We love to take a good steam bath no less than Finns and other northerners, and individual bathhouses grow like mushrooms in our summer cottages. BUTtogether with them, the demand for heaters is growing, without which it is impossible to warm up the bathhouse and prepare the steam that is so necessary for the ceremony.
Masonry stoves in the bath are rarely erected today. Andthe reason for this is not only the shortage of craftsmen and the high cost of their services.Most likely, the masonry oven does not meet the modern rhythm of life and the idea of saving energy resources. To heat a bathhouse with it, even in summer it takes 4–6h and 60–70kg of firewood. AToff-season, especially in winter, a massive brick structure, if it is located in a separate unheated building, manages to accumulate so much cold in a week that it will take a whole day and a good pile of firewood to warm up on its own. ToIn addition, frequent freezing / thawing will greatly reduce the life of the masonry (it is well known that bricks today are not at all what they were 100years ago). In addition, the oven will need 300–600 bricks (15–25rub./pc.). FROMtaking into account the cost of work (usually- 150% of the price of the material) the construction will cost 37,500rub. Having paid the same amount, you can buy a ready-made economy class heater without any hassle. However, we do not want the readers to get the impression that the brick oven consists of only shortcomings. She has dignity, which in certain conditions outweighs all the disadvantages. This is the ability to accumulate heat during the furnace, and after its completion for a long time (up to a day) to emit “soft” radiation, characteristic of a traditional European bath.
AndNevertheless, today most developers prefer metal heaters that provide fast (from 40min up to 1.5h) heating the room, easy to install and does not require a foundation. In addition to wood, there are electric and gas units on sale. They are significantly less popular for several reasons. Perhaps the main one is more romantic than practical. After all, without a live fire, without crackling logs and a light aroma of smoke, the bath loses some of its charm. Well, a purely pragmatist will note that an electric heater will cost almost 2 times more than a wood stove and will significantly increase electricity costs. ToIn addition, for the most part, such equipment requires a voltage of 380C. As for gas stoves, their choice is very small, and far from all homeowners are provided with main gas (as well as three-phase current).
So, the palm belongs to factory-made wood-burning heaters. Products from more than ten companies are represented on our market, and even the most demanding customer will not have to complain about the poverty of the assortment. But from which end to start choosing “your” stove? It is possible from the design or dimensions, but we recommend that you first of all decide on the power of the unit.
1. Model 20 Pro (
2. Furnace “Rus” (“Teplodar”) with a steam generator- from 80 $.
3. Stone-lined steel stove is safer to operate
4. Model 20 SL (Helo) with wall tunnel. Price- from 210 $.
Tutelka in tyutelka
If the stove produces too much heat, the air in the steam room will heat up quickly, but the stones will only be slightly warm. The bath will have to be heated, constantly airing, that is, heating the street at its own expense. But it’s still half the trouble. It is much worse if, after purchase and installation, you find that the power of the stove is insufficient.- the temperature in the steam room does not want to rise above 50
The power of sauna stoves varies between 6–27 kW. This technical characteristic, as a rule, is contained in the product passport (if not- this should be checked with the manufacturer). There is also an indication of the minimum and maximum volume of the steam room, which can be heated using the device, for example 8–18m3. However, this does not mean that the stove is equally well suited for all rooms with a cubic capacity that fits into this range. The manufacturer’s recommendation should rather be read like this: the stove is suitable for heating a very poorly insulated steam room with a volume of 8m3 and very high quality insulated volume 18m3. In order to assess the thermal insulation of the steam room and not make a mistake with the choice of the power of the device, it is better to use the table below and take into account in the calculations that the glass door will require an increase in the cubic capacity of the room by 1m3and each square meter of windows facing the street with double-glazed windows- on 10 %.
