Photo by A. Lyashko
Scheme of the formation of convection air flows in the room and their movement inside the fireplace lining The firebox is supported by a monolithic or prefabricated slab. It can be laid on the lower elements of the cladding or directly on a pre-prepared base lined with non-combustible material. The chimney beam hanging over the firebox is securely attached to the fireplace leaning wall with the help of cable braces Architects
Photo by Y. Prygov Ceramic prefabricated chimney (SCHIEDEL), as a rule, is installed next to the fireplace. Between the leaning wall assembled from cellular blocks and the wooden wall of the house, a layer of non-combustible insulation 50 mm thick should be laid Ceramic chimney kit (SCHIEDEL) A chimney made of steel sandwich pipes can be mounted both inside the house and outside. In any case, it should go as close as possible to the roof ridge, otherwise you will have to fasten it with braces
Installation of a fireplace with an Epernon portal (СHEMIN
a — a firebox standing on the base plate, a chimney and a metal support that keeps the heavy portal from falling are hidden in a drywall enclosure; b — a portal is assembled from stone “cubes” on glue The heavy stone portal rests solely on a powerful foundation. He only leans against the thin walls of the enclosure Architects
Photo by S. Morgunov Project author
Photo by K. Manko Forced space heating system with warm air from a fireplace with one central fan (SEGUIN) Space heating system based on natural convection. Such a system is offered by almost all companies producing fireplace linings.
So, you have decided to install a fireplace in your house. For a long time and carefully chose the firebox and the lining corresponding to it. However, buy both- only half the story. It is important to properly install the heating device. Our article will tell about the main stages of this process and the accompanying pitfalls.
In the article “Live with a spark!” a review was published on closed fireboxes and fireplace linings presented on the modern European market. Today we will fulfill the promise made at the end of that article and tell you how to properly install a fireplace.
Who will install?
This is the first issue to be resolved. Let’s start with the fact that any company that sells fireplaces, as a rule, has its own installation team, and it will not only mount the fireplace, but also prepare a “platform” for it. Turn to the services of specialists- the simplest, but, unfortunately, the most expensive way: after all, the work of good professionals is expensive.
You can save money in three ways. The first- Call a consulting engineer from the firm. First of all, he will check on the spot how the selected model of the furnace and lining corresponds to the specific installation conditions (by the way, now large companies often refuse to ship the purchased fireplace without a preliminary visit of their representative to the client, which excludes the return of goods). Then the consultant will study the design features of the house (material of walls, floors, ceilings andt.etc.) and within a few days will give recommendations on the preparation of the site for the installation of the selected model, based on its geometry, weight and style of lining and characteristics of the firebox. Calling an engineer will cost about 1.50 $. (when ordering installation, the company will deduct this amount from its cost). You can entrust the preparatory work to the invited team of builders- it will cost less than similar services of the company’s specialists.
Second way- call a consultant, and implement his recommendations by the builders, but under the supervision of the same specialist (the so-called installation supervision).
Andthird way- do not invite anyone, but carry out preparatory work and installation on your own. This option is more risky, since most likely none of the members of the construction team (not to mention you) has ever mounted a fireplace. Naturally, the responsibility for the quality of the assembly will have to be borne by you. In our opinion, this method is acceptable only if the nearest company selling fireplaces (aka- installation company), is located too far from your home and the departure of a consultant and a team of installers becomes unprofitable. Well, now let’s talk about some installation rules.
When to install a finished floor?
Should I do this before installing the fireplace or after? Experts recommend installing a fireplace after creating a finished floor. Andthat’s why. Under the fireplace itself on the floor (it is more correct to call it a hearth) there should be a layer of non-combustible material (concrete, metal, stone, tile andt.P.). Similar materials need to finish the pre-furnace area. If you first veneer the indicated surfaces and mount the fireplace, then later, when laying, for example, parquet, it will be difficult to bring the floor to one level. Well, if you first completely lay the floors, then such a problem will not arise.
To install a fireplace you need:
Fireplace wall. This is a wall that is, in fact, the back or side (for wall models), and sometimes both (for corner models) wall of the fireplace lining. ATIn brick and concrete buildings, the leaning wall is often the wall of the house itself. ATwood is much more complicated. Here you can not put a fireplace directly against a wooden wall- it is necessary to install an additional protective wall made of non-combustible materials: brick (sufficient thickness of the masonry- half a brick), cellular blocks (gas silicate, foam concrete andetc.), gypsum tongue-and-groove plates andt.e. For safety, between the leaning wall and the wooden wall, a layer of non-combustible insulation with a thickness of at least 5see The size and shape of the leaning wall depends on the fireplace model being installed and the design of the room. It either strictly follows the contours of the fireplace (in this case it can be completely hidden under the cladding), or it looks like an ordinary wall, stretching from floor to ceiling. The stability of the wall is ensured by its “binding” to the wooden wall of the house itself with the help of embedded elements or by giving it a certain profile (for example, L- or U‑shaped). The shape of the leaning wall sometimes depends on the design of the chimney. It can serve as a support for relatively light sandwich pipes and even be part of a chimney made in the form of a brick shaft. ATin the latter case, among other things, measures must be taken to ensure the elasticity of the connection between the fireplace insert and the chimney (it should be located at 40see below the top edge of the leaning wall or combustible ceiling structures). This will ensure its tightness with possible shrinkage of the walls and seasonal movement of the wooden floor. The connection of the upper part of the fireplace lining with the ceiling should also be made elastic.
