The infrared motion sensor for turning on the light is a modern equipment that can significantly reduce the misuse of electrical energy, thereby increasing the level of energy saving and reducing the financial cost of paying for electricity. There is an option suitable for both home use and for installation in large rooms or outside buildings and structures.
The principle of operation of the motion sensor
There are enough ways to save electricity, one of which is a sensor to turn on the light. The main factors for the operation of the equipment are the following conditions:
- The advent of movement in the controlled area.
- Deviation in established indicators level illumination in the controlled area.
- Change in noise levelin the event that a noise sensor is installed to turn on the light.
All objects surrounding a person, especially of organic origin (animals and humans) have a different temperature from each other, which means that they radiate invisible to the human eye. infrared light. Inanimate objects also emit infrared color, but their temperature is closely related to its change in the environment, for example, with prolonged exposure to sunlight or close proximity to heating devices.
The principle of operation of the motion sensor is based on reading these changes, since it has a system with lenses equipped with elements responsible for fixing changes in the level of infrared light called pyrodetectors. Depending on the specific model, the number of pyrodetectors varies within from 20 to 50 pieces.
The higher this indicator, the more objects, including small ones, the device can recognize light from. Each of the installed lenses is responsible for a specific sector in the total controlled area. Accordingly, it changes coverage anglewhich may matter from 60 to 110 degrees in steps of 20as well as the values in 180, 220, 300 and 360 degrees.
When an object moves in the controlled area, the temperature of which differs from the environment not less than 50 C in the upward direction, motion sensors are triggered to turn on the light. As objects move, the input and output signal on each pyrodetector in its coverage area changes.
The light is on in the room exactly until at least one of the sensors stops receiving a signal about a change in temperature. After the movement stops in the controlled area, at the end of the specified time interval, the output relay is turned off and, accordingly, the light turns off.
For light detectors installed in a motion sensor, a characteristic feature can be called the presence of sensitivity, which is responsible for how far an object must be removed from them in order for movement to be noticed. The smaller the size of the object, the closer it must be to the device for its full operation.
When movement occurs in only one sector, i.e. the movement of a small object is made directly or on the spot, then the relay does not operate and, accordingly, the light does not turn on.
Mounting and installation of sensors is carried out only when the electricity is off.
In addition to infrared, there are other types of motion sensors for lighting:
- Ultrasonic. The principle of their operation is based on the reflection of high-frequency sounds from objects and objects in the room, or rather the results of this reflection.
- Microwave they work similarly to ultrasonic ones, but they send short-wave signals into the room, triggering when the level of their magnitude changes as a result of reflection from objects and objects in space.
These two types belong to the category of active equipment, the infrared version is classified as passive devices.
Features to look out for when choosing
To get the most out of the ultimate goal of purchasing and installing a light sensor to turn on the light, you need to pay attention to several basic equipment characteristics:
- Scope of use. It is necessary to determine in advance the place for the subsequent installation of the device, i.e. Will it be outdoor or indoor. Since different manufacturers offer models that differ from each other in terms of technical and functional equipment. So there are options with an increased level of protection against moisture and dust. Mounting methods also differ, mainly mounted options are available on the market, installed using support holders or built into the surface.
- Since equipment in its simplest form is a light bulb with a motion sensor, the important point is to determine light source powerconnected to the sensor. Depending on the specific model, the recorder may have an operating voltage from 200 W and more. Particular attention is paid to the power indicator in the case of a combination of a sensor with an energy-saving lamp. When the lighting fixture has a higher load than specified by the equipment manufacturer, it will be necessary to install an additional relay or install several sensors.
If the lighting fixture has a higher load than specified by the equipment manufacturer, an additional relay or installation of several sensors will be required.
- The next important indicator is viewing angle. When installed outside the building, the best option is an indicator for this value within 180 degrees. It is possible to choose a device with two sensors, which in total have the required 180 degrees. Indoors, for maximum use, a variant with 3 sensors is suitable, totaling the viewing angle 360 degrees, this option is suitable for installation in the ceiling. For work outside the premises and on the street, the best option is to choose a registrar with the largest indicator in terms of viewing angle. An option with a smaller number of pyrodetectors is suitable for an apartment.
- A separate feature is possibility of combination a specific device with a specific type of lighting fixture or type of lamp. There are models on the market that allow you to combine a light sensor to turn on the light with any of the existing types of lamps and types of lighting equipment. So you can choose a version of the sensor mounted in the cartridge, and even a switch.
- It is equally important to know radius of action specific device. Range refers to the maximum possible distance from a moving object to the detection equipment. In most cases, infrared sensors cover the area of effect in the amount 12 meters.
- It is important to make a choice two-pole or three-pole version. Bipolar models are suitable for installing incandescent lamps. In this case, the connection is by serial type. Three-pole allow you to connect and energy-saving options.
Advantages of the sensor to turn on the light
Installing an automatic light switch completely solves the problem of finding the light on. Which is convenient in public places with a low level of illumination in the daytime (entrance group at the entrance of a residential building, storage room, etc.) or in unfamiliar premises. Use allows you to reduce the number of additional actions performed by a person. So among the main advantages in favor of choosing an infrared motion sensor to turn on the light can be called.
