Features of infrared motion sensors to turn on the light

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IR sensor for home

The infrared motion sen­sor for turn­ing on the light is a mod­ern equip­ment that can sig­nif­i­cant­ly reduce the mis­use of elec­tri­cal ener­gy, there­by increas­ing the lev­el of ener­gy sav­ing and reduc­ing the finan­cial cost of pay­ing for elec­tric­i­ty. There is an option suit­able for both home use and for instal­la­tion in large rooms or out­side build­ings and struc­tures.

The principle of operation of the motion sensor

Movement sensorThere are enough ways to save elec­tric­i­ty, one of which is a sen­sor to turn on the light. The main fac­tors for the oper­a­tion of the equip­ment are the fol­low­ing con­di­tions:

  • The advent of move­ment in the con­trolled area.
  • Devi­a­tion in estab­lished indi­ca­tors lev­el illu­mi­na­tion in the con­trolled area.
  • Change in noise lev­elin the event that a noise sen­sor is installed to turn on the light.

All objects sur­round­ing a per­son, espe­cial­ly of organ­ic ori­gin (ani­mals and humans) have a dif­fer­ent tem­per­a­ture from each oth­er, which means that they radi­ate invis­i­ble to the human eye. infrared light. Inan­i­mate objects also emit infrared col­or, but their tem­per­a­ture is close­ly relat­ed to its change in the envi­ron­ment, for exam­ple, with pro­longed expo­sure to sun­light or close prox­im­i­ty to heat­ing devices.

The prin­ci­ple of oper­a­tion of the motion sen­sor is based on read­ing these changes, since it has a sys­tem with lens­es equipped with ele­ments respon­si­ble for fix­ing changes in the lev­el of infrared light called pyrode­tec­tors. Depend­ing on the spe­cif­ic mod­el, the num­ber of pyrode­tec­tors varies with­in from 20 to 50 pieces.

The high­er this indi­ca­tor, the more objects, includ­ing small ones, the device can rec­og­nize light from. Each of the installed lens­es is respon­si­ble for a spe­cif­ic sec­tor in the total con­trolled area. Accord­ing­ly, it changes cov­er­age anglewhich may mat­ter from 60 to 110 degrees in steps of 20as well as the val­ues in 180, 220, 300 and 360 degrees.

When an object moves in the con­trolled area, the tem­per­a­ture of which dif­fers from the envi­ron­ment not less than 50 C in the upward direc­tion, motion sen­sors are trig­gered to turn on the light. As objects move, the input and out­put sig­nal on each pyrode­tec­tor in its cov­er­age area changes.

The principle of operation of the IR motion detector

The light is on in the room exact­ly until at least one of the sen­sors stops receiv­ing a sig­nal about a change in tem­per­a­ture. After the move­ment stops in the con­trolled area, at the end of the spec­i­fied time inter­val, the out­put relay is turned off and, accord­ing­ly, the light turns off.

For light detec­tors installed in a motion sen­sor, a char­ac­ter­is­tic fea­ture can be called the pres­ence of sen­si­tiv­i­ty, which is respon­si­ble for how far an object must be removed from them in order for move­ment to be noticed. The small­er the size of the object, the clos­er it must be to the device for its full oper­a­tion.

When move­ment occurs in only one sec­tor, i.e. the move­ment of a small object is made direct­ly or on the spot, then the relay does not oper­ate and, accord­ing­ly, the light does not turn on.

Mount­ing and instal­la­tion of sen­sors is car­ried out only when the elec­tric­i­ty is off.

In addi­tion to infrared, there are oth­er types of motion sen­sors for light­ing:

  • Ultra­son­ic. The prin­ci­ple of their oper­a­tion is based on the reflec­tion of high-fre­quen­cy sounds from objects and objects in the room, or rather the results of this reflec­tion.
  • Microwave they work sim­i­lar­ly to ultra­son­ic ones, but they send short-wave sig­nals into the room, trig­ger­ing when the lev­el of their mag­ni­tude changes as a result of reflec­tion from objects and objects in space.