Base for the leaning wall and the fireplace itself, it must be common and strong enough (the mass of the fireplace can reach 1 ton, and the mass of the leaning wall must be added to this) and rigid in order to minimize possible movements of the “fireplace” structure- protective wall- chimney” in general. Strong movements will cause depressurization of the chimney channel. A reliable foundation can be considered a separate foundation (in a stone house this option is preferable, but in a wooden house it is mandatory) or a reinforced concrete interfloor ceiling (from slabs or monolithic).
Chimney. Its diameter (flow area) must be no less than that indicated in the passport of the fireplace insert, and the height- sufficient to create the necessary vacuum (you will also find its value in the passport), otherwise it will not draw smoke. In practice, the height of the pipe is usually 5–12m from the fuel burning surface. If it is higher, special measures will have to be taken to limit the resulting rarefaction. Andof course, it must be made of fireproof materials (for example, brick) and fully comply with fire safety standards. Experts consider it unsuccessful to place the chimney inside the outer wall (in winter this may cause problems), as well as inside the walls located away from the roof ridge (the pipe will rise strongly above the roof).
Naturally, everything said about the chimney refers to the case when it is designed in advance and will be built along with the house. But what if the idea of a fireplace arose when the house had already been built? You will have to purchase a chimney and install it with a fireplace. If the space for the pipe is limited, pay attention to the metal chimney from the so-called sandwich pipes. They are quite light and can be mounted above the firebox so that their weight is transferred to the ceiling or leaning wall. The price of sandwich pipes is 1.7–3.50 $. for 1 running m depending on the manufacturer. If there is space and funds allow, you can install a ceramic three-layer chimney- for example, the company SCHIEDEL (Germany) worth about 30 $. for 1 running m. True, this chimney is quite voluminous and heavy (weight 1 linear m- from 80kg), because it is placed next to the fireplace and decorated in the same style with the cladding. But when passing such a chimney through the wooden structures of the ceiling and roof, there will be no problems.- its surface temperature does not exceed 40
Caution: powerful fireplace!
In both European and European homes, a fireplace usually serves as an additional source of heat, but it is also used as the main source.- for example, for heating a country house of a small area (if the heat output of the fireplace is small, only one floor can be heated). However, many owners of country houses, in which the heating system already exists and functions perfectly, acquire a fireplace exclusively for “decorative” purposes. At the same time, a model with a huge powerful firebox is chosen. AndHere I want to warn them against two dangers.
Danger first. Any fireplaceis a source of heat, and the larger the firebox, the more heat it releases. If the house is already well enough heated, you should think about how to protect yourself from the “excess” thermal energy that will be generated by the fireplace (probably it is not even worth listing the harmful effects of overheating the body, as well as airing through open windows). The only way- install automatic regulators in the heating system. They turn off the heat supply to the room where the fireplace is installed, and at the same time turn on the supply and exhaust ventilation (and possibly the air conditioning system), thereby ensuring a stable temperature. It is clear that all this, even provided for at the design stage, will require significant costs.
The second danger. For normal operation, the fireplace needs air flow (its volume must be at least 10m3/h per 1 kW of power). Andif the fireplace does not receive the required amount of air, it will begin to smoke. Therefore, it will be necessary to organize its flow from the street through an air duct, which can be a special pipe, for example Multiwent (
And now the turn has come from the brought set of components, as from cubes, to assemble a fireplace. A monolithic or prefabricated base plate and the lower part of the cladding are placed on the finished base (all this is included in the kit). The binding material for connecting the elements of the fireplace cladding is a mortar based on heat-resistant cement or a special adhesive gel, the setting time of which- 1–1.5h. Then install the firebox (the minimum distance between it and the leaning wall- 7–10cm). Experts recommend connecting the firebox to the chimney using a corrugated stainless steel pipe with a diameter of 200mm, for example manufactured by TEN (France). It comes with a 3‑year warranty for continuous use. The joints of the corrugated pipe with the chimney and the furnace pipe are hermetically sealed with heat-resistant mastic- let’s say Firecement (TEN). After that, the installation of the cladding continues, laying the side walls.