It consists in the fact that when the switch is located at a great distance from the entrance to the premises, no need to search at a low level of illumination, which may result in injury (falling, collision with objects, etc.).
May be both financial and temporary. There is no time spent looking for the switch, the light is off when there is no one in the room and, accordingly, the amount of time for which the payment for the consumed electrical energy is reduced.
The use of sensors allows you to reduce the number of additional actions performed by a person, as well as eliminate the possibility of injury.
A good energy saving indicator follows from the previous point. This solves the problem of energy consumption as a result of a light source not turned off in time.
High level of device functionality. Manufacturers offer models that carry out their work without wires. There are options with the ability to connect not only lighting devices, but also others (stereo system, TV, etc.).
The first three main advantages of the choice correspond to any of the models of equipment of a similar plan offered on the market.
How to connect a motion sensor
Connecting a motion sensor for lighting is a procedure that does not have a high level of complexity, but is quite specific, which requires certain experience and knowledge. Experts identify several basic schemes for connecting equipment, namely:
- Installation of several sensors using a magnetic starter.
In the case of serial connection, the entire process of lighting control in the room or outside is carried out automatically and is regulated by the equipment itself. When the light must be on for a long time and at the same time the object will not move or will be outside the controlled area, a manual switch is installed parallel to the equipment.
A good example of the convenience of installing a switch is a garage with a viewing hole. Being in a pit, a person does not fall into the area of the sensor, but needs a constant source of light. After completion of work, you can turn off the light manually.
For large rooms, it is necessary to install several elements, the connection of which comes from one phase in parallel. When any of the sensors in the network is triggered, the circuit is closed, and all the others are turned on.
Installation of a magnetic starter is required when using a powerful light source or connecting other types of electrical equipment in addition to lighting lamps.
The video clearly shows how to connect:
Installation of equipment also has several important nuances, among which are:
- Providing protection from the influence of external factors for which a specific model is not designed, which can lead to false alarms or blocking for operation.
- Ensuring access to the detection area.
- Network connection type supply of electrical energy.
Connection of any model occurs due to special terminals. The standard and commonly used option is 3‑pin terminals, sometimes 4‑pin terminals are used. The decoding of the markings installed on the terminals is as follows:
- L- stands for phase. Most often it is a red or brown wire.
- N — zero, always spend blue.
- L having in addition a dash or arrow, as well as the letter A, denotes a lighting fixture.
Most manufacturers adhere to standards in terms of wire color selection, exceptions to the rules are allowed. Therefore, for the correct connection of the device, it is desirable to determine the phase or zero additionally using the indicator.
After completing the installation work, it is necessary to adjust the sensor for comfortable operation of the equipment in the future. It goes through several main stages:
- Motion sensor adjustment to turn on the light means adjusting the level of the sensitive sensor. Setting this indicator allows you to reduce the risk of false alarms (in particular, with a small movement, response to animals, temperature changes in the heating system or due to the operation of the air conditioning system, etc.). When a model equipped with a photoelectric sensor is selected, instead of the sensor sensitivity level, the light threshold is adjusted, at which the equipment comes into action.
- The user has the opportunity set working time equipment. This indicator means the time period until the light is turned off in the absence of movement in the controlled area.
- When the sensor is also triggered by the noise level, then adjustable microphone sensitivity. It is convenient to perform this procedure when using a portable sound source, changing its volume within the range of the sensor.
In most models, you can track whether the settings have changed or not by observing the installed LED indicator, which changes its blinking frequency when the equipment is turned on.
Popular manufacturers, models and their prices
The cost of the device is directly related to the number of standard and additional functions, methods of receiving the signal and the country of manufacture. To simplify the choice of a suitable model, you can give a small rating of the most popular options:
- The sensor model is in great demand in the market Camelion LX-20B. The average cost of a device is within 7,5 dollars. The device has a large viewing angle with an indicator 360 degreesinstallation is possible on the ceiling.
- The next option is Camelion LX-39/WHwhich can be bought for 650–7 dollars. Has a smaller viewing angle than the previous model — 180 degreesbut differs by the maximum indicator in terms of range — 12 meters.
- Rev Ritter differs in higher cost, than the models specified earlier. Price starts from 8,5 dollars. The angle of coverage is 360 degreesand the range 7 meters. A good option for installation in the entrances of apartment buildings, bathrooms, pantries and other similar premises.
- Expensive, but very high quality equipment can be called Orbis Circumat 360 produced by an Italian manufacturer. Average cost starts from 40 dollars. Ceiling mounting possible up to 4 meters highthe range of the equipment is 7 meterswhich is sufficient for most rooms, subject to indoor installation.
In general, using a motion sensor to turn on a light has a number of advantages. Due to the fact that different models are presented on the market in terms of functionality, technical equipment and in different price segments, it is not difficult to choose an option that fully meets your financial capabilities and equipment requirements.