tors can be sin­gle-pipe or two-pipe. ATIn the first case, the coolant pass­es sequen­tial­ly from one radi­a­tor to anoth­er. Main plus- low cost of the sys­tem, due to low costs for pipes and instal­la­tion. There are sev­er­al down­sides. Start with the fact that the last radi­a­tor in the chain turns out to be cold­er than the first one (the coolant cools down). Sys­tem man­age­ment is dif­fi­cult- you can not block the access of hot liq­uid to any of the radi­a­tors, since this will block access to all the oth­ers. To get rid of this short­com­ing, a tie-in in front of the so-called bypass con­trol valve helps- a sec­tion of the pipe intend­ed for bypass­ing the coolant through the blocked radi­a­tor. But here we need spe­cial­ly designed fit­tings for these pur­pos­es (the use of which will increase the cost of the sys­tem) and a cor­rect­ly cal­cu­lat­ed bypass diam­e­ter.

With two-pipe wiring, the coolant enters each heater through a “per­son­al” pipe extend­ing from a hor­i­zon­tal line, and through the same “per­son­al” pipe goes into the return ris­er. Nat­u­ral­ly, such a scheme is more expen­sive than a sin­gle-pipe one. How­ev­er, high­er costs will be jus­ti­fied by the abil­i­ty to man­age heat in each of the radi­a­tors. It is from the point of view of the com­fort of the tem­per­a­ture regime that two-pipe wiring is prefer­able.

The EC sys­tem usu­al­ly uses open expan­sion tanks. But, as prac­tice has shown, noth­ing pre­vents the use of closed mem­brane tanks, turn­ing the sys­tem from an open one (with its short­com­ings) into a closed one (with its advan­tages, which we wrote about ear­li­er). How­ev­er, in this case, it is nec­es­sary to use only boil­ers designed to oper­ate with excess pres­sure (indi­cat­ed in the tech­ni­cal data sheet), which will occur in the tank when the coolant splash­es into it its increased vol­ume dur­ing heat­ing. The required vol­ume of a mem­brane tank for EC sys­tems is cal­cu­lat­ed accord­ing to a spe­cial for­mu­la, which we do not give in prin­ci­ple, since we are firm­ly con­vinced that only spe­cial­ists should be involved in the con­struc­tion of such a sys­tem. The con­se­quences of self-activ­i­ty here can be very sad.

How to choose the boil­er pow­er

Accu­rate cal­cu­la­tion- the mat­ter is very dif­fi­cult, and only spe­cial­ists can do it cor­rect­ly. For an approx­i­mate deter­mi­na­tion of the required pow­er, a sim­pli­fied for­mu­la is used: with a ceil­ing height of up to 3 m and good ther­mal insu­la­tion of the build­ing for every 10m2 the total area requires approx­i­mate­ly 1 kW of boil­er pow­er. If it is planned to cre­ate hot water sup­ply, then 20–50% must be added to the result. Experts advise to increase the last fig­ures by anoth­er 15–20%- reserve for reduc­ing the actu­al pow­er of the boil­er when the gas pres­sure in the net­work drops.

hot water process can be orga­nized in two ways. The first- use a flow or stor­age water heater (we wrote more about these devices in N 5 of the mag­a­zine for 2003), remov­ing part of the coolant from the sup­ply ris­er of the heat­ing sys­tem into it. A sig­nif­i­cant advan­tage of this option is that the capac­i­ty of the water heater can be select­ed for any required amount of hot water. Sec­ond way- use the so-called dou­ble-cir­cuit boil­er. This is a boil­er with two heat exchang­ers.- one for the heat­ing cir­cuit, the sec­ond for the hot water cir­cuit. Such a device costs a lit­tle more, but you don’t need to rack your brains with a coolant dis­tri­b­u­tion scheme- the man­u­fac­tur­er has thought of every­thing. The down­side is that, as a rule, in this case there is some lim­i­ta­tion on the vol­ume and flow of hot water, due to the design of the heat exchang­er.

Heating appliances

The radi­a­tors used in the EC sys­tem, like the entire sys­tem, must have a large flow area and as lit­tle hydraulic resis­tance as pos­si­ble. These cri­te­ria are best met by cast iron and tubu­lar steel radi­a­tors. Alu­minum and bimetal­lic devices are not always suit­able. Pan­el steel radi­a­tors, even with the appro­pri­ate flow area, can only be used in closed sys­tems, because due to the sat­u­ra­tion of the coolant with oxy­gen, their lifes­pan in open sys­tems is too short.

Heat exchangers

There are steel and cast iron boil­ers. Steel boil­ers, in addi­tion to being much lighter, it is also notice­ably cheap­er, but they have a short­er ser­vice life (usu­al­ly about 20–30 years). The so-called low-tem­per­a­ture cor­ro­sion pos­es a par­tic­u­lar dan­ger to them.- pre­cip­i­ta­tion of con­den­sate of com­bus­tion prod­ucts with an acid reac­tion on the out­er sur­face of the heat exchang­er. This “acidic” con­den­sate grad­u­al­ly eats away the walls. The rea­son for its appear­ance- sup­ply to the boil­er (from the return pipe of the heat­ing sys­tem) of a coolant hav­ing a tem­per­a­ture low­er than that for which the boil­er is designed. Cast iron boil­ers mas­sive, heavy and more expen­sive, and even sen­si­tive to a sharp tem­per­a­ture drop (ther­mal shock), but almost do not cor­rode- Their ser­vice life is more than 50 years. Cop­per heat exchang­ers they are not used in boil­ers for EC sys­tems due to the risk of burnout at a low coolant speed.

