Fire, wood and chimneys…

Wall-angle mod­el Per­al­ba (PIAZZETTA)
“KF EVITA“
Island type fire­place made from ele­ments com­mon­ly used for wall appli­ances
“AGROPROJECT“
Tiled fire­place retains heat longer
FOTObank/EWA
In the inte­ri­or, try­ing to repro­duce the Art Deco era, the fire­place has a lacon­ic, strict form.
FOTObank/EWA
A huge por­tal brings the spir­it of medieval cas­tles into a mod­ern house. But it is nec­es­sary to heat such a fire­place care­ful­ly so as not to smoke the room.
FOTObank/EWA
The por­tals of mod­ern fire­places some­times have very fan­cy shapes.
“KF EVITA“
How a hemi­spher­i­cal fire­box was fold­ed from rec­tan­gu­lar bricks- mas­ter’s secret
And a fire­place andoven, andbar­be­cue … Thir­ty-three plea­sures in Ital­ian! (PIAZZETTA)
Fire­place acces­sories: grate, scoop, pok­er, fire­wood
“AGROPROJECT“
It is bet­ter to lay a fire­place before installing floors and ceil­ing struc­tures

Cross sec­tion of fire­places with var­i­ous shapes of gas out­let chan­nels. Their out­lines and sizes con­sti­tute the main secret of suc­cess­ful­ly oper­at­ing devices:
c — with a “tooth” and an inclined chan­nel

Accord­ing to sta­tis­tics, from 80 to 90% of the own­ers of coun­try man­sions would like to have or already have a fire­place in their house. Andthe rea­son for this crav­ing for “rem­nants of the past” most often does not lie in prob­lems with heat­ing. Fire­place- first of all, a sym­bol of a secure life, sta­bil­i­ty, home com­fort. If you like, it reflects the Epi­cure­an approach to every­day life.

An evening spent by an open fire­place, in whim­si­cal reflec­tions of flames,- a sim­ple but exquis­ite plea­sure. In addi­tion, a well-made fire­place is an excel­lent ven­ti­la­tion device, it dries the air in the home well (this is espe­cial­ly impor­tant for areas with a damp cli­mate). It is not sur­pris­ing that the num­ber of fire­places and fire­place stoves in homes is grow­ing every day.

But at the same time the fire­place- the device is quite com­plex and “gen­tle”, requir­ing pre­cise cal­cu­la­tions and scrupu­lous con­struc­tion per­for­mance. AToth­er­wise, the “hearth of liv­ing fire” can turn into a con­stant­ly smoky and stink­ing fire­box. Final­ly, fire­places, like any oth­er sources of open flame, are fire haz­ardous and, if the rules of con­struc­tion and oper­a­tion are not fol­lowed, can cause big trou­ble to their own­ers. In oth­er words, if you have already decid­ed to acquire a fire­place, the prob­lems asso­ci­at­ed with its instal­la­tion should be giv­en max­i­mum atten­tion.

Device and classification of fireplaces

Any fire­place con­sists of three parts: a fire cham­ber, a por­tal and a flue. Fire­places dif­fer from stoves in the design of the fire­box. ATIn clas­sic fire­places, it is open, wide, but shal­low. This is a kind of niche made of refrac­to­ry mate­r­i­al (brick, stone, met­al). Due to their design, fire­places are able to heat the room only with radi­ant ener­gy gen­er­at­ed dur­ing the com­bus­tion of fuel. Sim­ply put, they give off heat only when a fire burns in them. They do not need time to warm up their mas­sive body, as is the case with fur­naces, but they cool down quick­ly. ATIn gen­er­al, fire­places do not belong to high­ly effi­cient heat­ing devices: their effi­cien­cy is 10–25% (The effi­cien­cy of a fire­place is deter­mined by the ratio of the amount of heat ener­gy giv­en into the room to the ener­gy that could be obtained with com­plete com­bus­tion of the fuel). For com­par­i­son: the effi­cien­cy of mod­ern heat­ing fur­naces reach­es 70–80%, The effi­cien­cy of the Euro­pean stove- 20–30%.

