fire behind glass

Archi­tect
S. Nefe­dov
Pho­to by A. Lyashko

Fire­place “Cola” (“HESTIA”, ). Cladding mate­ri­als — slate, dolomite, gran­ite slabs and boul­ders СHEMINES PHILIPPE
Scheme of the for­ma­tion of con­vec­tion air flows in the room and their move­ment inside the fire­place lin­ing The fire­box is sup­port­ed by a mono­lith­ic or pre­fab­ri­cat­ed slab. It can be laid on the low­er ele­ments of the cladding or direct­ly on a pre-pre­pared base lined with non-com­bustible mate­r­i­al. The chim­ney beam hang­ing over the fire­box is secure­ly attached to the fire­place lean­ing wall with the help of cable braces Archi­tects
O. Schastlivt­sev,
A. Safonov
Pho­to by Y. Pry­gov Ceram­ic pre­fab­ri­cat­ed chim­ney (SCHIEDEL), as a rule, is installed next to the fire­place. Between the lean­ing wall assem­bled from cel­lu­lar blocks and the wood­en wall of the house, a lay­er of non-com­bustible insu­la­tion 50 mm thick should be laid Ceram­ic chim­ney kit (SCHIEDEL) A chim­ney made of steel sand­wich pipes can be mount­ed both inside the house and out­side. In any case, it should go as close as pos­si­ble to the roof ridge, oth­er­wise you will have to fas­ten it with braces

Instal­la­tion of a fire­place with an Eper­non por­tal (СHEMINES PHILIPPE):
a — a fire­box stand­ing on the base plate, a chim­ney and a met­al sup­port that keeps the heavy por­tal from falling are hid­den in a dry­wall enclo­sure; b — a por­tal is assem­bled from stone “cubes” on glue The heavy stone por­tal rests sole­ly on a pow­er­ful foun­da­tion. He only leans against the thin walls of the enclo­sure Archi­tects
A. Lyulkov,
R. Solo­matin,
L. Khaichenko
Pho­to by S. Morgunov Project author
G. Gure­vich
Pho­to by K. Manko Forced space heat­ing sys­tem with warm air from a fire­place with one cen­tral fan (SEGUIN) Space heat­ing sys­tem based on nat­ur­al con­vec­tion. Such a sys­tem is offered by almost all com­pa­nies pro­duc­ing fire­place lin­ings.

So, you have decid­ed to install a fire­place in your house. For a long time and care­ful­ly chose the fire­box and the lin­ing cor­re­spond­ing to it. How­ev­er, buy both- only half the sto­ry. It is impor­tant to prop­er­ly install the heat­ing device. Our arti­cle will tell about the main stages of this process and the accom­pa­ny­ing pit­falls.

In the arti­cle “Live with a spark!” a review was pub­lished on closed fire­box­es and fire­place lin­ings pre­sent­ed on the mod­ern Euro­pean mar­ket. Today we will ful­fill the promise made at the end of that arti­cle and tell you how to prop­er­ly install a fire­place.

Who will install?

This is the first issue to be resolved. Let’s start with the fact that any com­pa­ny that sells fire­places, as a rule, has its own instal­la­tion team, and it will not only mount the fire­place, but also pre­pare a “plat­form” for it. Turn to the ser­vices of spe­cial­ists- the sim­plest, but, unfor­tu­nate­ly, the most expen­sive way: after all, the work of good pro­fes­sion­als is expen­sive.

