The heat exchanger is the main element of the heating system. Its main role is to transfer thermal energy from the generator to the coolant.
Taking into account the structural elements, they can be manufactured in various types, so that each owner will be able to choose the appropriate option for their heating system.
Why is a heat exchanger needed?
In home heating systems, you can often find surface heat exchangers. AT
them heat transfer occurs through the surfaces of the metal walls of this apparatus.
- The maximum implementation of heating through the presented apparatus is observed in the design boilers running on gas, solid fuel and electricity.
- The circulation of the coolant occurs through pipes bent in the form of a coil. They are located inside the boiler unit, and the heat carrier is heated from the temperature of the burning fuel.
- Hot water is sent to the pipeline of the heating systemand replaces it in the heat exchanger with a cooled heat carrier from radiators.
Even today, in many homes there is a traditional source of thermal energy — bake. It is advisable to use it for a small area house.. If we are talking about a multi-room cottage, then its thermal power will not be enough.
For this reason in private homes, the heating system cannot function normally without this element. It is thanks to him that it is possible to turn the stove into a full-fledged water-heating boiler.
As for the dimensions and shape of the do-it-yourself heating circuit, they must fit into the size of the fuel chamber of the furnace installation. It is possible to connect batteries and pipelines to the resulting unit, as a result of which it is possible to achieve effective heating of the building.
Types of heat exchangers
Heat exchange units can be of various types. Their difference lies in the method of transferring thermal energy. There are the following types of presented devices:
- mixing. In them the transfer of thermal energy is carried out due to the mixing of two working media. By design, these devices are much simpler than surface ones. The use of such units is obtained only if it is possible to mix heat carriers. This condition is the main disadvantage of mixing devices.
- Surface. In them exchange of energy between workers
heat carriers through the separator walls.
Such devices are divided into recuperative and regenerative.
In recuperative when transferring thermal energy through a separating wall the heat flow moves in the same direction at each point of the wall.
For regenerative the heat exchanger is characterized by the fact that the heat carrier, when alternately touching the same surface, from time to time changes the direction of the flow.
Types of recuperative heat exchangers
Recuperative heat exchange devices are in great demand today. Consent
but the following types of the units presented are distinguished by the structural design:
This device, which is a bundle of pipes welded to the casing and attached to the tube sheets with bolts.
The movement of the first heat carrier in the annular space is carried out through the nozzles present on the body. Another coolant flows through the pipes. There are partitions on the case or cover of the presented devices.
In order to increase the heat transfer, the pipes are subjected to the process of finning by rolling or winding the tape..
Its design involves the immersion of one coolant in a container with another. Such devices are characterized by low cost and simplicity.
The movement of water in the annular space occurs at a low speed, resulting in low heat transfer.
Heat exchange devices of the “pipe in pipe” type
It consists of several links located one above the other and interconnected. Each link is a structure of pipes inserted into each other, between which heat exchange takes place.
It is advisable to use them at high pressures and low water flow rates in the system.
It consists of several rows of pipes located one above the other, on the outer surface of which cooling water flows down in a thin film.
It is actively used in refrigeration units, as they act as capacitors..
The design of the heat exchanger assumes the presence of graphite blocks sealed together with rubber gaskets and
fixed with lids.
Graphite is considered an excellent conductor of thermal energy. To eliminate porosity, it is treated with special compounds.
Used for chemically aggressive liquids.
This device is made of plates, the surface of which is stamped with a special method.. The result of such work is the formation of channels through which the coolant moves. The plates are sealed with each other.
The manufacturing process of such a device is notable for its simplicity, it is easy to clean, it has a high heat transfer. Minus — can not withstand high pressure.
Comprises dividing plate systems with ribbed surfaces between them — nozzles attached to the plates by vacuum soldering.
Designed for heat exchange between non-aggressive liquid and gaseous media in the temperature range from plus 200 °C to minus 270 °C.
It has low weight and size, high strength and rigidity.
Its design assumes the presence of ribbed panels of small thickness, the production of which takes place using high-frequency welding..
Thanks to this design and the materials used, it is possible to achieve high temperature conditions of the coolant, low hydraulic pressure, high efficiency, long service life, low cost.
It is advisable to use it when utilizing the heat of gases.
Equipped with two channels that are wound in a spiral around the main dividing wall. Their purpose is heating and cooling liquids with high viscosity.
Device and principle of operation
Modern models of a heat exchanger have several parts. Each has its own important role:
- fixed plate — all inlet pipes are attached to it;
- pressure plate;
- plates equipped with inserted seal type gaskets;
- top and bottom guides;
- rear pillar;
- threaded studs.
Such a unique design of the heat exchange device allows achieving the most efficient layout of the entire surface of the operating unit.
In today’s market, these products are presented in a wide range. There are numerous models and manufacturers. Main selection criteria:
- reliability and quality;
- spare parts.
Watch a video on how to make a heat exchanger with your own hands
Let’s take a closer look at who is included in the rating of the best system manufacturers, and their prices:
- Kroll. Manufactured models of heat exchangers — series S, SKE, H, SL, NKA, NK, A. Cost from 200,000 to 7000$.
- dragon energy. Models of heat exchangers: Dr 30, Dr 50, Dr 100, Dr 150, Dr 200, Dr 500, Dr 1000. Price from 60,000 to 4000$.
- SWEP – manufactures heat exchangers of the GX, GC, GL, GD, GF, GW series. Cost from 45,000 to 6000$.
- Ridan. Produces models of heat exchangers of the HH series. Price from 40,000 to 8000$.
Before choosing, be sure to familiarize yourself with the characteristics of each model.
The heat exchange device is the “heart” of any heating system. Only if it is available can you get high-quality heating at home. Due to the wide variety of this heating device, it is very easy to choose the right one for your system.