To increase the heat trans­fer of the device, the inner walls of the fur­nace must have a high reflec­tiv­i­ty. For the sake of this, they are made as smooth and even as pos­si­ble, and some­times lined with sheets of brass or stain­less steel. FROMin order to improve the heat trans­fer of the fire­place, the side walls of the fire­box are made taper­ing towards the rear wall. ATIn this case, heat is reflect­ed into the room not only from the rear wall, but also from the side walls, and the effi­cien­cy of the device increas­es. by 7–10%. An open fire­box is laid out from even refrac­to­ry bricks with a seam width 5–6mm. Wall thick­ness- at least half a brick.

A gas thresh­old is usu­al­ly made in the upper part of the com­bus­tion cham­ber- ledge (“tooth”). It pre­vents the ejec­tion of sparks from the chim­ney, pro­tects the fire­box from oncom­ing air cur­rents that can cause smoke in the room and the release of soot, and also improves draft when light­ing a fire­place. gas thresh­old- this is the place where soot set­tles, so a soot col­lec­tor tray can be installed here. How­ev­er, in many designs there is no “tooth” and the fire­box is con­nect­ed to the chim­ney by an inclined chan­nel (some­times of very bizarre geom­e­try). ATIn gen­er­al, each fire­place mas­ter has his own secrets. ATthe hearth (low­er part of the fire­place) is a recess for col­lect­ing ash- blew. In addi­tion, the blow­er serves as an addi­tion­al source of air sup­ply for the fur­nace (incon­struc­tions with a closed fur­nace).

Rec­om­men­da­tions SNi­Pa 2.04.05–91* “Heat­ing, ven­ti­la­tion and air con­di­tion­ing”, approved in 1997G.

Para­graph 3.84. Build­ing struc­tures should be pro­tect­ed from fire:
a) a floor made of com­bustible and slow-burn­ing mate­ri­als under the fur­nace door- met­al sheet size 700500mm, locat­ed by its long side along the fur­nace;
b) a wall or par­ti­tion made of non-com­bustible mate­ri­als, adja­cent at an angle to the gable of the fur­nace,- plas­ter thick­ness 25mm on a met­al mesh or a met­al sheet on asbestos card­board with a thick­ness of 8mm from floor to lev­el by 250mm above the top of the fur­nace door.
Para­graph 3.86. The floor made of com­bustible mate­ri­als under frame stoves, includ­ing those with legs, should be pro­tect­ed from fire with sheet steel on asbestos board 10 thickmm, while the dis­tance from the bot­tom of the fur­nace to the floor must be at least 100mm.

All mod­els of fire­places can be divid­ed into two groups: with an open and closed fire­box. Closed fur­naces are cham­bers equipped with a door with quartz glass, which can with­stand heat­ing up to 800C. These doors open either only to the side, or to the side and ver­ti­cal­ly upwards. ATin the lat­ter case, they are sup­plied with a spe­cial lift­ing mech­a­nism. Of course, it com­pli­cates and increas­es the cost of the design, but the doors are removed from sight and allow you to get full plea­sure from live fire.

Fire­places with a closed fire­box can oper­ate in two modes: withclosed or with the door open. A closed fire­box with an open door is no dif­fer­ent from an open fire­box with­out a door. BUThere, with the door closed, you can reg­u­late the flow of air enter­ing the fire­place, block­ing the hearth holes. The less air flows in, the slow­er the com­bus­tion process­es will go. Accord­ing­ly, one por­tion of fire­wood can be stretched for the whole night. The prof­itabil­i­ty of such a fire­place is much high­er, it can already be used as an alter­na­tive source of heat­ing.

Which mason­ry fire­place is bet­ter- Withopen or closed fire­box? ATIn Ger­many and the Scan­di­na­vian coun­tries, where a ratio­nal approach to the use of fuel resources pre­vails, fire­places with doors are pop­u­lar. ATEurope, for rea­sons of aes­thet­ics, prefers open struc­tures. It is con­ve­nient to install fire­places with a closed met­al fire­box in hous­es with exist­ing chim­neys, so the instal­la­tion of such devices is much eas­i­er. ATin coun­try hous­es, a chim­ney is usu­al­ly built togeth­er with a fire­place. It is appro­pri­ate here to build a large mason­ry fire­place that can with­stand a heavy pipe (its mass can reach 2t). A met­al fire­box is not capa­ble of such “feats”. To unload iteach meter of chim­ney weighs approx. 200–250kg), some addi­tion­al sup­port struc­ture will have to be erect­ed. ATUlti­mate­ly, the cost of a closed hearth fire­place can be sig­nif­i­cant. (1.5–2 times) high­er than the cost of a con­ven­tion­al mason­ry fire­place, the aver­age price of which, depend­ing on size and fin­ish, is $2000–5000.

