Wall-angle model Peralba (
Island type fireplace made from elements commonly used for wall appliances
Tiled fireplace retains heat longer
In the interior, trying to reproduce the Art Deco era, the fireplace has a laconic, strict form.
A huge portal brings the spirit of medieval castles into a modern house. But it is necessary to heat such a fireplace carefully so as not to smoke the room.
The portals of modern fireplaces sometimes have very fancy shapes.
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And a fireplace andoven, andbarbecue … Thirty-three pleasures in Italian! (
Fireplace accessories: grate, scoop, poker, firewood
It is better to lay a fireplace before installing floors and ceiling structures
Cross section of fireplaces with various shapes of gas outlet channels. Their outlines and sizes constitute the main secret of successfully operating devices:
c — with a “tooth” and an inclined channel
According to statistics, from 80 to 90% of the owners of country mansions would like to have or already have a fireplace in their house. Andthe reason for this craving for “remnants of the past” most often does not lie in problems with heating. Fireplace- first of all, a symbol of a secure life, stability, home comfort. If you like, it reflects the Epicurean approach to everyday life.
An evening spent by an open fireplace, in whimsical reflections of flames,- a simple but exquisite pleasure. In addition, a well-made fireplace is an excellent ventilation device, it dries the air in the home well (this is especially important for areas with a damp climate). It is not surprising that the number of fireplaces and fireplace stoves in homes is growing every day.
But at the same time the fireplace- the device is quite complex and “gentle”, requiring precise calculations and scrupulous construction performance. ATotherwise, the “hearth of living fire” can turn into a constantly smoky and stinking firebox. Finally, fireplaces, like any other sources of open flame, are fire hazardous and, if the rules of construction and operation are not followed, can cause big trouble to their owners. In other words, if you have already decided to acquire a fireplace, the problems associated with its installation should be given maximum attention.
Device and classification of fireplaces
Any fireplace consists of three parts: a fire chamber, a portal and a flue. Fireplaces differ from stoves in the design of the firebox. ATIn classic fireplaces, it is open, wide, but shallow. This is a kind of niche made of refractory material (brick, stone, metal). Due to their design, fireplaces are able to heat the room only with radiant energy generated during the combustion of fuel. Simply put, they give off heat only when a fire burns in them. They do not need time to warm up their massive body, as is the case with furnaces, but they cool down quickly. ATIn general, fireplaces do not belong to highly efficient heating devices: their efficiency is
To increase the heat transfer of the device, the inner walls of the furnace must have a high reflectivity. For the sake of this, they are made as smooth and even as possible, and sometimes lined with sheets of brass or stainless steel. FROMin order to improve the heat transfer of the fireplace, the side walls of the firebox are made tapering towards the rear wall. ATIn this case, heat is reflected into the room not only from the rear wall, but also from the side walls, and the efficiency of the device increases.
A gas threshold is usually made in the upper part of the combustion chamber- ledge (“tooth”). It prevents the ejection of sparks from the chimney, protects the firebox from oncoming air currents that can cause smoke in the room and the release of soot, and also improves draft when lighting a fireplace. gas threshold- this is the place where soot settles, so a soot collector tray can be installed here. However, in many designs there is no “tooth” and the firebox is connected to the chimney by an inclined channel (sometimes of very bizarre geometry). ATIn general, each fireplace master has his own secrets. ATthe hearth (lower part of the fireplace) is a recess for collecting ash- blew. In addition, the blower serves as an additional source of air supply for the furnace (inconstructions with a closed furnace).
Paragraph 3.84. Building structures should be protected from fire:
a) a floor made of combustible and slow-burning materials under the furnace door- metal sheet size 700
b) a wall or partition made of non-combustible materials, adjacent at an angle to the gable of the furnace,- plaster thickness 25mm on a metal mesh or a metal sheet on asbestos cardboard with a thickness of 8mm from floor to level by 250mm above the top of the furnace door.
Paragraph 3.86. The floor made of combustible materials under frame stoves, including those with legs, should be protected from fire with sheet steel on asbestos board 10 thickmm, while the distance from the bottom of the furnace to the floor must be at least 100mm.
All models of fireplaces can be divided into two groups: with an open and closed firebox. Closed furnaces are chambers equipped with a door with quartz glass, which can withstand heating up to 800
Fireplaces with a closed firebox can operate in two modes: withclosed or with the door open. A closed firebox with an open door is no different from an open firebox without a door. BUThere, with the door closed, you can regulate the flow of air entering the fireplace, blocking the hearth holes. The less air flows in, the slower the combustion processes will go. Accordingly, one portion of firewood can be stretched for the whole night. The profitability of such a fireplace is much higher, it can already be used as an alternative source of heating.