You can save mon­ey in three ways. The first- Call a con­sult­ing engi­neer from the firm. First of all, he will check on the spot how the select­ed mod­el of the fur­nace and lin­ing cor­re­sponds to the spe­cif­ic instal­la­tion con­di­tions (by the way, now large com­pa­nies often refuse to ship the pur­chased fire­place with­out a pre­lim­i­nary vis­it of their rep­re­sen­ta­tive to the client, which excludes the return of goods). Then the con­sul­tant will study the design fea­tures of the house (mate­r­i­al of walls, floors, ceil­ings andt.etc.) and with­in a few days will give rec­om­men­da­tions on the prepa­ra­tion of the site for the instal­la­tion of the select­ed mod­el, based on its geom­e­try, weight and style of lin­ing and char­ac­ter­is­tics of the fire­box. Call­ing an engi­neer will cost about 1.50 $. (when order­ing instal­la­tion, the com­pa­ny will deduct this amount from its cost). You can entrust the prepara­to­ry work to the invit­ed team of builders- it will cost less than sim­i­lar ser­vices of the com­pa­ny’s spe­cial­ists.

Sec­ond way- call a con­sul­tant, and imple­ment his rec­om­men­da­tions by the builders, but under the super­vi­sion of the same spe­cial­ist (the so-called instal­la­tion super­vi­sion).

Andthird way- do not invite any­one, but car­ry out prepara­to­ry work and instal­la­tion on your own. This option is more risky, since most like­ly none of the mem­bers of the con­struc­tion team (not to men­tion you) has ever mount­ed a fire­place. Nat­u­ral­ly, the respon­si­bil­i­ty for the qual­i­ty of the assem­bly will have to be borne by you. In our opin­ion, this method is accept­able only if the near­est com­pa­ny sell­ing fire­places (aka- instal­la­tion com­pa­ny), is locat­ed too far from your home and the depar­ture of a con­sul­tant and a team of installers becomes unprof­itable. Well, now let’s talk about some instal­la­tion rules.

When to install a fin­ished floor?

Should I do this before installing the fire­place or after? Experts rec­om­mend installing a fire­place after cre­at­ing a fin­ished floor. Andthat’s why. Under the fire­place itself on the floor (it is more cor­rect to call it a hearth) there should be a lay­er of non-com­bustible mate­r­i­al (con­crete, met­al, stone, tile andt.P.). Sim­i­lar mate­ri­als need to fin­ish the pre-fur­nace area. If you first veneer the indi­cat­ed sur­faces and mount the fire­place, then lat­er, when lay­ing, for exam­ple, par­quet, it will be dif­fi­cult to bring the floor to one lev­el. Well, if you first com­plete­ly lay the floors, then such a prob­lem will not arise.

Preparatory work

To install a fire­place you need:
lean­ing wall to which the fire­place lin­ing will adjoin (excep­tion- island mod­els);
the base on which the fire­place and the lean­ing wall stand;
chim­ney of suit­able size and loca­tion.

Fire­place wall. This is a wall that is, in fact, the back or side (for wall mod­els), and some­times both (for cor­ner mod­els) wall of the fire­place lin­ing. ATIn brick and con­crete build­ings, the lean­ing wall is often the wall of the house itself. ATwood is much more com­pli­cat­ed. Here you can not put a fire­place direct­ly against a wood­en wall- it is nec­es­sary to install an addi­tion­al pro­tec­tive wall made of non-com­bustible mate­ri­als: brick (suf­fi­cient thick­ness of the mason­ry- half a brick), cel­lu­lar blocks (gas sil­i­cate, foam con­crete andetc.), gyp­sum tongue-and-groove plates andt.e. For safe­ty, between the lean­ing wall and the wood­en wall, a lay­er of non-com­bustible insu­la­tion with a thick­ness of at least 5see The size and shape of the lean­ing wall depends on the fire­place mod­el being installed and the design of the room. It either strict­ly fol­lows the con­tours of the fire­place (in this case it can be com­plete­ly hid­den under the cladding), or it looks like an ordi­nary wall, stretch­ing from floor to ceil­ing. The sta­bil­i­ty of the wall is ensured by its “bind­ing” to the wood­en wall of the house itself with the help of embed­ded ele­ments or by giv­ing it a cer­tain pro­file (for exam­ple, L- or U‑shaped). The shape of the lean­ing wall some­times depends on the design of the chim­ney. It can serve as a sup­port for rel­a­tive­ly light sand­wich pipes and even be part of a chim­ney made in the form of a brick shaft. ATin the lat­ter case, among oth­er things, mea­sures must be tak­en to ensure the elas­tic­i­ty of the con­nec­tion between the fire­place insert and the chim­ney (it should be locat­ed at 40see below the top edge of the lean­ing wall or com­bustible ceil­ing struc­tures). This will ensure its tight­ness with pos­si­ble shrink­age of the walls and sea­son­al move­ment of the wood­en floor. The con­nec­tion of the upper part of the fire­place lin­ing with the ceil­ing should also be made elas­tic.