Now about the dimen­sions (capac­i­ty) of the heat exchang­er. ATmost lit­er­ary sources state that a boil­er with a heat exchang­er of small vol­ume and weight is safer- if the shirt is dam­aged, the pow­er of a pos­si­ble explo­sion is less, but most impor­tant­ly- the heat­ing sys­tem with such a boil­er responds faster to automa­tion com­mands. In addi­tion, in heat exchang­ers of small capac­i­ty, the coolant moves faster when heat­ed, which pre­vents the for­ma­tion of scale on the walls, but it can boil. A large capac­i­ty heat exchang­er increas­es the heat iner­tia of the boil­er and, accord­ing­ly, its cool­ing time. This is espe­cial­ly impor­tant for sol­id fuel boil­ers, where auto­mat­ic fuel load­ing can­not be arranged (the larg­er the heat exchang­er vol­ume, the longer the time between loads). But such a boil­er reacts extreme­ly slow­ly to automa­tion com­mands.

In gen­er­al, for gas boil­ers, the pre­ferred solu­tion- small heat exchang­er, sol­id fuel- vice ver­sa. And it is bet­ter if the vol­ume is not large and not small, but medi­um.- 30–60 l.

Boil­ers for liq­ue­fied gas. To cre­ate a heat­ing sys­tem on this type of fuel, it will be nec­es­sary to pur­chase spe­cial con­tain­ers for stor­ing large reserves of liq­ue­fied gas (a pair of tanks of 5 m³ each) and “bury” them in the ground. Is it just worth it? We do not yet have ser­vices that would bring liq­ue­fied gas direct­ly to the site and fill it into pur­chased con­tain­ers (with rare excep­tions; for exam­ple, there is such an expe­ri­ence in the Zvenig­orod dis­trict of the world region). Great skill in using liq­ue­fied gas boil­ers — too. Yes, and such heat­ing costs today are not much cheap­er than heat­ing on liq­uid fuel, but it is a has­sle with it … In gen­er­al, it is worth wait­ing a while with liq­ue­fied gas.

Types of fuel and heating boilers using it

As you know, boil­ers can oper­ate on var­i­ous types of fuel: nat­ur­al gas, liq­ue­fied gas, liq­uid and sol­id fuels, and final­ly, elec­tric­i­ty. There are no elec­tri­cal­ly inde­pen­dent liq­uid fuel boil­ers for sale, since the pumps that feed the fuel noz­zles can­not do with­out elec­tric­i­ty, just like elec­tric boil­ers.

Nat­ur­al gas boil­ers. They are prob­a­bly the most pop­u­lar today.- if there is a gas pipeline near the house, per­haps there is no bet­ter option for heat­ing. ToThe advan­tages of gas boil­ers include ease of oper­a­tion (no need to mon­i­tor whether there is enough fuel and store its sup­ply), low cost of fuel and high effi­cien­cy of heat­ing units. Toshort­com­ings- the fact that the room must be well ven­ti­lat­ed (and, there­fore, the issue of ven­ti­la­tion will have to be solved), and for com­mis­sion­ing it is nec­es­sary to obtain per­mis­sion from the rel­e­vant gas ser­vice (which in prac­tice is not an easy task). In addi­tion, reli­able automa­tion of the boil­er safe­ty sys­tem is required, which should turn off the instal­la­tion in case of any mal­func­tions. It is on this point that you should pay spe­cial atten­tion when choos­ing a boil­er.

Elec­tri­cal­ly inde­pen­dent gas boil­ers for EC sys­tems are the sim­plest- these are instal­la­tions with a so-called open cham­ber, using the air from the room in which they are installed for com­bus­tion, and remov­ing com­bus­tion prod­ucts through a nat­ur­al draft chim­ney. ATthey use atmos­pher­ic burn­ers that sup­ply gas to the boil­er fur­nace due to excess pres­sure in the line. Accord­ing to experts, such burn­ers have sev­er­al unde­ni­able advan­tages. First­ly, the price of boil­ers with an atmos­pher­ic gas burn­er is about 35–50% low­er than for boil­ers with a blast burn­er. Sec­ond­ly, these burn­ers work soft­ly, almost silent­ly. Third­ly, when the gas pres­sure in the pipeline drops (for exam­ple, in win­ter, the pres­sure can drop to 80–100mm of water col­umn * and even more sig­nif­i­cant) the torch on the atmos­pher­ic burn­er is short­ened (the flame “sits” on the burn­er, which, of course, is harm­ful for it), but does not go out at all (unless with a very strong pres­sure drop or with a com­plete ces­sa­tion of gas sup­ply). And, fourth­ly, atmos­pher­ic burn­ers are com­pact, which allows them to be installed inside the boil­er, and not “hung” from the out­side, which is much less aes­thet­i­cal­ly pleas­ing (espe­cial­ly if the boil­er is not in a spe­cial room, but in the kitchen).

By the way, not so long ago, boil­ers with atmos­pher­ic burn­ers appeared on sale, which work sta­bly when the pres­sure in the gas line decreas­es by 2–3 times (that is, it allows the gas pres­sure to drop to 5–6 mbar). They will cost a lit­tle more than usu­al ones, but if there is a finan­cial oppor­tu­ni­ty, it is bet­ter to choose them.

And two more impor­tant points. The boil­er can only be put into oper­a­tion after a stop caused by a gas sup­ply fail­ure, only man­u­al­ly. BUTthis means that if you leave home for a long time in win­ter, some­one should look after the boil­er. Oth­er­wise, you risk “unfreez­ing” the sys­tem.

When choos­ing an import­ed gas boil­er, spe­cial atten­tion should be paid to its adap­ta­tion to Euro­pean oper­at­ing con­di­tions. The nor­ma­tive and actu­al gas pres­sure in our net­work dif­fers from the Euro­pean one. Most devices of for­eign man­u­fac­tur­ers are test­ed at a nom­i­nal gas pres­sure of 180–200mm water col­umn (18–20 mbar), and in EU the nom­i­nal gas pres­sure- 130mm of the water col­umn (and the real one is some­times half as much). ATAs a result, an unadapt­ed import­ed gas boil­er in our con­di­tions can­not pro­duce the required pow­er. There­fore, when buy­ing a boil­er, be sure to ask what nom­i­nal gas pres­sure the select­ed mod­el is designed for (or even bet­ter- check the received data accord­ing to the data sheet of the device).