Of course, the issue of the effect of the weight of the fire­place and its chim­ney on the floors of the build­ing or on the foun­da­tion is not decid­ed by eye, but on the basis of engi­neer­ing cal­cu­la­tions. They must be obtained from the builders before work begins. Accord­ing to the spe­cial­ists of the com­pa­ny “KFEVITA” if the mass of the fire­place itself exceeds 900kg, it is always wis­er to put it on the ground floor and on a sep­a­rate foun­da­tion. On the sec­ond floor, sim­pler and lighter struc­tures are locat­ed, oth­er­wise the cost of work increas­es dra­mat­i­cal­ly.

Depend­ing on the loca­tion, fire­places are divid­ed into ful­ly built into the wall; par­tial­ly built into the wall (withwall box); near-wall-angu­lar; wall-mount­ed; cor­ner; island (locat­ed in the mid­dle of the room).

Installation of fireplaces

The loca­tion of the fire­place is deter­mined by the archi­tec­tur­al design of the room being designed, the design of the walls, the ven­ti­la­tion scheme and, of course, fire safe­ty require­ments. ATdepend­ing on the design of the walls, fire­places can be locat­ed next to them or built into them. It is rec­om­mend­ed to use inter­nal walls or par­ti­tions made of non-com­bustible mate­ri­als designed to accom­mo­date smoke chan­nels. Each fire­place requires a sep­a­rate chim­ney. “Plant­i­ng” two fire­places locat­ed on dif­fer­ent floors on one chim­ney is the­o­ret­i­cal­ly pos­si­ble, but prac­ti­cal­ly prob­lem­at­ic. In any case, they can only be used sep­a­rate­ly. The size of the out­er open­ing of the fire­box must cor­re­spond to the size of the room in which the fire­place is installed (the area of ​​​​the open­ing usu­al­ly cor­re­lates with the area of ​​u200bu200bthe room in pro­por­tion 1:75).

Open brick fire­place- a very mas­sive struc­ture, it often requires a sep­a­rate foun­da­tion (aboutthis will be dis­cussed below). It is also nec­es­sary to take into account the fea­tures of the ven­ti­la­tion of the room. Fire­places do not tol­er­ate drafts, so it is advis­able to place them away from doors, win­dows and ven­ti­la­tion units. FROMon the oth­er hand, a fire needs a con­stant and large sup­ply of air, which can be pre­vent­ed by sealed dou­ble-glazed win­dows. If these require­ments are not met, the fire in the fire­place will burn unsta­ble and even smoke. Spe­cial prob­lems with drafts arise when design­ing island fire­places — bra­ziers, “open to all winds” on four sides. ATIn this case, it is desir­able to orga­nize forced ven­ti­la­tion in the room that con­trols the chim­ney, with the pos­si­bil­i­ty of adjust­ing its para­me­ters.

And yet, fire safe­ty require­ments should be con­sid­ered pri­or­i­ty in the con­struc­tion of fire­places. The fire­place must be secure­ly iso­lat­ed from the floor, par­ti­tions and oth­er build­ing struc­tures made of com­bustible mate­ri­als.

Fire safe­ty issues are espe­cial­ly rel­e­vant when installing fire­places in wood­en hous­es. It is impor­tant to remem­ber: fire­places and chim­neys must be removed at a suf­fi­cient dis­tance from all struc­tures made of com­bustible mate­ri­als! This dis­tance must be at least 250mm. Walls made of com­bustible mate­ri­als locat­ed in the imme­di­ate vicin­i­ty of the fire­place must be insu­lat­ed with non-com­bustible mate­r­i­al, such as asbestos or asbestos cement sheet, clay-impreg­nat­ed felt, or a thick sil­i­ca fiber mat.

Chim­neys for the hearth, hav­ing the form of a high ver­ti­cal exhaust duct, first came into use in the V‑III cen­turies. BC e. ATAncient Rome. Such chim­neys were equipped, first of all, with large stoves for heat­ing water in Roman baths.- terms. The mild cli­mate allowed the Greeks, Romans and rep­re­sen­ta­tives of oth­er civ­i­liza­tions of the ancient world to do with­out “cap­i­tal” stoves and fire­places- portable hearths or pots of coals were wide­ly used to warm rooms even of a large area.