As stones for sauna stoves, the most affordable- peridotite, basalt, diabase (cost 20kg- 300–400rub.). More beautiful and heat-intensive soapstone is somewhat more expensive- 800rub. for 20kg.The highest price will have to be paid for greenish semi-precious jadeite (a stone similar to jade with a fine grained structure) and white quartz (also called hot ice)- up to 1400rub. for 5kg.When choosing stones, you should pay attention to their size (it should be indicated on the box). Optimal fraction for a small oven (up to 12 kW)- 8–12see. The stones are laid in such a way that the area of their contact with the walls of the furnace is maximum: down- larger and flatter, on top- slightly less. In this case, it is necessary to leave a gap between the stones for free air circulation.
Andrey Slavnov, chief engineer of the construction department of the Group of Companies 95
Fires in furnaces…
The most common type of sauna stoves- steel double-walled, that is, having a firebox and a casing. Thanks to this design, the external surfaces of the unit maintain a safe temperature, and at the same time, the air circulating between the walls quickly warms up the room. Some Models- in particular, KO-20, KH-20, KT-S-20, KT-H-20 (Kastor, Finland)- equipped with an additional intermediate casing; the temperature of the outer wall of these heaters never exceeds 60
The furnace is made of steel sheets using electric or argon-arc welding. The durability of the unit depends on the thickness of the steel and its grade, so you should definitely take an interest in these characteristics. Heat resistant stainless steels (AISI 310, 316, 321 andt.n.) with a thickness of at least 2.5mm or carbon boilers with a thickness of 4–5mm. A number of manufacturers, including Helo (Finland), increase the thickness of the walls of the furnace in those places where the effect of the flame is most intense, using linings up to 6mm.
A part of the firebox is a container for stones, built in from above or from the side,- the larger the area of contact of stones with hot steel surfaces, the better. The casing is usually made of half-millimeter stainless steel or “black” steel with a thickness of 1–3mm and coated on the outside with heat-resistant enamel.
ATMost steel furnaces implement the principle of grate combustion. Air is supplied to the furnace from below: it passes through the ajar door of the ash drawer (or holes made in it), and then, under the influence of traction, rushes upward through the slots in the grate on which the firewood lies. You can regulate the intensity of combustion by pushing / pushing the ash drawer or by manipulating the damper on its door. Since the grate is located in the zone of the highest temperatures, it must be made of cast iron. With grate combustion, it is possible to quickly achieve real heat, however, a significant part of the heat flies out into the chimney due to strong draft. There is another minus- even special steels, when used in such conditions, are prone to the formation of scale, and over time, the walls of the furnace become thinner. Some manufacturers, in an effort to lighten and reduce the cost of their products (without reducing the service life), deviate from the classical scheme. For example, the plant “Feringer and K” (Europe) has released a line of heaters without a grate- with the so-called upper ignition. Combustion in them takes place on the hearth, and air is supplied through a slot in the upper part of the furnace door. True, it should be noted that such a furnace heats both the room and the stones somewhat more slowly than the grate.
Structural scheme of the heater “Termofor”:
one- hanging tank for water;
3- built-in tank;
four- capacity for stones;
5- pass-through module with a door;
7- ash box
Steel furnace with stone backfill weighing 20–40kg heats up quickly, but cools down just as quickly. BUTwhat if you have a large family or you are not averse to inviting guests to the “banya”? After all, then the high temperature in the steam room will have to be maintained for several hours. You can, of course, keep throwing firewood into the firebox all the time, but this is quite troublesome, and besides, you risk overheating the room. To arrange bathing days, you need a massive stove that stores heat for a long time. Andnevertheless, I would like it to heat up faster than a brick one, serve longer and look more attractive.