Where to locate the gas boiler

Gas boil­ers with atmos­pher­ic burn­ers, accord­ing to their loca­tion, are divid­ed into floor and wall-mount­ed. Elec­tri­cal­ly inde­pen­dent boil­ers for EC sys­tems are avail­able only in the floor ver­sion. ATon sale you can find mod­els with a capac­i­ty of 11–70 kW, which allows you to choose a heat­ing unit for a house of even a very large size. But if a low-pow­er boil­er is easy to install, for exam­ple, in the kitchen, then a high-pow­er device may have to allo­cate a sep­a­rate room (boil­er room), as they say, “with all ameni­ties” and even with a sep­a­rate exit to the street. And it is nec­es­sary to pro­vide him with this room, if only because for the nor­mal oper­a­tion of the boil­er it is nec­es­sary to pro­vide a large vol­ume of nat­ur­al air flow. More­over, it is desir­able to clean (with­out house­hold, con­struc­tion and oth­er house­hold dust) and fresh (not enriched with car­bon diox­ide and water vapor). And that means that it must be tak­en direct­ly from the street, for which pur­pose a hole should be punched in the out­er wall through which air will flow.

Agree, hav­ing such a hole in the kitchen wall is not good at all.You will freeze in win­ter. In addi­tion, under the ceil­ing of the room in which the boil­er is installed, it is nec­es­sary to have one more hole for nat­ur­al ven­ti­la­tion in case of a gas leak (you will def­i­nite­ly freeze here, right in your own kitchen). More­over, it is also required to orga­nize a per­son­al sew­er ris­er for the boil­er (or a pit with a lad­der) for a pos­si­ble drain of the coolant, arrange a spe­cial win­dow- a kind of “safe­ty valve” in case of a gas explo­sion, etc., etc. So it turns out that it is bet­ter for a pow­er­ful boil­er to “live” in a sep­a­rate room, with a sep­a­rate entrance. BUTRely­ing nat­ur­al ven­ti­la­tion can be arranged through grat­ings built into the door. The state­ment that a pow­er­ful boil­er needs a sep­a­rate room applies not only to floor-stand­ing gas mod­els, but also to boil­ers using any type of fuel.

Gas-burners

In heat­ing boil­ers, atmos­pher­ic injec­tion gas burn­ers are main­ly used, in which the com­bus­tion air is sucked in (inject­ed) by a gas jet, and their mutu­al mix­ing occurs inside the burn­er body. These devices are sta­ble in oper­a­tion and have a wide ther­mal range.

In domes­tic boil­ers, such gas burn­ers as “Temp” (“STARORUSPRIBOR”- a total of 18 mod­els are pro­duced); “Com­fort” (“Kras­ny Gidropress”, Tagan­rog), award­ed in 2002 with the Hon­orary Diplo­ma “100 Best Goods of Europe”; UGG-20 “Flame” and UGOP-P-22 “Uni­ver­sal” (“KumAPP”, Kumer­tau, Bashko­r­tostan); AGU-11.6 and AGU-17.4 (“Sig­nal”, Engels). The choice of burn­ers in import­ed boil­ers is much wider- man­u­fac­tur­ers use both their own devel­op­ments and burn­ers from such well-known com­pa­nies as FEROLLI, BECKET, RIELLO (Italy), POLIDORO (Ger­many), BRAY (Great Britain), CARLIN (USA), etc.

Automation

Although the non-volatile EC sys­tem is dif­fi­cult to reg­u­late, most of the mod­ern gas boil­ers offered are equipped with automa­tion. What is this automa­tion?

Let’s start with igni­tion. A burn­ing splin­ter is no longer need­ed- the pilot burn­er began to ignite with the help of a piezo­elec­tric ele­ment. ATIn the sim­plest case, with one hand we open the gas sup­ply valve, with the sec­ond we press the piezo igni­tion. Atmore mod­ern boil­ers, both func­tions are trans­ferred to one but­ton- clicked, and every­thing worked. Fur­ther con­trol of the gas valve of the boil­er is car­ried out either due to the volt­age that occurs when the ther­mo­cou­ple is heat­ed (for exam­ple, in the AOGV and AKGV boil­ers, the “chromel-drops” ther­mo­cou­ple is used- aver­age ser­vice life of 3–5 years, depend­ing on oper­at­ing con­di­tions), con­stant­ly in the flame of the pilot burn­er of the boil­er, or by heat­ing an addi­tion­al ther­mo­gen­er­a­tor (a more pow­er­ful source of ener­gy than a ther­mo­cou­ple) from the flame of the main burn­er (main­ly in import­ed boil­ers ). In both cas­es, the gen­er­at­ed volt­age is trans­mit­ted to the coil of the elec­tro­mag­net­ic gas valve.

The volt­age gen­er­at­ed by the ther­mo­cou­ple keeps the valve open, thus allow­ing gas to flow to the pilot and main burn­ers. Man­age­ment is car­ried out on the prin­ci­ple of “opened-closed”. And as soon as the volt­age dis­ap­pears (pilot burn­er goes out), the valve imme­di­ate­ly stops the gas sup­ply. The volt­age gen­er­at­ed by the ther­mo­gen­er­a­tor allows you to reg­u­late the gas sup­ply by increas­ing or decreas­ing the tem­per­a­ture of the coolant.

In the most “advanced” boil­ers with a ther­mo­gen­er­a­tor, a room ther­mo­stat is also includ­ed in the con­trol cir­cuit (more­over, one that can be at a cer­tain dis­tance from the boil­er). It gives the com­mand to “close” or “slight­ly open” the gas sup­ply valve, depend­ing on the tem­per­a­ture in the room.

There is anoth­er way to adjust- mechan­i­cal. The con­trol pan­el con­tains a ther­mome­ter and a reg­u­la­tor for the tem­per­a­ture of the coolant at the out­let of the boil­er. The reg­u­la­tor con­sists of a tem­per­a­ture sen­sor, a “bel­lows-bulb” assem­bly and a sys­tem of levers con­nect­ing it with a con­trol valve.