These two types belong to the cat­e­go­ry of active equip­ment, the infrared ver­sion is clas­si­fied as pas­sive devices.

Features to look out for when choosing

Steinet Ceiling SensorTo get the most out of the ulti­mate goal of pur­chas­ing and installing a light sen­sor to turn on the light, you need to pay atten­tion to sev­er­al basic equip­ment char­ac­ter­is­tics:



  • Scope of use. It is nec­es­sary to deter­mine in advance the place for the sub­se­quent instal­la­tion of the device, i.e. Will it be out­door or indoor. Since dif­fer­ent man­u­fac­tur­ers offer mod­els that dif­fer from each oth­er in terms of tech­ni­cal and func­tion­al equip­ment. So there are options with an increased lev­el of pro­tec­tion against mois­ture and dust. Mount­ing meth­ods also dif­fer, main­ly mount­ed options are avail­able on the mar­ket, installed using sup­port hold­ers or built into the sur­face.
  • Since equip­ment in its sim­plest form is a light bulb with a motion sen­sor, the impor­tant point is to deter­mine light source pow­ercon­nect­ed to the sen­sor. Depend­ing on the spe­cif­ic mod­el, the recorder may have an oper­at­ing volt­age from 200 W and more. Par­tic­u­lar atten­tion is paid to the pow­er indi­ca­tor in the case of a com­bi­na­tion of a sen­sor with an ener­gy-sav­ing lamp. When the light­ing fix­ture has a high­er load than spec­i­fied by the equip­ment man­u­fac­tur­er, it will be nec­es­sary to install an addi­tion­al relay or install sev­er­al sen­sors.

If the light­ing fix­ture has a high­er load than spec­i­fied by the equip­ment man­u­fac­tur­er, an addi­tion­al relay or instal­la­tion of sev­er­al sen­sors will be required.

  • The next impor­tant indi­ca­tor is view­ing angle. When installed out­side the build­ing, the best option is an indi­ca­tor for this val­ue with­in 180 degrees. It is pos­si­ble to choose a device with two sen­sors, which in total have the required 180 degrees. Indoors, for max­i­mum use, a vari­ant with 3 sen­sors is suit­able, total­ing the view­ing angle 360 degrees, this option is suit­able for instal­la­tion in the ceil­ing. For work out­side the premis­es and on the street, the best option is to choose a reg­is­trar with the largest indi­ca­tor in terms of view­ing angle. An option with a small­er num­ber of pyrode­tec­tors is suit­able for an apart­ment.
  • A sep­a­rate fea­ture is pos­si­bil­i­ty of com­bi­na­tion a spe­cif­ic device with a spe­cif­ic type of light­ing fix­ture or type of lamp. There are mod­els on the mar­ket that allow you to com­bine a light sen­sor to turn on the light with any of the exist­ing types of lamps and types of light­ing equip­ment. So you can choose a ver­sion of the sen­sor mount­ed in the car­tridge, and even a switch.
  • It is equal­ly impor­tant to know radius of action spe­cif­ic device. Range refers to the max­i­mum pos­si­ble dis­tance from a mov­ing object to the detec­tion equip­ment. In most cas­es, infrared sen­sors cov­er the area of ​​effect in the amount 12 meters.
  • It is impor­tant to make a choice two-pole or three-pole ver­sion. Bipo­lar mod­els are suit­able for installing incan­des­cent lamps. In this case, the con­nec­tion is by ser­i­al type. Three-pole allow you to con­nect and ener­gy-sav­ing options.

Advantages of the sensor to turn on the light

White sensorInstalling an auto­mat­ic light switch com­plete­ly solves the prob­lem of find­ing the light on. Which is con­ve­nient in pub­lic places with a low lev­el of illu­mi­na­tion in the day­time (entrance group at the entrance of a res­i­den­tial build­ing, stor­age room, etc.) or in unfa­mil­iar premis­es. Use allows you to reduce the num­ber of addi­tion­al actions per­formed by a per­son. So among the main advan­tages in favor of choos­ing an infrared motion sen­sor to turn on the light can be called.

