Having your own source of uninterrupted water supply is the dream of everyone who lives in their own home!
This desire is quite feasible, it is enough to drill a high-quality well in your area.
This can be done both on your own and with the help of professional specialists!
Types of wells and wells
There are several types of wells that differ from each other in depth, and therefore in the quality of the water supplied. Small or sandy wells are drilled to a depth of 10 to 50 meters.
If the source is more than 50 meters deep, then it is considered artesian. It is characterized by a limestone layer, and it can only be broken through with special equipment.
Each type has its own drilling method. There are several options for technologies — rope-percussion, perforating, rotary.
If it is planned to break through the water source independently, then manual drilling technology is also isolated. What to choose depends on the size of the planned deepening, the type of soil, the purpose of water use.
The most common types of water sources are a well, a sand well and an artesian well. They are characterized by their depth, quality and volume of water supplied. They also differ in the type of soil in which they make their way, and in terms of operation.
- on the sand;
Well or Abyssinian well does not require the involvement of special equipment for work, and can be done independently. A metal pipe with a sharp tip and holes along the walls is used.
The tube is hammered into the ground to a depth of 8–10 meters. Thanks to the holes on the walls, the pipe is siege, and at the same time serves as a filter for the well. The soil type should not be hard.
The advantages of such a well include availability of manufacturing by one’s own efforts and simplicity of design. However has its downsides — it is impossible to install an in-depth pump, but only a surface one, due to the small diameter of the pipe.
As a result, it is not possible to provide sufficient pressure of water supply. Also a disadvantage is the relatively small service life, about 5 years.
Deepening in the sand occurs up to the level of 15–30 meters. A pipe is installed in the drilled hole, at the end of which a stainless steel metal mesh is attached. The mesh is designed to filter pebbles, which are rich in coarse sands.
It is in these layers that the filtration pipe is installed. Such a source of water is able to meet the needs of a country house. With constant use, it will last 15 years.
Of course, only artesian well. Drilling occurs to the level of calcareous rocks.
Therefore, the depth of artesian water can reach up to 200 meters. Such a source can provide more than 10 cubic meters of water per hour. Its service life is 50 years.
Methods and technology of drilling
The choice of drilling method depends on several factors. Basically, this is the level of penetration and the type of soil that needs to be punched. In this regard, there are several types of drilling:
- Drilling by shock-rope technology. To break through the soil layers, a special chisel and bailers are used to clean the hole. With the help of a chisel, cyclic destruction and crushing of the rock occurs. The method is used when drilling with a diameter of up to 50 cm. The main advantages of this method are work in solid layers of soil (boulder layers), and a clean water horizon after drilling. This allows the source to be put into operation immediately.
- Drilling by perforating technology. This method is mainly used for drilling Abyssinian wells and wells of the Igla type. The essence of the method is simple — one pipeline is assembled from pipe segments (1–3 meters) on a threaded connection, on which a sharp tip is attached. Then the assembled structure is driven into the ground to a depth of 8–10 meters, to the first aquifer. The advantage is the simplicity of design and the ability to do everything yourself. However, there is a minus — a small depth.
- Rotary drilling. When using this method, a drill with a tip is installed in a special pipe. Drilling is carried out by creating a load on the drill with a hydraulic installation. The drill rotates from a rotor mounted on the surface. Ideal for drilling in loose formations. You can dive up to 300 meters. The quality and efficiency of the water horizon is maximum. However, with the involvement of special equipment for work, their cost increases.
- Manual drilling for water. This method may include various drilling technologies, but the most common are percussion drilling and perforated hydrodrilling. To organize the process, tripods are installed on the site, on which a pipe with a bailer or a headstock is suspended, depending on the method. It is advisable to manually punch a well if it is not possible to order the services of specialists, but there are physical resources for this.
Do-it-yourself drilling of water wells
Nature itself will help determine the right place for the location. Where plants grow more intensively, there is a possibility that the water horizon is shallow.
However, this recommendation is only valid for manual drilling, where the depth will be shallow. If you punch an artesian well, then such advice is useless.
The main criterion for a water source is purity., so you need to move it away from potential pollutants by at least 25 m (drainage pits, toilet). Also it is worth keeping a distance from home — no closer than 5 m. It is impossible to place a well in the recesses of the reliefso that it does not become a sewage pit for surface contaminants.
Drilling work. driven well
Without tripods it will be impossible to carry out the drilling process. You can make them yourself. It is required to take 3 pipes 5 meters long. They must be laid out on the ground so that the two sides at the top converge with each other, and at the bottom their edges diverge. Between them, in the middle, lay the third.
Schematically, you should get a triangle divided in half. Then, through the docked edges, drill a hole into which to thread the mounting pin. Fasten the edges of the pin so that the tripod does not move apart. A winch with a cable is attached to two side legs.