The boil­er con­trol sys­tem nec­es­sar­i­ly includes a secu­ri­ty sys­tem, which usu­al­ly includes:

  • a flame pres­ence sen­sor on the pilot burn­er (its role is played by the already men­tioned ther­mo­cou­ple);
  • con­trol device for the safe removal of com­bus­tion prod­ucts (con­sists of a draft sen­sor and a wire con­nect­ing it to the gas valve);
  • a device for pro­tect­ing the heat­ing sys­tem from over­heat­ing and stop­ping the cir­cu­la­tion of water (its func­tion is per­formed by a ther­mo­stat).

In boil­ers of domes­tic pro­duc­tion, three com­mer­cial­ly avail­able elec­tri­cal­ly inde­pen­dent sys­tems are main­ly used for con­trol: RGU (STARORUSPRIBOR, Staraya Rus­sa), Arbat (MOLOT, Vyat­ka, KumAPP and SELMI, Sumy, Europe) and SABK (SERVISGAZ, Ulyanovsk).

It should be not­ed that, in addi­tion to domes­tic automa­tion, Euro­pean boil­er man­u­fac­tur­ers are increas­ing­ly using import­ed- main­ly HONEYWELL automa­tion units (USA). Accord­ing to the man­u­fac­tur­ers them­selves, the reli­a­bil­i­ty of these devices is much high­er than that of domes­tic ones, which deter­mines the choice. For the most part, HONEYWELL automa­tion is also used in for­eign-made boil­ers. The pro­posed blocks for elec­tri­cal­ly inde­pen­dent boil­ers are electro­mechan­i­cal devices and are used to sup­ply gas to the ignit­er and burn­er, piezo igni­tion, con­trol the water tem­per­a­ture and auto­mat­i­cal­ly turn off the gas sup­ply when the ignit­er goes out, and there is no draft in the chim­ney. ATIn some mod­els, a ther­mo­stat that con­trols the tem­per­a­ture of the coolant pro­vides not only a sim­ple “on-off” of the main burn­er, but also a smooth auto­mat­ic reg­u­la­tion of gas flow in the range from 20 to 100% of its pow­er. ATin gen­er­al, every­thing you need- “in one bot­tle”.

Despite the fact that the 21st cen­tu­ry is in the yard and the coun­try is a leader in the issue of gas exports, we our­selves do not have nat­ur­al gas in all set­tle­ments. And if you still haven’t received it, you can solve the prob­lem in one of two ways- either pur­chase a gas boil­er that can also run on liq­ue­fied gas, or install a sol­id fuel or uni­ver­sal boil­er.

Name pow­er, kWt Gas con­sump­tion,m3/h The pres­ence of a water-heat­ing cir­cuit Dimen­sions (HWD)mm Weight, kg Price, $
Boil­ers AOGV and AKGV “ZHUKOVSKY MACHINE-BUILDING PLANT”
AOGV-11,6–1/with auto­mat­ic HONEYWELL 11.6 1.3 Not 850310412 thir­ty 153/197
AKGV-11,6–1/with auto­mat­ic HONEYWELL 11.6 1.3 There is 850310412 35 187/230
AOGV-17,4–3/with auto­mat­ic HONEYWELL 17.4 1.87- gas / 1.3 kg- szh. gas Not 1050420480 fifty 201/245
AKGV-17,4–3 with HONEYWELL automa­tion 17.4 1.87 There is 1050420480 57 307
AOGV-23,2–1/with auto­mat­ic HONEYWELL 23.2 2.55 Not 1050420480 52 216/259
AKGV-23,2–1/with auto­mat­ic HONEYWELL 23.2 2.55 There is 1050420480 60 261/331
AOGV-29–1 29 3.18 Not 1050420480 55 249
AKGV-29–1 29 3.18 There is 1050420480 63 317
KOV-SG-43 43 5.55 Not 995455600 75 539
Boil­ers “Conord-Don” of the plant “CONORD”
“Conord-12” KS-GV-12 12 1.5 There is 450380790 60 173
“Conord-12” KS-G-12 12 1.5 Not 450380790 60 139
“Don-31.5 / 40/50 31.5/40/50 4/4/6 There is 9707401430 240/260/280 428/434/500
Boil­ers of “KIROV PLANT”
KChM‑7 “Gnome” (num­ber of sec­tions- 3/4/5) 16/32/48 1.8/3.5/5.3 Not 1100460(634–776) 250/312/315 612/760/888
Boil­ers from MORA/PROTERM
Pro­term 20/30/40/50 TLO Mora S 20/30/40/50 G 17/26/35/44.5 1.9/3/4/5.2 Not 880510675 90/110/136/164 775/829/1010/1100
Boil­ers of the P lux Z series from DAKON (Czech Repub­lic)
Dacon P 18/22/26/50 lux Z 18/22/26/50 2.2/2.7/3.2/5.5 Not 840(290–654)670 82/90/114/210 600/610/650/1000
Galaxi gas boil­ers from SLANT/FIN (USA)
GG-75/100/150/200/300mv 18/25/36/48/70 1.8/2.5/3.6/4.9/7 Not 830620(340–680) 134/138/166/197/257 1278/1510/2252/2654/3184