Convenience

It con­sists in the fact that when the switch is locat­ed at a great dis­tance from the entrance to the premis­es, no need to search at a low lev­el of illu­mi­na­tion, which may result in injury (falling, col­li­sion with objects, etc.).

Saving

May be both finan­cial and tem­po­rary. There is no time spent look­ing for the switch, the light is off when there is no one in the room and, accord­ing­ly, the amount of time for which the pay­ment for the con­sumed elec­tri­cal ener­gy is reduced.

The use of sen­sors allows you to reduce the num­ber of addi­tion­al actions per­formed by a per­son, as well as elim­i­nate the pos­si­bil­i­ty of injury.

energy saving

A good ener­gy sav­ing indi­ca­tor fol­lows from the pre­vi­ous point. This solves the prob­lem of ener­gy con­sump­tion as a result of a light source not turned off in time.

High lev­el of device func­tion­al­i­ty. Man­u­fac­tur­ers offer mod­els that car­ry out their work with­out wires. There are options with the abil­i­ty to con­nect not only light­ing devices, but also oth­ers (stereo sys­tem, TV, etc.).

The first three main advan­tages of the choice cor­re­spond to any of the mod­els of equip­ment of a sim­i­lar plan offered on the mar­ket.

How to connect a motion sensor

Wiring diagram

Con­nect­ing a motion sen­sor for light­ing is a pro­ce­dure that does not have a high lev­el of com­plex­i­ty, but is quite spe­cif­ic, which requires cer­tain expe­ri­ence and knowl­edge. Experts iden­ti­fy sev­er­al basic schemes for con­nect­ing equip­ment, name­ly:

  • Par­al­lel.
  • Sequen­tial.
  • Instal­la­tion of sev­er­al sen­sors using a mag­net­ic starter.

In the case of ser­i­al con­nec­tion, the entire process of light­ing con­trol in the room or out­side is car­ried out auto­mat­i­cal­ly and is reg­u­lat­ed by the equip­ment itself. When the light must be on for a long time and at the same time the object will not move or will be out­side the con­trolled area, a man­u­al switch is installed par­al­lel to the equip­ment.

Scheme of connecting one or more sensors in parallel with the lamp

Sen­sor con­nec­tion dia­gram

A good exam­ple of the con­ve­nience of installing a switch is a garage with a view­ing hole. Being in a pit, a per­son does not fall into the area of ​​​​the sen­sor, but needs a con­stant source of light. After com­ple­tion of work, you can turn off the light man­u­al­ly.

For large rooms, it is nec­es­sary to install sev­er­al ele­ments, the con­nec­tion of which comes from one phase in par­al­lel. When any of the sen­sors in the net­work is trig­gered, the cir­cuit is closed, and all the oth­ers are turned on.

Magnetic starter circuit diagram

Wiring dia­gram with mag­net­ic starter

Instal­la­tion of a mag­net­ic starter is required when using a pow­er­ful light source or con­nect­ing oth­er types of elec­tri­cal equip­ment in addi­tion to light­ing lamps.

The video clear­ly shows how to con­nect:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZPLpEDbUWxg

Mounting

Instal­la­tion of equip­ment also has sev­er­al impor­tant nuances, among which are:

  • Pro­vid­ing pro­tec­tion from the influ­ence of exter­nal fac­tors for which a spe­cif­ic mod­el is not designed, which can lead to false alarms or block­ing for oper­a­tion.
  • Ensur­ing access to the detec­tion area.
  • Net­work con­nec­tion type sup­ply of elec­tri­cal ener­gy.

Con­nec­tion of any mod­el occurs due to spe­cial ter­mi­nals. The stan­dard and com­mon­ly used option is 3‑pin ter­mi­nals, some­times 4‑pin ter­mi­nals are used. The decod­ing of the mark­ings installed on the ter­mi­nals is as fol­lows:

  • L- stands for phase. Most often it is a red or brown wire.
  • N — zero, always spend blue.
  • L hav­ing in addi­tion a dash or arrow, as well as the let­ter A, denotes a light­ing fix­ture.
  • PE-ground­ing.