Chimney

The chim­ney is a ver­ti­cal chan­nel that serves to remove com­bus­tion prod­ucts and sup­ply fresh air to the fuel. The draft in the chim­ney is due to the fact that the den­si­ty of the heat­ed flue gas­es in it is less than the den­si­ty of the out­side air. The speed of move­ment of flue gas­es depends on the tem­per­a­ture dif­fer­ence between the heat­ed and cold air, as well as on the height of the pipe. There­fore, the chim­ney, despite the appar­ent sim­plic­i­ty of the design, is a tech­ni­cal­ly com­plex struc­ture, the cor­rect cal­cu­la­tion of which- inlit­er­al­ly a prob­lem with many unknowns. Here is a short list of them: the dimen­sions of the open­ing of the fire­box and the depth of the por­tal; width and height of the mouth of the smoke col­lec­tor; height and sec­tion of the pipe; selec­tion of the nec­es­sary cap for the pipe; indi­vid­ual fea­tures of the ter­rain and land­scape (low­land, hill, open space, cli­mate, wind rose, pres­ence of build­ings in the neigh­bor­hood) … Only a high­ly qual­i­fied spe­cial­ist with exten­sive expe­ri­ence can solve such a prob­lem, and it is in this par­tic­u­lar area of ​​​​con­struc­tion. As the builders them­selves say, “a brick­lay­er and a fire­place manare dif­fer­ent spe­cial­ties. Fire­places should be fold­ed by the fire­place man, and not by the mas­ter of Euro­pean-qual­i­ty repairs.

Most often, chim­ney chim­ney pipes are made of spe­cial­ly fired bricks. The mason­ry should be as even as pos­si­ble, with a max­i­mum joint thick­ness of 5mm. The thick­er the seam, the faster it col­laps­es under the action of hot gas­es. The bricks going to make the chim­ney are select­ed smooth, with­out pro­tru­sions or pot­holes. The cross-sec­tion­al area of ​​the smoke chan­nel of the fire­place is sev­er­al times larg­er than the area of ​​the smoke chan­nel of a stove of sim­i­lar pow­er. There­fore, the fire­place can­not be some­how “attached” to an exist­ing stove chim­ney. Min­i­mum chan­nel cross sec­tion- one brick, or 130260mm. Height of chim­neys (fromgrate to the mouth) should be at least 5m. It is desir­able that the pipe comes out as close as pos­si­ble to the roof ridge and at the same time ris­es above the roof lev­el by at least 500mm (with a dis­tance from the ridge up to 1.5m). The height of the pipe should be increased (in order to avoid over­turn­ing the thrust) if there are tall build­ings or trees very close.

An exces­sive­ly long chim­ney will cre­ate too much air draft. ATIn such a fire­place, fire­wood will instant­ly burn through. To com­pen­sate, a draft sta­bi­liz­er is installed inside the chim­ney. It is a valve, the damper of which opens due to a strong rar­efac­tion of air and pro­vides access to a cold stream in auto­mat­ic mode. If the smoke chan­nel, on the con­trary, is too short, the draft will be insuf­fi­cient. ATIn this case, it is pos­si­ble to install a forced smoke exhaust sys­tem- a spe­cial heat-resis­tant fan mount­ed on the mouth (head) of the pipe. Such a fan will cre­ate addi­tion­al vac­u­um, increas­ing the draft of the chim­ney.

The flue must be ver­ti­cal. Its devi­a­tion from the ver­ti­cal is allowed by an angle of not more than 30 with rela­tion no more than 1m.

Chim­neys are sub­ject to no less strin­gent fire safe­ty require­ments than fire­place inserts. Min­i­mum dis­tance fromsmoke” (thenis from the inner wall of the chim­ney) to struc­tur­al ele­ments made of com­bustible mate­ri­als should be 380mm. ATthe places where the pipes pass through the ceil­ings are “fluffed”- a thick­en­ing of brick, which is made in the process of lay­ing the pipe. The gap between the fluff brick and the ceil­ing is insu­lat­ed with min­er­al wool or sil­i­ca fiber.