Solid fuel boilers

The main advan­tage of such boil­ers is the avail­abil­i­ty and low price of sol­id fuel.- coal, fire­wood or peat. An impor­tant plus is also unde­mand­ing to the qual­i­ty of the air sup­plied to the fur­nace and com­plete elec­tri­cal inde­pen­dence, which allows the use of these devices even dur­ing the con­struc­tion of the house (build­ing dust is con­traindi­cat­ed for most gas and liq­uid fuel boil­ers). The cons are no less sig­nif­i­cant. The largest of them is asso­ci­at­ed with the low calorif­ic val­ue of sol­id fuel and its high burn­ing rate.- coal has to be loaded every 2–3 hours, fire­wood even every 1–2 hours. This fuel burns uneven­ly, it may not burn com­plete­ly, releas­ing soot that clogs the chim­neys. A lot of ash is formed dur­ing com­bus­tion, and it has to be removed peri­od­i­cal­ly. It is dif­fi­cult to con­trol the com­bus­tion process of sol­id fuel, so it is sim­ply not nec­es­sary to talk about the exact main­te­nance of the tem­per­a­ture in the rooms. But every­thing turns out, as they say, “cheap and cheer­ful.” And this is a great option for the case when there is sim­ply no oth­er fuel at hand. In today’s mar­ket, the choice of com­pa­nies and the range they offer is not much wider than in the case of elec­tri­cal­ly inde­pen­dent gas boil­ers. But, nev­er­the­less, you can eas­i­ly find a boil­er for both a small house (from 5 kW) and for an impres­sive cot­tage size (up to 50 and even up to 75–100 kW).

The con­trol sys­tem used in elec­tri­cal­ly inde­pen­dent sol­id fuel boil­ers will pleas­ant­ly sur­prise the con­sumer. It auto­mat­i­cal­ly main­tains the set water tem­per­a­ture at the out­let of the boil­er. This is done in the fol­low­ing way. At the out­let of the boil­er, a sen­sor is installed that mon­i­tors the tem­per­a­ture of the coolant. This sen­sor is mechan­i­cal­ly con­nect­ed to the boil­er blow­er damper. ATIf the tem­per­a­ture of the coolant at the out­let becomes high­er than the set val­ue, the damper is auto­mat­i­cal­ly closed and the com­bus­tion process slows down. When the out­let tem­per­a­ture drops, the damper will auto­mat­i­cal­ly open slight­ly. It is impor­tant that the price of boil­ers equipped with such a device is slight­ly high­er than the price of con­ven­tion­al mod­els.

Name pow­er, kWt Type of fuel The pres­ence of a water-heat­ing cir­cuit Dimen­sions (HWD)mm Weight, kg Price, $
Boil­ers man­u­fac­tured by VIADRUS (Czech Repub­lic)
U22C 2–10 sec­tions 12–58 Coal, coke, wood, gas, oil Not 880520300‑1060 195–494 653‑1450
DACON boil­ers (Czech Repub­lic)
Dacon Dor 12/16/20/24/32
O.Z.K.* ‑26/46/46/61 L
12/16/20/24/32 Brown coal, coke, wood, bri­quettes, hard coal Not (920‑1040)(424–526)(691–830) 158/166/200/215/24 452/459/ — /549/582
Dacon Dor 32D/45D
O.Z.K.-63/115 L
28/45 Fire­wood Not (1040–1045)(526–668)(830–864) 240/320 658/858
Dacon FB 20/26/32/36/42 / FB D
O.Z.K.-22.5 L
20/22/28/32/42 Coal, coke, wood, gas, oil Not 1035500(840‑1240) 210/245/280/ 315/350 752/896/1185/1267/1391
Com­pa­ny boil­ers ROCA (Spain)
Roca P30‑4/5/6/7/8/9 15.3/19.3/23.3/27.3/32.6/37.2 Coal, coke, wood, gas, oil Not 917414(485–939) 163/196/228/262/292/326 815/1051/ 1195/1352/ 1544/1735
Boil­ers man­u­fac­tured by SIME (Italy)
FB 3/4/5/6/7/8
O.Z.K.-17/25.5/34/42.5/51/59.5 L
16.3/20.9/25.6/30.2/34.9/39.5 TV, w/t Not 1070470(540‑1040) 175/210/245/ 280/315/350 890/990/ 1085/1190/ 1295/1400
Boil­ers of KIROVSKY PLANT (Europe)
KChM‑5 R (num­ber of sec­tions- 3/4/5/6/7/8) 21/30/40/50/60/70 TV, gas, oil Not 1100460(522‑1222) 243/309/374/ 439/505/570 424/506/580/650/791/877
Boil­ers of the plant “CONORD” (Europe)
“Don-16” KS-TGVm-16 16 TV, gas There is 7005601180 190 256
“Don-16” KS-Tm-16 16 Tv. Not 7004701030 140 178
“Don-16” KS-TVm-16 16 Tv. There is 7004701180 160 203
“Don-16” KS-TGm-16 16 TV, gas Not 7005601030 160 224
“Don-16” KS-GVm-16 16 TV, gas There is 7005601180 140 225
“Don-20” KS-TGVm-16/20 16/20 TV, gas There is 7005601180 190 363
“Don-31.5” KS-TV-31.5 31.5 Tv. There is 9706501430 270 387
“Don-31.5” KS-TGV-31.5 31.5 TV, gas There is 9707401430 280 420
“Don-40” KS-TGV-31,5/40 31.5/40 TV, gas There is 9707401430 285 438
Boil­ers of the ZIOSAB com­pa­ny (Europe)
“Ziosab-45” on sol­id fuel / on liq­uid and gaseous / on elec­tric­i­ty thir­ty
45
26(9)
TV, gas, rail­way, el. There is 1540720 260 880
*- O.Z.K.- the vol­ume of the load­ing cham­ber

What the market offers

gas boil­ers

Let’s start with gas boil­ers AOGV and AKGV man­u­fac­tured by “ZHUKOVSKY MACHINE-BUILDING PLANT”- ZhMZ (world region). AOGV are intend­ed only for space heat­ing, AKGV also solve the prob­lem of hot water sup­ply (there is an addi­tion­al cir­cuit). Both units are cylin­dri­cal. They can work both in open and closed heat­ing sys­tems with a work­ing pres­sure of 1.2–1.5 atm. ToThe advan­tages include ease of instal­la­tion and main­te­nance, dura­bil­i­ty and low cost.