Most man­u­fac­tur­ers adhere to stan­dards in terms of wire col­or selec­tion, excep­tions to the rules are allowed. There­fore, for the cor­rect con­nec­tion of the device, it is desir­able to deter­mine the phase or zero addi­tion­al­ly using the indi­ca­tor.

Adjustments for brightness, response time and sensitivityAfter com­plet­ing the instal­la­tion work, it is nec­es­sary to adjust the sen­sor for com­fort­able oper­a­tion of the equip­ment in the future. It goes through sev­er­al main stages:

  • Motion sen­sor adjust­ment to turn on the light means adjust­ing the lev­el of the sen­si­tive sen­sor. Set­ting this indi­ca­tor allows you to reduce the risk of false alarms (in par­tic­u­lar, with a small move­ment, response to ani­mals, tem­per­a­ture changes in the heat­ing sys­tem or due to the oper­a­tion of the air con­di­tion­ing sys­tem, etc.). When a mod­el equipped with a pho­to­elec­tric sen­sor is select­ed, instead of the sen­sor sen­si­tiv­i­ty lev­el, the light thresh­old is adjust­ed, at which the equip­ment comes into action.
  • The user has the oppor­tu­ni­ty set work­ing time equip­ment. This indi­ca­tor means the time peri­od until the light is turned off in the absence of move­ment in the con­trolled area.
  • When the sen­sor is also trig­gered by the noise lev­el, then adjustable micro­phone sen­si­tiv­i­ty. It is con­ve­nient to per­form this pro­ce­dure when using a portable sound source, chang­ing its vol­ume with­in the range of the sen­sor.

In most mod­els, you can track whether the set­tings have changed or not by observ­ing the installed LED indi­ca­tor, which changes its blink­ing fre­quen­cy when the equip­ment is turned on.

Popular manufacturers, models and their prices

The cost of the device is direct­ly relat­ed to the num­ber of stan­dard and addi­tion­al func­tions, meth­ods of receiv­ing the sig­nal and the coun­try of man­u­fac­ture. To sim­pli­fy the choice of a suit­able mod­el, you can give a small rat­ing of the most pop­u­lar options:

  • The sen­sor mod­el is in great demand in the mar­ket Came­lion LX-20B. The aver­age cost of a device is with­in 7,5 dol­lars. The device has a large view­ing angle with an indi­ca­tor 360 degreesinstal­la­tion is pos­si­ble on the ceil­ing.
  • The next option is Came­lion LX-39/WHwhich can be bought for 650–7 dol­lars. Has a small­er view­ing angle than the pre­vi­ous mod­el — 180 degreesbut dif­fers by the max­i­mum indi­ca­tor in terms of range — 12 meters.
  • Rev Rit­ter dif­fers in high­er cost, than the mod­els spec­i­fied ear­li­er. Price starts from 8,5 dol­lars. The angle of cov­er­age is 360 degreesand the range 7 meters. A good option for instal­la­tion in the entrances of apart­ment build­ings, bath­rooms, pantries and oth­er sim­i­lar premis­es.
  • Expen­sive, but very high qual­i­ty equip­ment can be called Orbis Cir­cum­at 360 pro­duced by an Ital­ian man­u­fac­tur­er. Aver­age cost starts from 40 dol­lars. Ceil­ing mount­ing pos­si­ble up to 4 meters highthe range of the equip­ment is 7 meterswhich is suf­fi­cient for most rooms, sub­ject to indoor instal­la­tion.

In gen­er­al, using a motion sen­sor to turn on a light has a num­ber of advan­tages. Due to the fact that dif­fer­ent mod­els are pre­sent­ed on the mar­ket in terms of func­tion­al­i­ty, tech­ni­cal equip­ment and in dif­fer­ent price seg­ments, it is not dif­fi­cult to choose an option that ful­ly meets your finan­cial capa­bil­i­ties and equip­ment require­ments.


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