How to drill a well for water with your own hands?


well for water

Hav­ing your own source of unin­ter­rupt­ed water sup­ply is the dream of every­one who lives in their own home!

This desire is quite fea­si­ble, it is enough to drill a high-qual­i­ty well in your area.

This can be done both on your own and with the help of pro­fes­sion­al spe­cial­ists!

Types of wells and wells

Borehole on sand and limestoneThere are sev­er­al types of wells that dif­fer from each oth­er in depth, and there­fore in the qual­i­ty of the water sup­plied. Small or sandy wells are drilled to a depth of 10 to 50 meters.

If the source is more than 50 meters deep, then it is con­sid­ered arte­sian. It is char­ac­ter­ized by a lime­stone lay­er, and it can only be bro­ken through with spe­cial equip­ment.

Each type has its own drilling method. There are sev­er­al options for tech­nolo­gies — rope-per­cus­sion, per­fo­rat­ing, rotary.

If it is planned to break through the water source inde­pen­dent­ly, then man­u­al drilling tech­nol­o­gy is also iso­lat­ed. What to choose depends on the size of the planned deep­en­ing, the type of soil, the pur­pose of water use.

The most com­mon types of water sources are a well, a sand well and an arte­sian well. They are char­ac­ter­ized by their depth, qual­i­ty and vol­ume of water sup­plied. They also dif­fer in the type of soil in which they make their way, and in terms of oper­a­tion.

Main types:

  1. well;
  2. on the sand;
  3. arte­sian.

Well or Abyssin­ian well does not require the involve­ment of spe­cial equip­ment for work, and can be done inde­pen­dent­ly. A met­al pipe with a sharp tip and holes along the walls is used.

Abyssinian wellThe tube is ham­mered into the ground to a depth of 8–10 meters. Thanks to the holes on the walls, the pipe is siege, and at the same time serves as a fil­ter for the well. The soil type should not be hard.

The advan­tages of such a well include avail­abil­i­ty of man­u­fac­tur­ing by one’s own efforts and sim­plic­i­ty of design. How­ev­er has its down­sides — it is impos­si­ble to install an in-depth pump, but only a sur­face one, due to the small diam­e­ter of the pipe.

As a result, it is not pos­si­ble to pro­vide suf­fi­cient pres­sure of water sup­ply. Also a dis­ad­van­tage is the rel­a­tive­ly small ser­vice life, about 5 years.

Deep­en­ing in the sand occurs up to the lev­el of 15–30 meters. A pipe is installed in the drilled hole, at the end of which a stain­less steel met­al mesh is attached. The mesh is designed to fil­ter peb­bles, which are rich in coarse sands.

It is in these lay­ers that the fil­tra­tion pipe is installed. Such a source of water is able to meet the needs of a coun­try house. With con­stant use, it will last 15 years.

Of course, only arte­sian well. Drilling occurs to the lev­el of cal­care­ous rocks.

There­fore, the depth of arte­sian water can reach up to 200 meters. Such a source can pro­vide more than 10 cubic meters of water per hour. Its ser­vice life is 50 years.

Methods and technology of drilling

The choice of drilling method depends on sev­er­al fac­tors. Basi­cal­ly, this is the lev­el of pen­e­tra­tion and the type of soil that needs to be punched. In this regard, there are sev­er­al types of drilling:

  1. How to make a well for water?Drilling by shock-rope tech­nol­o­gy. To break through the soil lay­ers, a spe­cial chis­el and bail­ers are used to clean the hole. With the help of a chis­el, cyclic destruc­tion and crush­ing of the rock occurs. The method is used when drilling with a diam­e­ter of up to 50 cm. The main advan­tages of this method are work in sol­id lay­ers of soil (boul­der lay­ers), and a clean water hori­zon after drilling. This allows the source to be put into oper­a­tion imme­di­ate­ly.
  2. Drilling by per­fo­rat­ing tech­nol­o­gy. This method is main­ly used for drilling Abyssin­ian wells and wells of the Igla type. The essence of the method is sim­ple — one pipeline is assem­bled from pipe seg­ments (1–3 meters) on a thread­ed con­nec­tion, on which a sharp tip is attached. Then the assem­bled struc­ture is dri­ven into the ground to a depth of 8–10 meters, to the first aquifer. The advan­tage is the sim­plic­i­ty of design and the abil­i­ty to do every­thing your­self. How­ev­er, there is a minus — a small depth.
  3. Rotary drilling. When using this method, a drill with a tip is installed in a spe­cial pipe. Drilling is car­ried out by cre­at­ing a load on the drill with a hydraulic instal­la­tion. The drill rotates from a rotor mount­ed on the sur­face. Ide­al for drilling in loose for­ma­tions. You can dive up to 300 meters. The qual­i­ty and effi­cien­cy of the water hori­zon is max­i­mum. How­ev­er, with the involve­ment of spe­cial equip­ment for work, their cost increas­es.
  4. Man­u­al drilling for water. This method may include var­i­ous drilling tech­nolo­gies, but the most com­mon are per­cus­sion drilling and per­fo­rat­ed hydro­drilling. To orga­nize the process, tripods are installed on the site, on which a pipe with a bail­er or a head­stock is sus­pend­ed, depend­ing on the method. It is advis­able to man­u­al­ly punch a well if it is not pos­si­ble to order the ser­vices of spe­cial­ists, but there are phys­i­cal resources for this.

Do-it-yourself drilling of water wells

Nature itself will help deter­mine the right place for the loca­tion. Where plants grow more inten­sive­ly, there is a pos­si­bil­i­ty that the water hori­zon is shal­low.

How­ev­er, this rec­om­men­da­tion is only valid for man­u­al drilling, where the depth will be shal­low. If you punch an arte­sian well, then such advice is use­less.

The main cri­te­ri­on for a water source is puri­ty., so you need to move it away from poten­tial pol­lu­tants by at least 25 m (drainage pits, toi­let). Also it is worth keep­ing a dis­tance from home — no clos­er than 5 m. It is impos­si­ble to place a well in the recess­es of the reliefso that it does not become a sewage pit for sur­face con­t­a­m­i­nants.

Drilling work. driven well

Auger drilling

Auger drilling

With­out tripods it will be impos­si­ble to car­ry out the drilling process. You can make them your­self. It is required to take 3 pipes 5 meters long. They must be laid out on the ground so that the two sides at the top con­verge with each oth­er, and at the bot­tom their edges diverge. Between them, in the mid­dle, lay the third.

Schemat­i­cal­ly, you should get a tri­an­gle divid­ed in half. Then, through the docked edges, drill a hole into which to thread the mount­ing pin. Fas­ten the edges of the pin so that the tri­pod does not move apart. A winch with a cable is attached to two side legs.

If the plans do not use impact tech­nol­o­gy, but break through the soil with a drill, then it can also be made inde­pen­dent­ly. This will require a met­al rod with a sharp end, to which the knives will be weld­ed.

To make knives, you need to take met­al discs 10–15 mm thick and cut them in half. Weld the first two halves at a height of 20 cm from the point of the rod.

With a ver­ti­cal shaft, knives are weld­ed to it at an angle of 200 from an imag­i­nary hor­i­zon­tal. The oppo­site knife is weld­ed cross­wise to the first one at the same angle. The half-disks must be very well sharp­ened in order for the drilling process to pro­ceed quick­ly and with min­i­mal phys­i­cal effort.

For drilling an Abyssin­ian well, it is nec­es­sary to pre­pare pipes for clog­ging in advance. They should be gal­va­nized or “stain­less steel”, inch or three-quar­ters in size. On each seg­ment, pre-cut a thread for con­nec­tion.