The chim­ney must be pro­tect­ed (as far as pos­si­ble) with ther­mal insu­la­tion from expo­sure to low tem­per­a­tures. It should not freeze in win­ter so much that con­den­sa­tion forms on the inner walls. AToth­er­wise, prob­lems may arise not only with the draft and kin­dling of the fire­place, but also with the integri­ty of the pipe itself. ATwhen not in use, the fire­place pipe is closed with a damper to pre­vent warm air from escap­ing from the room.

Var­i­ous acces­sories have been used for many cen­turies to facil­i­tate start­ing and main­tain­ing a fire, as well as clean­ing the fire­box, and inter­est in which has espe­cial­ly increased recent­ly. Tothey include: a pok­er for break­ing coals into small pieces; buck­ets and box­es for fuel; tongs and a spe­cial fork for ted­ding fire­wood; brush on a long han­dle; scoop. To pro­tect the wood­en floor of the room from the ingress of burn­ing coals, pro­tec­tive screens are used. Also, fire­place acces­sories include var­i­ous dec­o­ra­tions and trin­kets locat­ed on the man­tel­piece. Its most char­ac­ter­is­tic dec­o­ra­tion is a spe­cial flat man­tel clock.

materials

Recent­ly, the so-called “sand­wich­es” have been wide­ly used as a mate­r­i­al for fire­place and stove chim­neys. “Sand­wich” is a struc­ture con­sist­ing of two round met­al pipes nest­ed in each oth­er. The gap between them is filled with fire-resis­tant ther­mal insu­la­tion. The pipes them­selves are made of stain­less steel.

Mod­ern chim­neys with a “sand­wich” design have some advan­tages over their brick coun­ter­parts. They are much lighter, their walls are more smooth. ToThe dis­ad­van­tages include high cost and low self-sup­port­ing capac­i­ty. That is, “sand­wich­es” need addi­tion­al sup­ports, exter­nal load is not rec­om­mend­ed. Despite the high degree of ther­mal pro­tec­tion, these chim­neys require (accord­ing to SNiPs) the same fire safe­ty mea­sures as brick pipes: they must be removed to a safe dis­tance from com­bustible struc­tures (380mm minus the wall thick­ness of the “sand­wich”) and are iso­lat­ed from the floors. This is some­times “for­got­ten” by sell­ers, but nev­er- fire inspec­tors.

Much more tra­di­tion­al mate­r­i­al for chim­neys and fire­box­es- brick. Toit has the most strin­gent require­ments. For lay­ing the fur­nace part of fur­naces, in which coal is used, which gives the strongest heat, refrac­to­ry fire­clay bricks from fired and ground refrac­to­ry clay are used. It can with­stand tem­per­a­tures up to 1200C. Fire­place, which is heat­ed by fire­wood, can be fold­ed from ordi­nary red brick (designed for tem­per­a­tures up to 800FROM). ATin any case, the brick must be of high qual­i­ty, well-burnt, with­out over­burn­ing or under­burn­ing, with a grade of at least M200 (a brick is marked accord­ing to its abil­i­ty to with­stand a com­pres­sive load in kilo­grams per square cen­time­ter; there are grades from M50 to M300). A well-fired brick has an even red col­or, is eas­i­ly pricked and can be hewn, and breaks into large pieces when it falls. Burnt brick, the so-called iron ore, is dis­tin­guished by a dark­er, almost brown, glassy sur­face in some places. It is very durable, poor­ly pricked and poor­ly asso­ci­at­ed with the solu­tion. An unburned brick, on the con­trary, is pale, falling, crum­bles into small pieces, absorbs water well. The fur­nace brick should have the shape of a rec­tan­gu­lar par­al­lelepiped with clear, even edges and smooth sur­faces, with­out chips and through cracks. brick size- 25012065mm, fire­clay bricks- 25012365mm. Indi­vid­ual spec­i­mens may dif­fer from each oth­er by sev­er­al mil­lime­ters: in length- 3mm, in width and height- 2mm. For lay­ing fire­box­es and the low­er part of chim­neys, it is rec­om­mend­ed to select bricks with min­i­mal devi­a­tions from stan­dard dimen­sions in order to obtain the thinnest and most uni­form mason­ry joint. Among the man­u­fac­tur­ers of high-qual­i­ty bricks, one can men­tion the Obol­sk, Ryazan, Borovichi and Ser­pukhov brick fac­to­ries, as well as the firms LODE (Latvia), TERCA and ASERI TELLIS (Esto­nia). The aver­age cost of an ordi­nary domes­tic oven brick is 7–8 rub. a piece; import­ed bricks cost about a dol­lar a piece.

