Heat exchanger for a heating system: main types and manufacturers

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heat exchanger

The heat exchang­er is the main ele­ment of the heat­ing sys­tem. Its main role is to trans­fer ther­mal ener­gy from the gen­er­a­tor to the coolant.

Tak­ing into account the struc­tur­al ele­ments, they can be man­u­fac­tured in var­i­ous types, so that each own­er will be able to choose the appro­pri­ate option for their heat­ing sys­tem.

Why is a heat exchanger needed?

In home heat­ing sys­tems, you can often find sur­face heat exchang­ers. AT
them heat trans­fer occurs through the sur­faces of the met­al walls of this appa­ra­tus.solid fuel boiler Kupper

  • The max­i­mum imple­men­ta­tion of heat­ing through the pre­sent­ed appa­ra­tus is observed in the design boil­ers run­ning on gas, sol­id fuel and elec­tric­i­ty.
  • The cir­cu­la­tion of the coolant occurs through pipes bent in the form of a coil. They are locat­ed inside the boil­er unit, and the heat car­ri­er is heat­ed from the tem­per­a­ture of the burn­ing fuel.
  • Hot water is sent to the pipeline of the heat­ing sys­temand replaces it in the heat exchang­er with a cooled heat car­ri­er from radi­a­tors.

Have you decid­ed to mount a water sup­ply sys­tem from polypropy­lene your­self? Our arti­cle — Weld­ing of polypropy­lene pipes: an instruc­tion that will help you quick­ly dis­as­sem­ble every­thing and select the nec­es­sary tool.

You will learn how to work with met­al-plas­tic pipes here.

Even today, in many homes there is a tra­di­tion­al source of ther­mal ener­gy — bake. It is advis­able to use it for a small area house.. If we are talk­ing about a mul­ti-room cot­tage, then its ther­mal pow­er will not be enough.
For this rea­son in pri­vate homes, the heat­ing sys­tem can­not func­tion nor­mal­ly with­out this ele­ment. It is thanks to him that it is pos­si­ble to turn the stove into a full-fledged water-heat­ing boil­er.

As for the dimen­sions and shape of the do-it-your­self heat­ing cir­cuit, they must fit into the size of the fuel cham­ber of the fur­nace instal­la­tion. It is pos­si­ble to con­nect bat­ter­ies and pipelines to the result­ing unit, as a result of which it is pos­si­ble to achieve effec­tive heat­ing of the build­ing.

Types of heat exchangers

Heat exchange units can be of var­i­ous types. Their dif­fer­ence lies in the method of trans­fer­ring ther­mal ener­gy. There are the fol­low­ing types of pre­sent­ed devices:

  1. mix­ing. In them the trans­fer of ther­mal ener­gy is car­ried out due to the mix­ing of two work­ing media. By design, these devices are much sim­pler than sur­face ones. The use of such units is obtained only if it is pos­si­ble to mix heat car­ri­ers. This con­di­tion is the main dis­ad­van­tage of mix­ing devices.
  2. Sur­face. In them exchange of ener­gy between work­ers
    heat car­ri­ers through the sep­a­ra­tor walls
    .
    Such devices are divid­ed into recu­per­a­tive and regen­er­a­tive.
    In recu­per­a­tive when trans­fer­ring ther­mal ener­gy through a sep­a­rat­ing wall the heat flow moves in the same direc­tion at each point of the wall.
    For regen­er­a­tive the heat exchang­er is char­ac­ter­ized by the fact that the heat car­ri­er, when alter­nate­ly touch­ing the same sur­face, from time to time changes the direc­tion of the flow.

Types of recuperative heat exchangers



Recu­per­a­tive heat exchange devices are in great demand today. Con­sent
but the fol­low­ing types of the units pre­sent­ed are dis­tin­guished by the struc­tur­al design:

shell-and-tube

Shell and tube apparatusThis device, which is a bun­dle of pipes weld­ed to the cas­ing and attached to the tube sheets with bolts.
The move­ment of the first heat car­ri­er in the annu­lar space is car­ried out through the noz­zles present on the body. Anoth­er coolant flows through the pipes. There are par­ti­tions on the case or cov­er of the pre­sent­ed devices.
In order to increase the heat trans­fer, the pipes are sub­ject­ed to the process of finning by rolling or wind­ing the tape..

Immersed

Its design involves the immer­sion of one coolant in a con­tain­er with anoth­er. Such devices are char­ac­ter­ized by low cost and sim­plic­i­ty.

The move­ment of water in the annu­lar space occurs at a low speed, result­ing in low heat trans­fer.