One possible solution in this case- steel unit with a lattice casing. This design is designed to fill a large mass of stones between the walls of the furnace and the outer grate made of steel bars coated with heat-resistant paint. These are, for example, the Legend 150, Legend 240 and Legend 300 ovens (
Gotta freshen up
Supply and exhaust ventilation in the steam room is a must. Firstly, to be able to regulate the humidity and temperature during the procedure. Secondly, to ventilate the room after the end of the session; without this, wall cladding and regimental boards will begin to rot intensively. Finally, if the furnace hole and the blower of the furnace go into the steam room, it will be necessary to organize an influx of fresh air for combustion (but in this case there will be no need for an exhaust hood). For fresh air to enter, make a hole in the floor or wall (not higher than 0.5m) in the calculation of 5 cm² per 1m3 the volume of the steam room or leave a gap 1–3see under the door leaf. The exhaust opening is usually located on the ceiling; its cross-sectional area must correspond to the cross-sectional area of the inlet. The optimal system will be forced exhaust ventilation, in which the exhaust duct is led out through the floor and supplied with a fan,- in this way it is possible to constantly “pump out” the most humid and cold air from the sauna.
A number of manufacturers offer stoves with sawn stone lining.- soapstone. So, the company “Teply Kamen” (Europe) produces stainless steel fireboxes, completed with facade soapstone plates and corner modules, which are mounted without the help of glue, inserted into the grooves of the holders on a small (20–50mm) distance from the furnace walls. The gap is necessary, firstly, to compensate for the thermal expansion of the metal. Secondly, thanks to this solution, the stove retains all the advantages of a double-walled design: the outer surfaces do not heat up, and the room almost immediately after kindling begins to warm up with convective air flows. Products of the company “Inzhkomtsentr VVD” (Europe) are similarly arranged. True, they have a heavier cast-iron firebox, and the outer walls are made of rather thin tiles. The mass of stoves dressed in stone is usually 200–400kg (a columnar foundation may be required), and the price starts from 600 $. ATsoapstone cladding is also available for some serial models
The most massive of the factory-made bath stoves offered on the market are assembly kits from soapstone modules. They are supplied to the domestic market by Tulikivi (Finland). Such heaters have a mass of 500kg and require a foundation. They are assembled on site using special glue. The grate and the firebox door are made of cast iron. The cost of modular ovens- from 1300$.
9. The Legend model has a glazed cast iron door and adjustable feet. The lattice casing is assembled with decorative rivets and coated with heat-resistant paint. Price- from 220 $.
10. The Legend model has a glazed cast iron door and adjustable feet. The lattice casing is assembled with decorative rivets and coated with heat-resistant paint. Price- from 220 $.
11. The model “Vesuvius Skif” (“Typhoon”) with a power of 18 kW is designed for laying 180kg of stones. Price- from 150 $.
12. Model SK 950 (Tulikivi) has a curb weight of 930kg, and another 130kg of stones fall asleep from above. However, due to the large volume of the furnace, the furnace warms up in just 2–3h Price- from 134 thousand rubles.
The issue of water supply
You can’t do without hot water in the bath. To wet the broom and get steam, you need quite a bit of it.- no more than 10l, but for washing in the shower it will take another 40–60l boiling water. For a bath with a shower, it is best to purchase a stove equipped with a heat exchanger- a small capacity built into the furnace and equipped with spur pipes for connection to the DHW system. There are also special heat exchangers on sale that function as the first chimney module,- by the way, they can be installed on any oven. FROMusing a heat exchanger for 1h can be heated 80–200l water up to 60
If there is no soul, you will have to wash in the old fashioned way- right in the steam room. Then it makes sense to purchase a stove with a built-in or hinged (installed on a stove or chimney) water tank. Tank volume 25–30l with economical spending is enough even for a large family. Drawback one- when water boils in the tank, the room is filled with saturated steam, and it becomes impossible to stay in it at a high temperature. However, modern units with a welded tank can be fired without water. But every time you have to choose: bathe or wash. Or heat the stove 2 times with a break, since it is impossible to pour water into a red-hot tank.
Session from a professional
Recommendations of a member of the International Association of Bath Art Alexei Bely.