It is allowed to reuse bricks obtained after dis­man­tling build­ings for lay­ing “irrel­e­vant” parts of the fire­place (foun­da­tion, side­walls). But only on con­di­tion that the mate­r­i­al is not dam­aged and cleaned of the old solu­tion. The same parts can be laid out from unburned or burnt bricks. Hol­low, sil­i­cate and per­fo­rat­ed bricks are not rec­om­mend­ed for lay­ing fire­places.

A mix­ture of clay, sand and water is used as a bind­ing solu­tion. Accord­ing to their plas­tic prop­er­ties, solu­tions are divid­ed into “lean”, nor­mal and “fat”. ATThe “skin­ny” ones have a high­er per­cent­age of sand, while the “fat” ones, on the con­trary, have clay. “Skin­ny” solu­tions do not have the nec­es­sary plas­tic­i­ty, and in “fat” solu­tions, cracks form dur­ing dry­ing. There­fore, it is bet­ter to use nor­mal solu­tions for lay­ing fire­places. You can deter­mine the qual­i­ty of the solu­tion by mak­ing a tourni­quet or a strip of thick­ness from it. 1–2 cm and length 15–20 cm. If the tourni­quet, when try­ing to bend it, does not stretch, but breaks, then the solu­tion is “skin­ny”. A tourni­quet from a “fat­ty” solu­tion stretch­es well and does not crack when bent. A tourni­quet from a nor­mal solu­tion forms small cracks when bent, and elon­gates when stretched by 15–20%.

For the solu­tion, it is nec­es­sary to use water, clay and sand with­out any impu­ri­ties, espe­cial­ly organ­ic ones, which will sub­se­quent­ly be destroyed under the influ­ence of high tem­per­a­tures. It is best to take fine quartz sand, with grains with a diam­e­ter of no more than 1mm (the small­er the par­ti­cles, the thin­ner the seams). It is desir­able to use water as clean as pos­si­ble, not hard (not con­tain­ing cal­ci­um and mag­ne­sium salt ions). Clay is used the same as for mak­ing bricks. For lay­ing the fur­nace part of fire­clay bricks, a sim­i­lar fire­clay clay is need­ed. To increase the strength of the solu­tion, Port­land cement is added to it at the rate of 1l Port­land cement per buck­et of mor­tar.

Fireplace masonry

Fire­place, like a stove,- the struc­ture is quite mas­sive, often requir­ing a sep­a­rate foun­da­tion. There­fore, it is best to lay the fire­place before the instal­la­tion of floors and ceil­ing struc­tures, imme­di­ate­ly after the con­struc­tion of the main walls. Foun­da­tions for fire­places and chim­neys are made of water-resis­tant iron brick, rub­ble stone or con­crete. The depth of occur­rence is deter­mined by the depth of soil freez­ing. A gap is required between the foun­da­tions of the build­ing and the fire­place at 50–55mm, filled with soil. It is for­bid­den to ban­dage these foun­da­tions, as they can give dif­fer­ent set­tle­ments, which is fraught with cracks in the mason­ry. The size of the foun­da­tion in the plan should be wider than the base of the fire­place (pipe) by 10–15 cm. To pro­tect the chim­ney mason­ry from soil mois­ture, hor­i­zon­tal water­proof­ing of roof­ing mate­r­i­al with a bitu­mi­nous coat­ing is pro­vid­ed in the foun­da­tion.

The need to build a sep­a­rate foun­da­tion sig­nif­i­cant­ly com­pli­cates the instal­la­tion of a fire­place in an already fin­ished room. It is more prof­itable and eas­i­er to do this at the same time as build­ing a house. The con­struc­tion of fire­places on the upper floors is lim­it­ed by the bear­ing capac­i­ty of the floors. For an accu­rate answer to the ques­tion of whether it is pos­si­ble to build a fire­place in this case, an engi­neer­ing cal­cu­la­tion of the entire build­ing struc­ture is need­ed. Mason­ry fire­places require pre­lim­i­nary prepa­ra­tion by a spe­cial­ist builder of all mason­ry orders, indi­cat­ing the exact loca­tion of bricks of var­i­ous types and oth­er struc­tur­al ele­ments- doors, grates, ash pans, etc.e. Accord­ing to the drawn up orders, you can cal­cu­late the required amount of build­ing mate­ri­als. As a rule, on a small mason­ry fire­place (withchim­ney) takes about a thou­sand bricks.