Base for the lean­ing wall and the fire­place itself, it must be com­mon and strong enough (the mass of the fire­place can reach 1 ton, and the mass of the lean­ing wall must be added to this) and rigid in order to min­i­mize pos­si­ble move­ments of the “fire­place” struc­ture- pro­tec­tive wall- chim­ney” in gen­er­al. Strong move­ments will cause depres­sur­iza­tion of the chim­ney chan­nel. A reli­able foun­da­tion can be con­sid­ered a sep­a­rate foun­da­tion (in a stone house this option is prefer­able, but in a wood­en house it is manda­to­ry) or a rein­forced con­crete inter­floor ceil­ing (from slabs or mono­lith­ic).

Chim­ney. Its diam­e­ter (flow area) must be no less than that indi­cat­ed in the pass­port of the fire­place insert, and the height- suf­fi­cient to cre­ate the nec­es­sary vac­u­um (you will also find its val­ue in the pass­port), oth­er­wise it will not draw smoke. In prac­tice, the height of the pipe is usu­al­ly 5–12m from the fuel burn­ing sur­face. If it is high­er, spe­cial mea­sures will have to be tak­en to lim­it the result­ing rar­efac­tion. And­of course, it must be made of fire­proof mate­ri­als (for exam­ple, brick) and ful­ly com­ply with fire safe­ty stan­dards. Experts con­sid­er it unsuc­cess­ful to place the chim­ney inside the out­er wall (in win­ter this may cause prob­lems), as well as inside the walls locat­ed away from the roof ridge (the pipe will rise strong­ly above the roof).

Nat­u­ral­ly, every­thing said about the chim­ney refers to the case when it is designed in advance and will be built along with the house. But what if the idea of ​​a fire­place arose when the house had already been built? You will have to pur­chase a chim­ney and install it with a fire­place. If the space for the pipe is lim­it­ed, pay atten­tion to the met­al chim­ney from the so-called sand­wich pipes. They are quite light and can be mount­ed above the fire­box so that their weight is trans­ferred to the ceil­ing or lean­ing wall. The price of sand­wich pipes is 1.7–3.50 $. for 1 run­ning m depend­ing on the man­u­fac­tur­er. If there is space and funds allow, you can install a ceram­ic three-lay­er chim­ney- for exam­ple, the com­pa­ny SCHIEDEL (Ger­many) worth about 30 $. for 1 run­ning m. True, this chim­ney is quite volu­mi­nous and heavy (weight 1 lin­ear m- from 80kg), because it is placed next to the fire­place and dec­o­rat­ed in the same style with the cladding. But when pass­ing such a chim­ney through the wood­en struc­tures of the ceil­ing and roof, there will be no prob­lems.- its sur­face tem­per­a­ture does not exceed 40FROM.

Cau­tion: pow­er­ful fire­place!

In both Euro­pean and Euro­pean homes, a fire­place usu­al­ly serves as an addi­tion­al source of heat, but it is also used as the main source.- for exam­ple, for heat­ing a coun­try house of a small area (if the heat out­put of the fire­place is small, only one floor can be heat­ed). How­ev­er, many own­ers of coun­try hous­es, in which the heat­ing sys­tem already exists and func­tions per­fect­ly, acquire a fire­place exclu­sive­ly for “dec­o­ra­tive” pur­pos­es. At the same time, a mod­el with a huge pow­er­ful fire­box is cho­sen. And­Here I want to warn them against two dan­gers.