If the plans do not use impact technology, but break through the soil with a drill, then it can also be made independently. This will require a metal rod with a sharp end, to which the knives will be welded.
To make knives, you need to take metal discs 10–15 mm thick and cut them in half. Weld the first two halves at a height of 20 cm from the point of the rod.
With a vertical shaft, knives are welded to it at an angle of 200 from an imaginary horizontal. The opposite knife is welded crosswise to the first one at the same angle. The half-disks must be very well sharpened in order for the drilling process to proceed quickly and with minimal physical effort.
For drilling an Abyssinian well, it is necessary to prepare pipes for clogging in advance. They should be galvanized or “stainless steel”, inch or three-quarters in size. On each segment, pre-cut a thread for connection.
Also, in the initial section, you need to weld the impact cone. From the tip to a height of up to 500 mm, holes of 5–8 mm are drilled for the inflow of water into the pipe, which are closed with a filtration mesh (stainless steel P52).
A steel headstock is required to drive the pipe into the ground., with a round hole in the middle, and with two fasteners on the sides. The load must be heavy, more than 30 kg. With a hole, the plate is put on the pipe, ropes are attached to its side fasteners.
In order to create a place of impact on the pipe, a clamp is securely attached to it. Ropes are needed to lift the headstock. It is best to attach rollers on top of tripods through which to throw the ropes. This will greatly facilitate the process of lifting the metal plate.
A metal plate with acceleration hits the clamp, thereby hammering the pipe into the ground. As it deepens, the clamp must be moved up, and new pipe sections should be hermetically fixed on the threaded connection.
Video on how to drill a well with your own hands:
Another video on how to make a drill with your own hands:
If, after the next blow, the pipe freely went into the ground, then the water horizon was reached. It is worth going deeper another half a meter and stop.
After completion of drilling work, it is necessary to cut off an extra piece of pipe, and fix a check valve with a pump on it.
In order for the water supply system to work as efficiently as possible, it is necessary to choose the right pump for it. You can choose it based on several parameters:
- water level and depth;
- need for water.
In order to reliably know the depth of the well and the water level in it, a simple measurement can be made. To do this, a load is suspended on a rope and lowered to the very bottom. The distance from the load to the edge of the wet rope will show what the water level is. And the total length of the rope immersion will be equal to the depth of the well.
These readings are important because they are written in the pump passport, and are one of the main characteristics under which the drilling equipment will work.
Well debit represents the volume of water given out by a source for a certain time. According to it, you need to optimally select the right pump. You also need to decide on its size, because most equipment is made to fit 4 inches. If the well diameter is smaller, finding a pump will be much more problematic.
The motor, pumping 50 liters per minute, is able to cover all the needs of an average family of up to 4 people. If the plans include watering large areas, then it makes sense to buy a pump with a capacity several times higher. Although the price will be higher, however, all water needs will be covered.
Well construction and casing pipes
So that the walls of the source do not crumble, and the water remains clean, casing pipes are used. The material of manufacture can be different — steel, asbestos cement, plastic. Which pipe to choose depends on the type of drilling, depth, hole diameter, as well as the type of soil.
Steel the most expensive in terms of cost, and it is most advisable to use them in an artesian well on limestone. Another plus of this use is that the service life of metal casing pipes and the well itself are the same.
Asbestos-cement have a number of advantages. These include chemical neutrality, no corrosion and unlimited shelf life. However, there is a significant disadvantage — fragility, and as a result, increased wall thickness.
This leads to the fact that with the same inner diameter, a larger outer diameter will have to be punched under the asbestos-cement pipe. And this leads to an increase in the cost of work. Most often, these pipes are used on limestone artesian wells.
Plastic (distinguish between PVC and HDPE) it is advisable to use for wells with a shallow depth (up to 50 meters), provided that there are no quicksand in the soil. Since the main disadvantage of PVC pipes is low strength, it is better to use them on simple soils. The advantages include the absence of corrosion, and the impossibility of foreign components entering the water due to the quality of the material.
The cost of hydraulic drilling
Price for drilling of 1 linear meter is 2000–30 dollars, depending on the region. A number of factors will also affect the formation of the price, such as:
- drilling type;
- materials used;
- distance from the contractor to the customer.
If we make a calculation for a small well, 10 meters deep, then experts will make it turnkey for about 20,000–300 dollars. This includes the cost of labor and the cost of materials.
If you punch the source yourself, then you need to purchase:
- steel pipes — 10 m (if using perforating technique);
- material for the manufacture of tripods;
- headstock, ropes, rollers;
In addition, additional materials will be needed — self-tapping screws, stainless steel mesh, sealant for threaded connections. Even a preliminary price calculation shows that it is more economical to break through a shallow well and do it yourself.
But if there is a need for a large debit or artesian water, then you will have to turn to specialists, since this can only be done with special equipment!