Lay­ing fire­places requires care­ful align­ment of bricks in all direc­tions. To facil­i­tate this work, a mobile form­work on ver­ti­cal racks is used. Before lay­ing the bricks in the next row, they are select­ed accord­ing to size and the dress­ing of the seams is checked. The joints should be as thin as pos­si­ble and com­plete­ly filled with mor­tar (the so-called “in” joint).under­cut”). Con­vex seams are not allowed in the intra-fur­nace and intra-chim­ney space, the excess solu­tion must be removed.“irre­spon­si­ble” places where gas­es can escape through the seams, they can be per­formed “inwaste­land” (trough no more than 10mm)- for fur­ther plas­ter­ing. The nar­row­ing and turns of the chim­ney and the gas thresh­old are round­ed, for which the bricks are giv­en a round­ed shape.

All met­al struc­tur­al ele­ments (doors, grates) must be installed tak­ing into account their ther­mal expan­sion (withgap at 5–10mm). AToth­er­wise, the met­al will destroy the mason­ry. In gen­er­al, it is desir­able to use as few met­al parts as pos­si­ble.

It is nec­es­sary to block the fire­box of the fire­place with a brick; met­al beams can­not be used for this. The num­ber of bricks in the arch and rows in the vault must be odd. The arch­es are high and low, semi­cir­cu­lar, flat or three-cen­tered. The over­lap of the fire­box is often dec­o­rat­ed with a spe­cial­ly select­ed por­tal. For lay­ing vaults and fix­ing “locks”, bricks must be giv­en some com­plex shape or reduced in size. An old school pro­fes­sion­al is able to split a brick in any direc­tion with a ham­mer or pick; mod­ern mas­ters often use a “grinder” saw for this pro­ce­dure. The sawn brick has a smoother cut sur­face, so the sec­ond method is prefer­able. It is for­bid­den to turn the chipped or sawn side of the brick into the fire­box or chim­ney, since the strength of these faces is low­er than oth­ers, and the mason­ry will col­lapse faster.

Fireplace traditions

The design of mod­ern fire­place por­tals is strik­ing in its diver­si­ty.- it reflects all styles and archi­tec­tur­al trends from the Stone Age to the Space Age. Of course, in most cas­es, the fire­place is asso­ci­at­ed in our minds with good old Eng­land from the time of Sher­lock Holmes. All the more unex­pect­ed are the design solu­tions of such rec­og­nized mas­ters of the fire­place avant-garde as the French­man Dominique Imbert or the Dutch­man Hari Boley…

As for the Euro­pean tra­di­tion, it involves the dec­o­ra­tion of stoves with tiles. They are a thin tile of burnt bricks, cov­ered with glaze on the front side. Tiled stoves are not lined like tiles, but are laid out dur­ing the con­struc­tion process- you can’t dec­o­rate a fin­ished fire­place with them. The tiles are placed on the mor­tar and fas­tened with pieces of wire and met­al crutch­es. Tiled bricks are pro­duced by ordi­nary brick man­u­fac­tur­ers- the afore­men­tioned Obol­sk and Borovichi plants, as well as com­pa­nies from Ger­many, the Baltic coun­tries and Scan­di­navia. In addi­tion to being dec­o­ra­tive, tiles solve the prac­ti­cal prob­lem of accu­mu­lat­ing the ther­mal ener­gy of a fur­nace. There­fore, the lay­ing of fire­place por­tals by them is rarely prac­ticed (if we are talk­ing about fire­places, and not about fire­place stoves). It is much more con­ve­nient for this pur­pose to use ready-made por­tals from spe­cial­ized man­u­fac­tur­ers.