Dan­ger first. Any fire­pla­ceis a source of heat, and the larg­er the fire­box, the more heat it releas­es. If the house is already well enough heat­ed, you should think about how to pro­tect your­self from the “excess” ther­mal ener­gy that will be gen­er­at­ed by the fire­place (prob­a­bly it is not even worth list­ing the harm­ful effects of over­heat­ing the body, as well as air­ing through open win­dows). The only way- install auto­mat­ic reg­u­la­tors in the heat­ing sys­tem. They turn off the heat sup­ply to the room where the fire­place is installed, and at the same time turn on the sup­ply and exhaust ven­ti­la­tion (and pos­si­bly the air con­di­tion­ing sys­tem), there­by ensur­ing a sta­ble tem­per­a­ture. It is clear that all this, even pro­vid­ed for at the design stage, will require sig­nif­i­cant costs.

The sec­ond dan­ger. For nor­mal oper­a­tion, the fire­place needs air flow (its vol­ume must be at least 10m3/h per 1 kW of pow­er). Andif the fire­place does not receive the required amount of air, it will begin to smoke. There­fore, it will be nec­es­sary to orga­nize its flow from the street through an air duct, which can be a spe­cial pipe, for exam­ple Mul­ti­went (EDILKAMIN, Italy), or an ordi­nary PVC pipe (it has smooth walls and does not cre­ate much resis­tance to air flow). A damper should be installed on the air duct; when the fire­place is not lit, it over­laps. Mount such an air duct even before installing the fire­place (its out­let should be 5–10cm above the floor under the fire­place insert), which also requires addi­tion­al funds.

Fireplace assembly

And now the turn has come from the brought set of com­po­nents, as from cubes, to assem­ble a fire­place. A mono­lith­ic or pre­fab­ri­cat­ed base plate and the low­er part of the cladding are placed on the fin­ished base (all this is includ­ed in the kit). The bind­ing mate­r­i­al for con­nect­ing the ele­ments of the fire­place cladding is a mor­tar based on heat-resis­tant cement or a spe­cial adhe­sive gel, the set­ting time of which- 1–1.5h. Then install the fire­box (the min­i­mum dis­tance between it and the lean­ing wall- 7–10cm). Experts rec­om­mend con­nect­ing the fire­box to the chim­ney using a cor­ru­gat­ed stain­less steel pipe with a diam­e­ter of 200mm, for exam­ple man­u­fac­tured by TEN (France). It comes with a 3‑year war­ran­ty for con­tin­u­ous use. The joints of the cor­ru­gat­ed pipe with the chim­ney and the fur­nace pipe are her­met­i­cal­ly sealed with heat-resis­tant mas­tic- let’s say Fire­ce­ment (TEN). After that, the instal­la­tion of the cladding con­tin­ues, lay­ing the side walls.

The cas­ing installed above the cladding is usu­al­ly not includ­ed in the deliv­ery set (excep­tion- design fire­places). It is usu­al­ly made from gyp­sum boards or gyp­sum fiber boards right on the spot, mount­ed on a rigid frame made of a met­al pro­file (a stan­dard pro­file for dry­wall is used). To pre­vent hot air from heat­ing the ceil­ing, inside the cas­ing, at a dis­tance of at least 30cm from the ceil­ing, install a par­ti­tion (pro­tec­tive screen) of the same mate­r­i­al. After that, the cas­ing from the inside and the lean­ing wall (as well as the brick or con­crete wall of the house) are pro­tect­ed with ther­mal insu­la­tion. For this, a basalt fiber plate is used, foil-coat­ed on one side, for exam­ple, Fire­buts 110 (ROCKWOOL, Den­mark). It is glued in such a way that the alu­minum foil faces the fire­box and the cor­ru­gat­ed con­nect­ing pipe. The joints of the plates are cov­ered with a spe­cial adhe­sive tape (say, alu­minum tape).