Which masonry fireplace is better- Withopen or closed firebox? ATIn Germany and the Scandinavian countries, where a rational approach to the use of fuel resources prevails, fireplaces with doors are popular. ATEurope, for reasons of aesthetics, prefers open structures. It is convenient to install fireplaces with a closed metal firebox in houses with existing chimneys, so the installation of such devices is much easier. ATin country houses, a chimney is usually built together with a fireplace. It is appropriate here to build a large masonry fireplace that can withstand a heavy pipe (its mass can reach 2t). A metal firebox is not capable of such “feats”. To unload iteach meter of chimney weighs approx.
Of course, the issue of the effect of the weight of the fireplace and its chimney on the floors of the building or on the foundation is not decided by eye, but on the basis of engineering calculations. They must be obtained from the builders before work begins. According to the specialists of the company “KFEVITA” if the mass of the fireplace itself exceeds 900kg, it is always wiser to put it on the ground floor and on a separate foundation. On the second floor, simpler and lighter structures are located, otherwise the cost of work increases dramatically.
Depending on the location, fireplaces are divided into fully built into the wall; partially built into the wall (withwall box); near-wall-angular; wall-mounted; corner; island (located in the middle of the room).
Installation of fireplaces
The location of the fireplace is determined by the architectural design of the room being designed, the design of the walls, the ventilation scheme and, of course, fire safety requirements. ATdepending on the design of the walls, fireplaces can be located next to them or built into them. It is recommended to use internal walls or partitions made of non-combustible materials designed to accommodate smoke channels. Each fireplace requires a separate chimney. “Planting” two fireplaces located on different floors on one chimney is theoretically possible, but practically problematic. In any case, they can only be used separately. The size of the outer opening of the firebox must correspond to the size of the room in which the fireplace is installed (the area of the opening usually correlates with the area of u200bu200bthe room in proportion
Open brick fireplace- a very massive structure, it often requires a separate foundation (aboutthis will be discussed below). It is also necessary to take into account the features of the ventilation of the room. Fireplaces do not tolerate drafts, so it is advisable to place them away from doors, windows and ventilation units. FROMon the other hand, a fire needs a constant and large supply of air, which can be prevented by sealed double-glazed windows. If these requirements are not met, the fire in the fireplace will burn unstable and even smoke. Special problems with drafts arise when designing island fireplaces — braziers, “open to all winds” on four sides. ATIn this case, it is desirable to organize forced ventilation in the room that controls the chimney, with the possibility of adjusting its parameters.
And yet, fire safety requirements should be considered priority in the construction of fireplaces. The fireplace must be securely isolated from the floor, partitions and other building structures made of combustible materials.
Fire safety issues are especially relevant when installing fireplaces in wooden houses. It is important to remember: fireplaces and chimneys must be removed at a sufficient distance from all structures made of combustible materials! This distance must be at least 250mm. Walls made of combustible materials located in the immediate vicinity of the fireplace must be insulated with non-combustible material, such as asbestos or asbestos cement sheet, clay-impregnated felt, or a thick silica fiber mat.
Chimneys for the hearth, having the form of a high vertical exhaust duct, first came into use
The chimney is a vertical channel that serves to remove combustion products and supply fresh air to the fuel. The draft in the chimney is due to the fact that the density of the heated flue gases in it is less than the density of the outside air. The speed of movement of flue gases depends on the temperature difference between the heated and cold air, as well as on the height of the pipe. Therefore, the chimney, despite the apparent simplicity of the design, is a technically complex structure, the correct calculation of which- inliterally a problem with many unknowns. Here is a short list of them: the dimensions of the opening of the firebox and the depth of the portal; width and height of the mouth of the smoke collector; height and section of the pipe; selection of the necessary cap for the pipe; individual features of the terrain and landscape (lowland, hill, open space, climate, wind rose, presence of buildings in the neighborhood) … Only a highly qualified specialist with extensive experience can solve such a problem, and it is in this particular area of construction. As the builders themselves say, “a bricklayer and a fireplace manare different specialties. Fireplaces should be folded by the fireplace man, and not by the master of European-quality repairs.