First stage- preparatory. Melt the stove, steam a broom an hour before the start of the procedure (to do this, heat the water to 60
Second phase- warming up the body. The temperature in the steam room- about 85
Third stage- inhalation and aromatherapy. At the same temperature, pour clean water on the stones first (otherwise the smell of burning will appear), and then infusion of a broom, medicinal herbs or a solution of aromatic oil (a few drops per ladle). ATwithin 10–20min breathe healing steam.
Fourth stage- soaring. Ventilate the steam room by lowering the temperature to 60–70
Fifth stage- final. Take a shower and have some tea.
Around the hearth
When installing a bath stove, special attention will be required to the issue of fire safety. ATSniPe 41–01-2003 “Heating, ventilation and air conditioning” shows the minimum distances from the inner walls of the furnace and chimney to unprotected combustible structures — 500mm and up to protected- 380mm. However, the document refers to a brick heating stove. Do these standards apply to modern steel sauna stoves- it is difficult to say, therefore, when installing them, they are often guided by the instructions of the manufacturers, in which the installation distances can vary over a fairly wide range (250‑1300mm) depending on the power and design of the product. ATIn any case, the walls and ceiling next to the stove are best protected with a heat-insulating “sandwich”. For example, in this way: screw a gypsum fiber board to the wall with self-tapping screws, then glue a rigid Firebatts stone wool board (Rockwool, international concern) with a thickness of 25, 35 or 50 to it with cement-based gluemm. The joints of the plates should be closed with aluminum tape. Glue another layer of GVL on top and veneer it with artificial or natural stone. Another variant- a layer of asbestos cardboard and fiber-cement board LW Sauna (Minerit, Finland). Some furnace manufacturers, in particular
13, 14. Soapstone lined stoves: Hiidenkivi (Helo) (Photo 13)- from 760 $. and KL-20JK (Kastor) (Photo 14)- from 600 $.
AndFinally- a few words about chimneys. As a rule, sauna stoves are designed for the installation of a modular steel chimney. It is better not to save on a chimney, since fire safety directly depends on its quality. It makes sense to purchase double-circuit modules made of stainless steel with a layer of stone wool (cost 1m of pipe- from 1800rub.; price of fittings- from 1200rub. for 1 piece). For the passage of ceilings and roofs, it is better to use ready-made solutions offered by the chimney manufacturer. Most manufacturers of sauna stoves also produce chimneys. FROMon the one hand, it is not at all necessary to buy the entire set from one company, since the diameters of the chimneys are standard- 115 (most common), 120, 130 and 140mm. FROMon the other hand, it should be taken into account that the actual diameter of the pipes at the ends, due to the peculiarities of the execution of the docking unit, can vary by 1–2 for different companiesmm. It’s not scary if the pipe is large- the joint can be sealed with asbestos cord. Worse, if she does not want to “sit down” on the stove. Therefore, when buying, it is better to have a caliper with you.
Possible complete set of a flue:
one- module for condensate removal;
2- a tee for connection to the heating unit;
3- an arm for fastening to a wall;
5- clamping collar;
7- umbrella deflector
Chimneys made of ceramic pipes are very durable. In the domestic market, they are mainly represented by the products of Schiedel (Germany). These are modular systems, in which the inner tube is made of fired chamotte mass and has a wall thickness of 8mm, and the shell is made of lightweight concrete, between them- a layer of basalt wool.
The dependence of the power of the furnace on the design of the walls of the bath *
|Power per 1m3 steam room volume, kW
|Masonry in one and a half bricks without additional insulation
|Brick or timber (log) wall, insulated with a layer of stone wool 50 thickmm
|Same with additional radiant heat insulation with aluminum foil
|Wall insulated with a layer of stone wool 100 thickmm, with additional radiant heat insulation with aluminum foil
|* It is assumed that the floor and walls of the room are insulated with a layer of mineral wool at least 50mm.
The editors thank the “Group of companies 95