ATup­per part of the cas­ing under the pro­tec­tive screen (at a dis­tance of at least 40cm from the ceil­ing) install met­al ven­ti­la­tion grilles through which hot air escapes (it heats the room where the fire­place is). There can be two of them (locat­ed on the sides; dimen­sions- 35twen­ty­cm), and one (installed from the front side; the size is 2 times larg­er than that of the side grilles). ATthe part of the cas­ing above the pro­tec­tive screen is also rein­forced by two met­al grilles (dimen­sions- tentencm).

It is pos­si­ble to imple­ment anoth­er solu­tion- to col­lect the warm air heat­ed by the fire­place insert and dis­trib­ute it through the premis­es with the help of flex­i­ble pipes, thus orga­niz­ing an air heat­ing sys­tem.

It is worth high­light­ing the assem­bly of fire­places with a por­tal. They are mount­ed in the so-called enclo­sure- box-shaped design, which can sur­round the fire­box from two, three and even four sides). It is erect­ed, like the cas­ing, from dry­wall on a met­al frame. For fire­box doors (usu­al­ly fire­box­es have one door, and through fire­box­es have dou­ble face- two) rec­tan­gu­lar holes are left in the walls of the baf­fle. The por­tal, which rests sole­ly on the base, is only leaned against the walls of the enclo­sure. If the por­tal is heavy enough (for exam­ple, it is made of sol­id nat­ur­al stone) or is hinged (it is a kind of dec­o­ra­tive frame for the fire­box door), then an appro­pri­ate met­al struc­ture is cre­at­ed inside the enclo­sure (in some cas­es, its parts are includ­ed in the kit) that can reli­ably hold the hinged ” frame” or to pre­vent heavy cladding from falling. Fur­ther, every­thing hap­pens as in nor­mal instal­la­tion: the upper zone of the baf­fle is cut off with a pro­tec­tive screen, foil ther­mal insu­la­tion is glued from the inside, then ven­ti­la­tion grilles are installed andt.d.

Instal­la­tion steps for a fire­place with coun­try-style cladding (Sun­hill):
a, b — lay­ing the low­er part of the cladding and the base plate and their align­ment; in-instal­la­tion of the fire­box; d‑installation of a chim­ney; d‑installation of the side parts of the cladding; e‑installation of man­tel sup­ports; w‑installation of a plas­ter­board cas­ing on a met­al frame; h‑pasting of the cas­ing (from the inside) and the lean­ing wall with reflec­tive ther­mal insu­la­tion; and — installing the cas­ing in place.

How much does it cost?

Let’s try to cal­cu­late how much a fire­place in the mid­dle price range will cost. In doing so, the fol­low­ing ele­ments must be tak­en into account:

fur­nace cost;
the cost of fire­place lin­ing or por­tal;
the cost of a chim­ney (if there is none in the house);
the cost of instal­la­tion mate­ri­als and work to assem­ble the fire­place and install the chim­ney.

Fire­box. ATsale there is a large selec­tion of rel­a­tive­ly cheap and high-qual­i­ty import­ed and domes­tic closed fire­box­es, which cost 10–1500$. When choos­ing a tech­nique, do not focus only on the low price. Pay atten­tion to the rep­u­ta­tion of the com­pa­ny, includ­ing how long it has been sell­ing equip­ment on our mar­ket; Find out from the sell­er how pop­u­lar the mod­el you like is. It is also impor­tant to clar­i­fy the war­ran­ty peri­od of work (its dura­tion varies quite sig­nif­i­cant­ly in dif­fer­ent com­pa­nies).- 1, 3, 5, 7 and even 10years) and find out who will car­ry out repairs at this time (if any). A high-qual­i­ty fire­box with­out any frills can be pur­chased for 17–300 $.