It should be not­ed that recent­ly the plant has sig­nif­i­cant­ly expand­ed the range of prod­ucts- boil­ers AKGV-17.4–3 appeared, on the mod­els AOGV and AKGV-11.6–1, AOGV and AKGV-17.4–3 they began to install an automa­tion unit from HONEYWELL. ATboil­ers AOGV and AKGV-29–1 and KOV-SG-43, in addi­tion to the HONEYWELL automa­tion unit, it is pos­si­ble to con­nect a room ther­mo­stat. The effi­cien­cy of boil­ers, due to a change in the design of the burn­er (tubu­lar with swirlers) and heat exchang­er, has recent­ly been increased from 82 to 88%.

A sim­i­lar list of gas boil­ers is pro­duced by the Ros­tov plant GAZOAPPARAT.

Boil­ers “Conord-Don” plant “CONORD”, Ros­tov-on-Don. These are com­pact, easy to install, easy to main­tain, eco­nom­i­cal sin­gle and dou­ble cir­cuit steel devices. The com­bus­tion cham­ber is made of steel with a thick­ness of 3–4mm. effi­cien­cy- 82–90%. The dou­ble-cir­cuit boil­er is equipped with a cop­per coil (work­ing pres­sure- up to 0.6 MPa). The work­ing pres­sure in the boil­er is not more than 0.12–0.25 MPa, depend­ing on the pow­er of the mod­el. It is pos­si­ble to work on liq­uid fuel when installing a liq­uid burn­er.

Boil­ers man­u­fac­tured by “KIROVSK PLANT”, Kalu­ga region. The plant pro­duces two types of gas units. The first one- com­pact heater OGVK “May” with built-in DHW cir­cuit and HONEYWELL automa­tion can be used in EC or RC sys­tems. Works on both nat­ur­al and liq­ue­fied gas. effi­cien­cy- 92%. Elec­tric igni­tion from two 1.5 V bat­ter­ies. Pig-iron sec­tion­al gas boil­ers KChM‑7 “Gnome” can also work in EC and PC sys­tems. ATnon-volatile ver­sions are equipped with injec­tion slot­ted low-flame burn­ers com­plete with pneu­mo­mano­met­ric auto­mat­ics “Arbat”. effi­cien­cy- 92%.

Now let’s move on to for­eign-made devices.

Boil­ers from PROTERM and MORA (Czech Repub­lic-Slo­va­kia). I must say that the prod­ucts of these two com­pa­nies are so sim­i­lar that, if it were not for the mark­ings on the front pan­el, you would not be able to dis­tin­guish them. Yes, it’s not smart- they are pro­duced on the same pro­duc­tion line, so you should talk about them togeth­er. In our mar­ket, elec­tri­cal­ly inde­pen­dent boil­ers of these com­pa­nies are rep­re­sent­ed by the PROTERM TLO and MORA Clas­sic SG series. These are sin­gle-cir­cuit boil­ers with a cast-iron heat exchang­er. Equipped with a stain­less steel burn­er from POLIDORO (Ger­many), which ensures sta­ble oper­a­tion of the boil­er at gas pres­sures up to 45mm w.c. Art. Con­trol automa­tion- SIT NOVA (Italy). ATappli­ances use a two-stage gas valve with man­u­al changeover (100 and 70% heat out­put for the off-sea­son). AThot water prepa­ra­tion mode (the boil­er is work­ing to heat the boil­er), the device auto­mat­i­cal­ly turns on at full pow­er.

P lux Z series boil­ers from DAKON (Czech). Steel sin­gle-cir­cuit boil­ers with BRAY (Great Britain) burn­ers and HONEYWELL automa­tion. Dis­tinc­tive fea­ture- built-in econ­o­miz­ers (ele­ments in which the coolant is heat­ed by gas­es leav­ing the boil­er before being fed into the boil­er), which allows more com­plete use of the ther­mal ener­gy of com­bus­tion prod­ucts (effi­cien­cy- 92%).

Gas boil­ers Galaxi GG mv from Slant/Fin (USA). Cast iron sin­gle-cir­cuit boil­ers are equipped with atmos­pher­ic stain­less steel burn­ers, designed for a work­ing pres­sure of the sup­plied gas of 120mm w.c. Art., but con­tin­u­ing to work steadi­ly and at a low­er pres­sure (up to 50mm w.c. Art.). Automa­tion con­trol and man­age­ment- from Hon­ey­well. effi­cien­cy- 78–84%. Unpre­ten­tious and easy to main­tain.

In addi­tion, recent­ly cast-iron Novel­la series gas boil­ers- Avtonom from BERETTA (Italy). ATinde­pen­dent ver­sion, 2 mod­els are offered: Novel­la 24 (24 kW- $936) and Novel­la 36 (36 kW- $1056).

Sol­id fuel boil­ers

Domes­tic devices are rep­re­sent­ed main­ly by prod­ucts “KIROVSKY PLANT”- boil­ers KChM‑5 P. They can work on coal, sol­id fuel bri­quettes and fire­wood in both EC and PC sys­tems. The main parts and assem­blies are made of high-qual­i­ty gray cast iron and there­fore do not give in to cor­ro­sion. A design fea­ture is a water-cooled grate (does not allow sol­id frac­tions to sin­ter and ensures long-term com­bus­tion of fuel for at least 8 hours) and a two-way con­vec­tive chim­ney with a devel­oped sur­face, pro­vid­ing an effi­cien­cy of 80%. Oper­at­ing pres­sure- up to 4 atm. The boil­er can be con­vert­ed to work on both gaseous and liq­uid fuels.

Sev­er­al sol­id fuel mod­els are present among steel boil­ers “Conord-Don” of the plant “CONORD” (Ros­tov-on-Don). The com­bus­tion cham­ber is made of steel with a thick­ness of 5–6mm with cast iron grates. Com­pared to gas boil­ers, sol­id fuel boil­ers have enhanced ther­mal insu­la­tion (basalt card­board is used). effi­cien­cy- not less than 75–76%. These devices can also be con­vert­ed to oper­ate on liq­uid and gaseous fuels.

Fur­ther- about sol­id fuel boil­ers of for­eign pro­duc­tion.