Heat exchange devices of the “pipe in pipe” type

It con­sists of sev­er­al links locat­ed one above the oth­er and inter­con­nect­ed. Each link is a struc­ture of pipes insert­ed into each oth­er, between which heat exchange takes place.
It is advis­able to use them at high pres­sures and low water flow rates in the sys­tem.

IrrigationIrrigation type

It con­sists of sev­er­al rows of pipes locat­ed one above the oth­er, on the out­er sur­face of which cool­ing water flows down in a thin film.

It is active­ly used in refrig­er­a­tion units, as they act as capac­i­tors..

Graphite

The design of the heat exchang­er assumes the pres­ence of graphite blocks sealed togeth­er with rub­ber gas­kets and
fixed with lids
.
Graphite is con­sid­ered an excel­lent con­duc­tor of ther­mal ener­gy. To elim­i­nate poros­i­ty, it is treat­ed with spe­cial com­pounds.

Used for chem­i­cal­ly aggres­sive liq­uids.

lamellar

This device is made of plates, the sur­face of which is stamped with a spe­cial method.. The result of such work is the for­ma­tion of chan­nels through which the coolant moves. The plates are sealed with each oth­er.
The man­u­fac­tur­ing process of such a device is notable for its sim­plic­i­ty, it is easy to clean, it has a high heat trans­fer. Minus — can not with­stand high pres­sure.

Lamellar-ribbed

Lamellar-ribbed appearanceCom­pris­es divid­ing plate sys­tems with ribbed sur­faces between them — noz­zles attached to the plates by vac­u­um sol­der­ing.

Designed for heat exchange between non-aggres­sive liq­uid and gaseous media in the tem­per­a­ture range from plus 200 °C to minus 270 °C.

It has low weight and size, high strength and rigid­i­ty.

Finned-lamellar

Its design assumes the pres­ence of ribbed pan­els of small thick­ness, the pro­duc­tion of which takes place using high-fre­quen­cy weld­ing..
Thanks to this design and the mate­ri­als used, it is pos­si­ble to achieve high tem­per­a­ture con­di­tions of the coolant, low hydraulic pres­sure, high effi­cien­cy, long ser­vice life, low cost.

It is advis­able to use it when uti­liz­ing the heat of gas­es.

Spiral

Equipped with two chan­nels that are wound in a spi­ral around the main divid­ing wall. Their pur­pose is heat­ing and cool­ing liq­uids with high vis­cos­i­ty.

Device and principle of operation

Principle of operationMod­ern mod­els of a heat exchang­er have sev­er­al parts. Each has its own impor­tant role:

  • fixed plate — all inlet pipes are attached to it;
  • pres­sure plate;
  • plates equipped with insert­ed seal type gas­kets;
  • top and bot­tom guides;
  • rear pil­lar;
  • thread­ed studs.

Such a unique design of the heat exchange device allows achiev­ing the most effi­cient lay­out of the entire sur­face of the oper­at­ing unit.

Popular manufacturers

In today’s mar­ket, these prod­ucts are pre­sent­ed in a wide range. There are numer­ous mod­els and man­u­fac­tur­ers. Main selec­tion cri­te­ria:

  • reli­a­bil­i­ty and qual­i­ty;
  • main­tain­abil­i­ty;
  • price;
  • guar­an­tees;
  • spare parts.

Watch a video on how to make a heat exchang­er with your own hands

Let’s take a clos­er look at who is includ­ed in the rat­ing of the best sys­tem man­u­fac­tur­ers, and their prices:

  1. Kroll. Man­u­fac­tured mod­els of heat exchang­ers — series S, SKE, H, SL, NKA, NK, A. Cost from 200,000 to 7000$.
  2. drag­on ener­gy. Mod­els of heat exchang­ers: Dr 30, Dr 50, Dr 100, Dr 150, Dr 200, Dr 500, Dr 1000. Price from 60,000 to 4000$.
  3. SWEP – man­u­fac­tures heat exchang­ers of the GX, GC, GL, GD, GF, GW series. Cost from 45,000 to 6000$.
  4. Ridan. Pro­duces mod­els of heat exchang­ers of the HH series. Price from 40,000 to 8000$.

Before choos­ing, be sure to famil­iar­ize your­self with the char­ac­ter­is­tics of each mod­el.

The heat exchange device is the “heart” of any heat­ing sys­tem. Only if it is avail­able can you get high-qual­i­ty heat­ing at home. Due to the wide vari­ety of this heat­ing device, it is very easy to choose the right one for your sys­tem.


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