Fac­ing. At the low­est price (17–520 $), you can buy domes­tic cladding. Among the import­ed ones there are also inex­pen­sive mod­els- 20.5–700 $. Exclu­sive prod­ucts made of nat­ur­al stone or paint­ed cast iron cost more than one hun­dred thou­sand rubles. In this case, we pre­fer a “mod­est” cladding for 27–520 $.

Chim­ney. Let’s opt for a light steel chim­ney made of sand­wich pipes. As already men­tioned, depend­ing on the man­u­fac­tur­er and the mate­r­i­al used for 1 run­ning. m of the pipe of such a chim­ney (its diam­e­ter is 20cm) will have to pay 1.7–3.50 $. If funds allow, you should choose a more expen­sive option, but backed by a 10-year war­ran­ty (for exam­ple, POUJOULAT, France).

The approx­i­mate price of a chim­ney can be cal­cu­lat­ed as fol­lows: mul­ti­ply the price of 1 lin­ear meter. m of pipe to the desired length (the aver­age length of a chim­ney for a two-sto­ry house- 6m). Addi­tion­al ele­ments (brack­ets, clamps andt.etc.) will cost an addi­tion­al 25% of the cost of the chim­ney. The total price will be 22.3–25.70 $.

Mount­ing. Here the cal­cu­la­tion will be very approx­i­mate. It can be car­ried out in two ways. With the first, the assem­bly cost will be about 30% of the price of the cladding plus the price of instal­la­tion mate­ri­als (fas­ten­ers, insu­la­tion, ven­ti­la­tion grilles andt.P.); all togeth­er will cost 170 $. The sec­ond way: accord­ing to the expe­ri­ence of installing dif­fer­ent com­pa­nies, for a turnkey assem­bly, depend­ing on the size and con­fig­u­ra­tion of the fire­place, you will have to pay 41–620 $. (with a guar­an­tee for instal­la­tion work- 2 years). Tothe fig­ures obtained must be added to the cost of the instal­la­tion of the chim­ney- this is about 30% of its price. So, the total cost of a fire­place in the aver­age price range will be 115–178 thou­sand rubles.

We heat the house

The deci­sion to use a fire­place as the main source of heat­ing for a small house should be made at the ini­tial design stage and imple­ment­ed at the con­struc­tion stage. ATa fin­ished house will be more dif­fi­cult to bring this idea to life due to a num­ber of tech­ni­cal dif­fi­cul­ties, and seri­ous repairs will be required. The hot air gen­er­at­ed by the fire­place can be dis­trib­uted spon­ta­neous­ly (using the laws of con­vec­tion) or forced­ly (using fans) through­out the house. Each of the meth­ods has its own advan­tages and dis­ad­van­tages.

con­vec­tion sys­tem

Advan­tages:

main­te­nance is not required; inde­pen­dence from elec­tric­i­ty; noise­less­ness; cheap­ness; hot air is deliv­ered to a dis­tance 2–3m from the fire­place, heat­ing only the neigh­bor­ing rooms.

Flaws:

sen­si­tiv­i­ty to pres­sure changes and changes in weath­er con­di­tions; the need for exten­sive expe­ri­ence to imple­ment the sys­tem; for dis­trib­ut­ing warm air through rooms, large-diam­e­ter air ducts are need­ed (to reduce aero­dy­nam­ic resis­tance); depen­dence of work effi­cien­cy on the lay­out of the house; the inabil­i­ty to heat rooms locat­ed below the fire­place or far from it.

Forced sys­tem

Advan­tages:

the abil­i­ty to remove warm air at a dis­tance of up to 10m (includ­ing in rooms locat­ed below the fire­place); bGreater reli­a­bil­i­ty and uni­for­mi­ty of heat­ing; ample oppor­tu­ni­ties for lay­ing chan­nels; admis­si­bil­i­ty of embed­ding air fil­ters.

Flaws:

fan noise; high cost (it con­sists of the price of fans and sound­proof air ducts); depen­dence on elec­tric­i­ty.

The edi­tors would like to thank SAGA, GODIN, LOKI for their help in prepar­ing the mate­r­i­al.

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