Boil­ers of the FB series from SIME (Italy). These cast iron boil­ers can be fired with wood and coal and can be used in both open and closed heat­ing sys­tems with a max­i­mum pres­sure of 3 bar. The shape and size of the com­bus­tion cham­ber make it pos­si­ble to obtain a high per­for­mance of the device and ensure the com­bus­tion of fuel with a min­i­mum amount of slag. There is also a spe­cial device for quick clean­ing of the grate. It is pos­si­ble to order a spe­cial set of equip­ment with a diesel burn­er.

VIADRUS U22C series boil­ers (Czech). These are cast-iron sec­tion­al heat­ing devices that run on sol­id fuels (coal, coke, wood) and are designed for EC sys­tems with a max­i­mum over­pres­sure of 0.4 MPa. Durable and easy to main­tain. Effi­cien­cy on coal and coke- 85%, on fire­wood- 80%. It is pos­si­ble to switch to gas and liq­uid fuels after installing the appro­pri­ate burn­ers.

Boil­ers of the Dor series from DACON (Czech). Many sol­id fuel boil­ers can run on brown and hard coal, coke, bri­quettes and wood. If you are going to use only fire­wood, you should pay atten­tion to spe­cial mod­i­fi­ca­tions that are best adapt­ed specif­i­cal­ly for them. So the Dakon com­pa­ny also pro­duces boil­ers for all types of sol­id fuel Dacon Dor, and mod­els for burn­ing wood and wood waste.- Dor D mod­i­fi­ca­tion. The effi­cien­cy of 78–84% in the Dor mod­i­fi­ca­tion is pro­vid­ed by a new grate sys­tem and improved com­bus­tion cham­ber design. In addi­tion, these boil­ers use not only the pri­ma­ry air sup­ply through a blow­er with a damper, but also a sec­ondary one.- air for post-com­bus­tion of gaseous prod­ucts of com­bus­tion is sup­plied through the holes in the side pan­els. Dor D mod­i­fi­ca­tion com­bus­tion cham­ber (effi­cien­cy- 75–82%) sup­ple­ment­ed with heat-resis­tant seg­ments and fire­clay boards that act as cat­a­lysts and improve the process of wood com­bus­tion- it becomes pos­si­ble to burn wood with a mois­ture con­tent of up to 35%. At the same time, noth­ing pre­vents the use of these boil­ers for oth­er types of sol­id fuels. It loads from above.- the boil­er has a load­ing fun­nel, the vol­ume of which is much greater than the vol­ume of the com­bus­tion cham­ber.

Name Type, size Unit rev. Qty Price, Price, Type, size Unit rev. Qty Price, Price,
Boil­er room
Boil­er AOGV with HONEYWELL automa­tion Gas boil­er Pro­term 20
23.2–1 PCS. one 259 259.00 TLO PCS. one 750 750.00
Expan­sion tank Opened. PCS. one Includ­ed in R. M. 25 l PCS. one 22.00 22.00
Secu­ri­ty block - - - - - 2.5 bar PCS. one 45 45.00
Coarse fil­ter 1.1/2″ PCS. one 6.91 6.91 1.1/2″ PCS. one 6.91 6.91
ball valve 1.1/2″ PCS. 3 7.14 21.42 1.1/2″ PCS. 3 7.14 21.42
Pipes, pip­ing fit­tings - set one 100 100.00 - set one 100 100.00
Total 378.33 945.33
Heat­ing sys­tem
Radi­a­tors Cast iron radi­a­tors MS140 Radi­a­tors alu­minum Sahara
4 sec­tions PCS. 7 23.2 162.40 5 sec­tions PCS. 16 68.00 1088.00
5 sec­tions PCS. 7 29.0 203.00 1 sec­tion PCS. one 108.00 108.00
7 sec­tions PCS. 2 40.6 81.20 14 sec­tions PCS. one 189.00 189.00
10 sec­tions PCS. one 58.0 58.00 - - - - -
14 sec­tions PCS. one 81.2 81.20 - - - - -
Mount­ing kit - - - - - - PCS. eigh­teen 8.00 144.00
Direct man­u­al valve 1/2″ PCS. eigh­teen 4.81 86.58 1/2″ PCS. eigh­teen 4.81 86.58
Shut-off valve, straight 1/2″ PCS. eigh­teen 4.40 79.20 1/2″ PCS. eigh­teen 4.40 79.20
Pipes Steel pipe VGP GOST 3262–75 Unan­nealed cop­per pipe
40 lin­ear m fif­teen 2.10 31.50 42 lin­ear m fif­teen 8.51 127.65
32 lin­ear m 16 1.80 28.80 35 lin­ear m 16 4.51 72.16
25 lin­ear m eigh­teen 1.40 25.20 28 lin­ear m eigh­teen 3.28 59.04
twen­ty lin­ear m 60 1.00 60.00 22 lin­ear m 110 2.40 264.00
fif­teen lin­ear m 40 0.80 32.00 eigh­teen lin­ear m 40 2.10 84.00
Pipe Fit­tings - set one 30.00 30.00 - set one 50.00 50.00
Gate valve 3/4″ PCS. 7 3.20 22.40 3/4″ PCS. 7 3.20 22.40
ther­mal insu­la­tion - set one 50.00 50.00 - set one 50.00 50.00
Total 1031.48 2424.03
Instal­la­tion and com­mis­sion­ing of sys­tems
Con­sum­ables (R.M.) - set one 100 100.00 - set one 100 100.00
Boil­er room instal­la­tion - % 25 378.33 96.83 - % 25 945.33 236.33
Heat­ing sys­tem instal­la­tion - dot eigh­teen 70 1260.00 - dot eigh­teen 70 1260.00
Com­mis­sion­ing and annu­al ser­vice 160.00 160.00
Trans­port 100 100
Total 1716.83 1856.33
Total cost includ­ing VAT and VAT 3292.42 5486.98