It is not dif­fi­cult to order a one-piece por­tal, made in one style or anoth­er.- Man­u­fac­tur­ers are stun­ning with a vari­ety of offers. The only dif­fi­cul­ty lies in the exact deter­mi­na­tion of the over­all dimen­sions of the prod­uct. Most man­u­fac­tur­ers of fire­place por­tals pro­duce them in the form of ready-to-install rec­tan­gu­lar blocks with a clear­ly defined pitch. (usu­al­ly 5–10 cm). If nec­es­sary, the com­pa­ny will make a por­tal of any size to order, but its cost will be by 20–30% above. In gen­er­al, the price of fire­place por­tals varies wide­ly and depends pri­mar­i­ly on the mate­r­i­al from which they are made. So, coun­try-style por­tals can cost sev­er­al hun­dred dol­lars, and the por­tal of a Span­ish com­pa­ny ARRIAGA from intri­cate­ly processed onyx- already sev­er­al thou­sand dol­lars. More­over, some of our man­u­fac­tur­ers make all the details of fire­places accord­ing to the draw­ings of for­eign com­pa­nies, but from domes­tic mate­ri­als and assem­ble them at the instal­la­tion site. In this case, the cus­tomer can choose a mod­el from the cat­a­log and make changes to the design. ATAs a result, a styl­ish exquis­ite thing is cheap­er. For exam­ple, an ele­gant fire­place from the French com­pa­ny DEVILLE, “cloned” by the com­pa­ny “SAUNA WORLD”, will cost the buy­er $2000–3000, depend­ing on the mate­r­i­al (shell rock, mar­ble, etc.).

Con­tin­u­ing the con­ver­sa­tion about fire­place por­tals, we note that among the tra­di­tion­al styles that are still in demand today, clas­si­cism, empire and coun­try (or “rus­tic”) stand out. The very first hearth fire­places were made of raw stone. Sim­plic­i­ty, art­less­ness, pow­er­ful ener­gy of the “epoch of bar­barism” makes the “rus­tic” style very pop­u­lar today. Fire­place por­tals in this spir­it are pro­duced by RENE BRISACH and EUROPE CHEMINEES (France), ARRIAGA (Spain), PIAZZETTA (Italy). The por­tals are fin­ished with chipped mar­ble, shell rock, tuff, sand­stone. These prod­ucts are easy to man­u­fac­ture and there­fore rel­a­tive­ly cheap. But keep in mind: the soft­er the stone, the faster it becomes con­t­a­m­i­nat­ed with soot and the more dif­fi­cult it will be to remove soot and dirt from it. Clas­si­cal prod­ucts are dom­i­nat­ed by sim­ple and ele­gant forms, har­mo­nious­ly com­bined with each oth­er. ATeng­lish fire­places flat U‑shaped the por­tal is usu­al­ly made of wood of var­i­ous, often dark shades. The por­tal can be dec­o­rat­ed with dec­o­ra­tive tiles. An indis­pens­able attribute of an Eng­lish fire­place- a man­tel­piece, which should be locat­ed at such a height that it is con­ve­nient to lean on it. The fire­box in Eng­lish fire­places is open and rel­a­tive­ly shal­low, which allows the use of small chim­neys. Toclas­sic fire­places include most of the com­pa­ny’s prod­ucts STOVAX (Great Britain).

The Empire style orig­i­nat­ed dur­ing the time of Napoleon Bona­parte. Fire­place por­tals are made of mar­ble and are dis­tin­guished by some pom­pos­i­ty. Fre­quent ref­er­ences to ancient mythol­o­gy. Cary­atids, columns, sphin­x­es, griffins reigned in fire­place con­struc­tion through­out the 19th cen­tu­ry.cen­tu­ry. Such fire­places are pro­duced today by firms ARRIAGA (Spain), PIAZZETTA (Italy).

Mod­ern fire­place styles are extreme­ly diverse. Here and mod­ern, and art deco, and even high-tech. Tothe most famous “chim­ney avant-garde” com­pa­nies include BOLEY (Hol­land), BORDELET, ARKIANE, FOCUS (France). Mod­ern design­ers bold­ly exper­i­ment with the shape and mate­r­i­al of fire­box­es, some­times cre­at­ing the most bizarre designs. ATwhich nev­er­the­less lives the same cozy and quiv­er­ing “home flame” …

The edi­tors thank the firms “ART-TON”, “KAMINSPETSSTROY”, “KFEVITA”, “WORLDSAUN”, “AGROPROEKT” for help in prepar­ing the mate­r­i­al.

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