Most often, chimney chimney pipes are made of specially fired bricks. The masonry should be as even as possible, with a maximum joint thickness of 5mm. The thicker the seam, the faster it collapses under the action of hot gases. The bricks going to make the chimney are selected smooth, without protrusions or potholes. The cross-sectional area of the smoke channel of the fireplace is several times larger than the area of the smoke channel of a stove of similar power. Therefore, the fireplace cannot be somehow “attached” to an existing stove chimney. Minimum channel cross section- one brick, or 130
An excessively long chimney will create too much air draft. ATIn such a fireplace, firewood will instantly burn through. To compensate, a draft stabilizer is installed inside the chimney. It is a valve, the damper of which opens due to a strong rarefaction of air and provides access to a cold stream in automatic mode. If the smoke channel, on the contrary, is too short, the draft will be insufficient. ATIn this case, it is possible to install a forced smoke exhaust system- a special heat-resistant fan mounted on the mouth (head) of the pipe. Such a fan will create additional vacuum, increasing the draft of the chimney.
The flue must be vertical. Its deviation from the vertical is allowed by an angle of not more than 30
Chimneys are subject to no less stringent fire safety requirements than fireplace inserts. Minimum distance fromsmoke” (thenis from the inner wall of the chimney) to structural elements made of combustible materials should be 380mm. ATthe places where the pipes pass through the ceilings are “fluffed”- a thickening of brick, which is made in the process of laying the pipe. The gap between the fluff brick and the ceiling is insulated with mineral wool or silica fiber.
The chimney must be protected (as far as possible) with thermal insulation from exposure to low temperatures. It should not freeze in winter so much that condensation forms on the inner walls. ATotherwise, problems may arise not only with the draft and kindling of the fireplace, but also with the integrity of the pipe itself. ATwhen not in use, the fireplace pipe is closed with a damper to prevent warm air from escaping from the room.
Various accessories have been used for many centuries to facilitate starting and maintaining a fire, as well as cleaning the firebox, and interest in which has especially increased recently. Tothey include: a poker for breaking coals into small pieces; buckets and boxes for fuel; tongs and a special fork for tedding firewood; brush on a long handle; scoop. To protect the wooden floor of the room from the ingress of burning coals, protective screens are used. Also, fireplace accessories include various decorations and trinkets located on the mantelpiece. Its most characteristic decoration is a special flat mantel clock.
Recently, the so-called “sandwiches” have been widely used as a material for fireplace and stove chimneys. “Sandwich” is a structure consisting of two round metal pipes nested in each other. The gap between them is filled with fire-resistant thermal insulation. The pipes themselves are made of stainless steel.
Modern chimneys with a “sandwich” design have some advantages over their brick counterparts. They are much lighter, their walls are more smooth. ToThe disadvantages include high cost and low self-supporting capacity. That is, “sandwiches” need additional supports, external load is not recommended. Despite the high degree of thermal protection, these chimneys require (according to SNiPs) the same fire safety measures as brick pipes: they must be removed to a safe distance from combustible structures (380mm minus the wall thickness of the “sandwich”) and are isolated from the floors. This is sometimes “forgotten” by sellers, but never- fire inspectors.
Much more traditional material for chimneys and fireboxes- brick. Toit has the most stringent requirements. For laying the furnace part of furnaces, in which coal is used, which gives the strongest heat, refractory fireclay bricks from fired and ground refractory clay are used. It can withstand temperatures up to 1200
It is allowed to reuse bricks obtained after dismantling buildings for laying “irrelevant” parts of the fireplace (foundation, sidewalls). But only on condition that the material is not damaged and cleaned of the old solution. The same parts can be laid out from unburned or burnt bricks. Hollow, silicate and perforated bricks are not recommended for laying fireplaces.
A mixture of clay, sand and water is used as a binding solution. According to their plastic properties, solutions are divided into “lean”, normal and “fat”. ATThe “skinny” ones have a higher percentage of sand, while the “fat” ones, on the contrary, have clay. “Skinny” solutions do not have the necessary plasticity, and in “fat” solutions, cracks form during drying. Therefore, it is better to use normal solutions for laying fireplaces. You can determine the quality of the solution by making a tourniquet or a strip of thickness from it.
For the solution, it is necessary to use water, clay and sand without any impurities, especially organic ones, which will subsequently be destroyed under the influence of high temperatures. It is best to take fine quartz sand, with grains with a diameter of no more than 1mm (the smaller the particles, the thinner the seams). It is desirable to use water as clean as possible, not hard (not containing calcium and magnesium salt ions). Clay is used the same as for making bricks. For laying the furnace part of fireclay bricks, a similar fireclay clay is needed. To increase the strength of the solution, Portland cement is added to it at the rate of 1l Portland cement per bucket of mortar.