The casing installed above the cladding is usually not included in the delivery set (exception- design fireplaces). It is usually made from gypsum boards or gypsum fiber boards right on the spot, mounted on a rigid frame made of a metal profile (a standard profile for drywall is used). To prevent hot air from heating the ceiling, inside the casing, at a distance of at least 30cm from the ceiling, install a partition (protective screen) of the same material. After that, the casing from the inside and the leaning wall (as well as the brick or concrete wall of the house) are protected with thermal insulation. For this, a basalt fiber plate is used, foil-coated on one side, for example, Firebuts 110 (ROCKWOOL, Denmark). It is glued in such a way that the aluminum foil faces the firebox and the corrugated connecting pipe. The joints of the plates are covered with a special adhesive tape (say, aluminum tape).
ATupper part of the casing under the protective screen (at a distance of at least 40cm from the ceiling) install metal ventilation grilles through which hot air escapes (it heats the room where the fireplace is). There can be two of them (located on the sides; dimensions- 35
It is possible to implement another solution- to collect the warm air heated by the fireplace insert and distribute it through the premises with the help of flexible pipes, thus organizing an air heating system.
It is worth highlighting the assembly of fireplaces with a portal. They are mounted in the so-called enclosure- box-shaped design, which can surround the firebox from two, three and even four sides). It is erected, like the casing, from drywall on a metal frame. For firebox doors (usually fireboxes have one door, and through fireboxes have double face- two) rectangular holes are left in the walls of the baffle. The portal, which rests solely on the base, is only leaned against the walls of the enclosure. If the portal is heavy enough (for example, it is made of solid natural stone) or is hinged (it is a kind of decorative frame for the firebox door), then an appropriate metal structure is created inside the enclosure (in some cases, its parts are included in the kit) that can reliably hold the hinged ” frame” or to prevent heavy cladding from falling. Further, everything happens as in normal installation: the upper zone of the baffle is cut off with a protective screen, foil thermal insulation is glued from the inside, then ventilation grilles are installed andt.d.
Installation steps for a fireplace with country-style cladding (Sunhill):
How much does it cost?
Let’s try to calculate how much a fireplace in the middle price range will cost. In doing so, the following elements must be taken into account:
Firebox. ATsale there is a large selection of relatively cheap and high-quality imported and domestic closed fireboxes, which cost 10–1500$. When choosing a technique, do not focus only on the low price. Pay attention to the reputation of the company, including how long it has been selling equipment on our market; Find out from the seller how popular the model you like is. It is also important to clarify the warranty period of work (its duration varies quite significantly in different companies).- 1, 3, 5, 7 and even 10years) and find out who will carry out repairs at this time (if any). A high-quality firebox without any frills can be purchased for 17–300 $.
Facing. At the lowest price (17–520 $), you can buy domestic cladding. Among the imported ones there are also inexpensive models- 20.5–700 $. Exclusive products made of natural stone or painted cast iron cost more than one hundred thousand rubles. In this case, we prefer a “modest” cladding for 27–520 $.
Chimney. Let’s opt for a light steel chimney made of sandwich pipes. As already mentioned, depending on the manufacturer and the material used for 1 running. m of the pipe of such a chimney (its diameter is 20cm) will have to pay 1.7–3.50 $. If funds allow, you should choose a more expensive option, but backed by a 10-year warranty (for example, POUJOULAT, France).
The approximate price of a chimney can be calculated as follows: multiply the price of 1 linear meter. m of pipe to the desired length (the average length of a chimney for a two-story house- 6m). Additional elements (brackets, clamps andt.etc.) will cost an additional 25% of the cost of the chimney. The total price will be 22.3–25.70 $.
Mounting. Here the calculation will be very approximate. It can be carried out in two ways. With the first, the assembly cost will be about 30% of the price of the cladding plus the price of installation materials (fasteners, insulation, ventilation grilles andt.P.); all together will cost 170 $. The second way: according to the experience of installing different companies, for a turnkey assembly, depending on the size and configuration of the fireplace, you will have to pay 41–620 $. (with a guarantee for installation work- 2 years). Tothe figures obtained must be added to the cost of the installation of the chimney- this is about 30% of its price. So, the total cost of a fireplace in the average price range will be 115–178 thousand rubles.
We heat the house
The decision to use a fireplace as the main source of heating for a small house should be made at the initial design stage and implemented at the construction stage. ATa finished house will be more difficult to bring this idea to life due to a number of technical difficulties, and serious repairs will be required. The hot air generated by the fireplace can be distributed spontaneously (using the laws of convection) or forcedly (using fans) throughout the house. Each of the methods has its own advantages and disadvantages.
maintenance is not required; independence from electricity; noiselessness; cheapness; hot air is delivered to a distance
sensitivity to pressure changes and changes in weather conditions; the need for extensive experience to implement the system; for distributing warm air through rooms, large-diameter air ducts are needed (to reduce aerodynamic resistance); dependence of work efficiency on the layout of the house; the inability to heat rooms located below the fireplace or far from it.
the ability to remove warm air at a distance of up to 10m (including in rooms located below the fireplace); b
fan noise; high cost (it consists of the price of fans and soundproof air ducts); dependence on electricity.
The editors would like to thank SAGA, GODIN, LOKI for their help in preparing the material.