Universal boilers for three types of fuel

In our review, we have already talked about sol­id fuel boil­ers that can be con­vert­ed to run on gas fuel. Some­what less com­mon are boil­ers for burn­ing sol­id fuels, but with the pos­si­bil­i­ty of installing mount­ed burn­ers for both gas and liq­uid fuels. These devices are con­ve­nient not only in those cas­es when it is nec­es­sary to wait for the appear­ance of gas, and until then use, for exam­ple, fire­wood, but also in case of inter­rup­tions in the sup­ply of any of the types of fuel used in the boil­er: there is no fire­wood- we heat with diesel fuel, turn off the gas- we switch to fire­wood, coal or all the same diesel fuel. ATin gen­er­al, no mat­ter what fuel runs out- you won’t freeze. Boil­ers capa­ble of oper­at­ing on three types of fuel are com­mon­ly called uni­ver­sal. Of the devices of this type capa­ble of func­tion­ing in the EC sys­tem, prod­ucts of two com­pa­nies are pre­sent­ed on our mar­ket: Roca (Spain) and DACON (Czech Repub­lic).

Dis­tinc­tive fea­tures of the series boil­ers P30 firms ROCAare pre­cise­ly the pos­si­bil­i­ty of a quick tran­si­tion from one type of fuel to anoth­er, as well as a cast-iron heat exchang­er, the ser­vice life of which is very long. For oper­a­tion on liq­uid and gaseous fuels, it is equipped with a con­trol pan­el. Works in auto­mat­ic mode. A set of equip­ment for switch­ing to gas and diesel fuel will cost about $234.

DACON offers a series of boil­ers Dacon FB for coal com­bus­tion and FB D- spe­cial­ly for fire­wood. These are cast-iron sec­tion­al boil­ers that can be used both in EC sys­tems and in CC sys­tems, open and closed. As in Dacon Dor boil­ers, here, in addi­tion to the pri­ma­ry air sup­ply to the com­bus­tion cham­ber (auto­mat­i­cal­ly con­trolled using a damper), sec­ondary air is sup­plied, which is man­u­al­ly reg­u­lat­ed. Installing an oil burn­er will add approx­i­mate­ly $ to the cost of the boil­er580 gas- $1036.

The mod­ern mar­ket offers even more “advanced” boil­ers that can use 4 types of fuel: sol­id, gas (includ­ing liq­ue­fied), diesel fuel and elec­tric­i­ty. Of the pro­posed uni­ver­sal mod­els for sys­tems with nat­ur­al cir­cu­la­tion, only one is suit­able- “Ziosab-45”, pro­duced by the machine-build­ing com­pa­ny “ZIOSAB” (Podol­sk, world region). This steel boil­er with a heat out­put of 30 kW for sol­id fuel can run on gas or diesel fuel, and with a heat out­put of already 45 kW. It is also pos­si­ble to use elec­tri­cal ener­gy- as an emer­gency or addi­tion­al pow­er sup­ply (it is nec­es­sary to pur­chase and install 2 heat­ing ele­ments, places for which are already pro­vid­ed). The boil­er has a built-in hot water cir­cuit with a capac­i­ty of 500 liters per hour. Work on liq­uid fuel, gas and elec­tric­i­ty can be ful­ly auto­mat­ed.

Experts believe that it is advis­able to use uni­ver­sal boil­ers in large-area cot­tages.- use gas or liq­uid fuel as the main source of heat, and fire­wood or coal- as a back­up. Anoth­er option to improve the “sur­viv­abil­i­ty” of the heat­ing sys­tem is to install sev­er­al boil­ers run­ning on dif­fer­ent types of fuel. For exam­ple, two boil­ers: the main- gas (liq­uid fuel) and addi­tion­al- sol­id fuel, which can be con­nect­ed not only when the main one fails, but also in extreme cold.

That, per­haps, is all that we were going to tell about non-volatile heat­ing sys­tems with nat­ur­al cir­cu­la­tion of the coolant. Sum­ma­rize.

If you want to pur­chase a rel­a­tive­ly inex­pen­sive, easy-to-use and at the same time quite reli­able heat­ing sys­tem, are not afraid of fre­quent com­mu­ni­ca­tion with the boil­er and do not pay atten­tion to small over­heat­ing of the air in the rooms, then a sys­tem with nat­ur­al cir­cu­la­tion- just for you. It real­ly reli­ably saves from the cold dur­ing fre­quent and pro­longed pow­er out­ages, since it absolute­ly does not depend on it. For those who have the same sit­u­a­tion with the pow­er sup­ply, but they pre­fer the PC sys­tem to the EC sys­tem, the spe­cial­ists of the AQUATORIA TEPLA, TIME and GRAND-OTEX com­pa­nies advise to build a sys­tem with nat­ur­al cir­cu­la­tion, but still add a cir­cu­la­tion pump to it . It is installed on the bypass to the main ris­er, into which a check (spe­cial) valve cuts between the places where the bypass pipes are insert­ed. Then, when there is a pow­er out­age, the pump will stop, but the heat­ing sys­tem will con­tin­ue to work with­out even notic­ing the dis­ap­pear­ance of elec­tric­i­ty (though a lit­tle slow­er). Isn’t it a real­ly tempt­ing idea?

It should be remem­bered that the pow­er of a sol­id fuel boil­er, indi­cat­ed in the boil­er pass­port, can only be obtained using high-calo­rie grades of coal. When using fire­wood, the pow­er drops by 10%, and if the fire­wood is damp, then it decreas­es even more. This cir­cum­stance must be tak­en into account when choos­ing the pow­er of the boil­er.

The edi­tors thank the firms “ZEUS-SERVICE”, MIC “AJAX”, “STAVAN‑M”, “TIME”, “TEZONA”, “TECHNOCLIMATE”, Engi­neer­ing Cen­ter “AQUATORIA TEPLA”, group of com­pa­nies “MAESTRO”, group of com­pa­nies “GRAND-OTEKS”, “ZHUKOVSKY MACHINE-BUILDING PLANT” for help in prepar­ing the mate­ri­als.

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