Fireplace, like a stove,- the structure is quite massive, often requiring a separate foundation. Therefore, it is best to lay the fireplace before the installation of floors and ceiling structures, immediately after the construction of the main walls. Foundations for fireplaces and chimneys are made of water-resistant iron brick, rubble stone or concrete. The depth of occurrence is determined by the depth of soil freezing. A gap is required between the foundations of the building and the fireplace
The need to build a separate foundation significantly complicates the installation of a fireplace in an already finished room. It is more profitable and easier to do this at the same time as building a house. The construction of fireplaces on the upper floors is limited by the bearing capacity of the floors. For an accurate answer to the question of whether it is possible to build a fireplace in this case, an engineering calculation of the entire building structure is needed. Masonry fireplaces require preliminary preparation by a specialist builder of all masonry orders, indicating the exact location of bricks of various types and other structural elements- doors, grates, ash pans, etc.e. According to the drawn up orders, you can calculate the required amount of building materials. As a rule, on a small masonry fireplace (withchimney) takes about a thousand bricks.
Laying fireplaces requires careful alignment of bricks in all directions. To facilitate this work, a mobile formwork on vertical racks is used. Before laying the bricks in the next row, they are selected according to size and the dressing of the seams is checked. The joints should be as thin as possible and completely filled with mortar (the so-called “in” joint).undercut”). Convex seams are not allowed in the intra-furnace and intra-chimney space, the excess solution must be removed.“irresponsible” places where gases can escape through the seams, they can be performed “inwasteland” (trough no more than 10mm)- for further plastering. The narrowing and turns of the chimney and the gas threshold are rounded, for which the bricks are given a rounded shape.
All metal structural elements (doors, grates) must be installed taking into account their thermal expansion (withgap
It is necessary to block the firebox of the fireplace with a brick; metal beams cannot be used for this. The number of bricks in the arch and rows in the vault must be odd. The arches are high and low, semicircular, flat or three-centered. The overlap of the firebox is often decorated with a specially selected portal. For laying vaults and fixing “locks”, bricks must be given some complex shape or reduced in size. An old school professional is able to split a brick in any direction with a hammer or pick; modern masters often use a “grinder” saw for this procedure. The sawn brick has a smoother cut surface, so the second method is preferable. It is forbidden to turn the chipped or sawn side of the brick into the firebox or chimney, since the strength of these faces is lower than others, and the masonry will collapse faster.
The design of modern fireplace portals is striking in its diversity.- it reflects all styles and architectural trends from the Stone Age to the Space Age. Of course, in most cases, the fireplace is associated in our minds with good old England from the time of Sherlock Holmes. All the more unexpected are the design solutions of such recognized masters of the fireplace avant-garde as the Frenchman Dominique Imbert or the Dutchman Hari Boley…
As for the European tradition, it involves the decoration of stoves with tiles. They are a thin tile of burnt bricks, covered with glaze on the front side. Tiled stoves are not lined like tiles, but are laid out during the construction process- you can’t decorate a finished fireplace with them. The tiles are placed on the mortar and fastened with pieces of wire and metal crutches. Tiled bricks are produced by ordinary brick manufacturers- the aforementioned Obolsk and Borovichi plants, as well as companies from Germany, the Baltic countries and Scandinavia. In addition to being decorative, tiles solve the practical problem of accumulating the thermal energy of a furnace. Therefore, the laying of fireplace portals by them is rarely practiced (if we are talking about fireplaces, and not about fireplace stoves). It is much more convenient for this purpose to use ready-made portals from specialized manufacturers.
It is not difficult to order a one-piece portal, made in one style or another.- Manufacturers are stunning with a variety of offers. The only difficulty lies in the exact determination of the overall dimensions of the product. Most manufacturers of fireplace portals produce them in the form of ready-to-install rectangular blocks with a clearly defined pitch.
Continuing the conversation about fireplace portals, we note that among the traditional styles that are still in demand today, classicism, empire and country (or “rustic”) stand out. The very first hearth fireplaces were made of raw stone. Simplicity, artlessness, powerful energy of the “epoch of barbarism” makes the “rustic” style very popular today. Fireplace portals in this spirit are produced by RENE BRISACH and
The Empire style originated during the time of Napoleon Bonaparte. Fireplace portals are made of marble and are distinguished by some pomposity. Frequent references to ancient mythology. Caryatids, columns, sphinxes, griffins reigned in fireplace construction throughout the 19th century.century. Such fireplaces are produced today by firms
Modern fireplace styles are extremely diverse. Here and modern, and art deco, and even high-tech. Tothe most famous “chimney avant-garde” companies include
The editors thank the firms