Also, in the ini­tial sec­tion, you need to weld the impact cone. From the tip to a height of up to 500 mm, holes of 5–8 mm are drilled for the inflow of water into the pipe, which are closed with a fil­tra­tion mesh (stain­less steel P52).

How to drill a well yourself?A steel head­stock is required to dri­ve the pipe into the ground., with a round hole in the mid­dle, and with two fas­ten­ers on the sides. The load must be heavy, more than 30 kg. With a hole, the plate is put on the pipe, ropes are attached to its side fas­ten­ers.

In order to cre­ate a place of impact on the pipe, a clamp is secure­ly attached to it. Ropes are need­ed to lift the head­stock. It is best to attach rollers on top of tripods through which to throw the ropes. This will great­ly facil­i­tate the process of lift­ing the met­al plate.

A met­al plate with accel­er­a­tion hits the clamp, there­by ham­mer­ing the pipe into the ground. As it deep­ens, the clamp must be moved up, and new pipe sec­tions should be her­met­i­cal­ly fixed on the thread­ed con­nec­tion.

Video on how to drill a well with your own hands:

Anoth­er video on how to make a drill with your own hands:

If, after the next blow, the pipe freely went into the ground, then the water hori­zon was reached. It is worth going deep­er anoth­er half a meter and stop.

After com­ple­tion of drilling work, it is nec­es­sary to cut off an extra piece of pipe, and fix a check valve with a pump on it.

well pump

In order for the water sup­ply sys­tem to work as effi­cient­ly as pos­si­ble, it is nec­es­sary to choose the right pump for it. You can choose it based on sev­er­al para­me­ters:

  • water lev­el and depth;
  • deb­it;
  • diam­e­ter;
  • need for water.

In order to reli­ably know the depth of the well and the water lev­el in it, a sim­ple mea­sure­ment can be made. To do this, a load is sus­pend­ed on a rope and low­ered to the very bot­tom. The dis­tance from the load to the edge of the wet rope will show what the water lev­el is. And the total length of the rope immer­sion will be equal to the depth of the well.

These read­ings are impor­tant because they are writ­ten in the pump pass­port, and are one of the main char­ac­ter­is­tics under which the drilling equip­ment will work.

Well deb­it rep­re­sents the vol­ume of water giv­en out by a source for a cer­tain time. Accord­ing to it, you need to opti­mal­ly select the right pump. You also need to decide on its size, because most equip­ment is made to fit 4 inch­es. If the well diam­e­ter is small­er, find­ing a pump will be much more prob­lem­at­ic.

The motor, pump­ing 50 liters per minute, is able to cov­er all the needs of an aver­age fam­i­ly of up to 4 peo­ple. If the plans include water­ing large areas, then it makes sense to buy a pump with a capac­i­ty sev­er­al times high­er. Although the price will be high­er, how­ev­er, all water needs will be cov­ered.

Well construction and casing pipes

CasingSo that the walls of the source do not crum­ble, and the water remains clean, cas­ing pipes are used. The mate­r­i­al of man­u­fac­ture can be dif­fer­ent — steel, asbestos cement, plas­tic. Which pipe to choose depends on the type of drilling, depth, hole diam­e­ter, as well as the type of soil.

Steel the most expen­sive in terms of cost, and it is most advis­able to use them in an arte­sian well on lime­stone. Anoth­er plus of this use is that the ser­vice life of met­al cas­ing pipes and the well itself are the same.

Asbestos-cement have a num­ber of advan­tages. These include chem­i­cal neu­tral­i­ty, no cor­ro­sion and unlim­it­ed shelf life. How­ev­er, there is a sig­nif­i­cant dis­ad­van­tage — fragili­ty, and as a result, increased wall thick­ness.

This leads to the fact that with the same inner diam­e­ter, a larg­er out­er diam­e­ter will have to be punched under the asbestos-cement pipe. And this leads to an increase in the cost of work. Most often, these pipes are used on lime­stone arte­sian wells.

Plas­tic (dis­tin­guish between PVC and HDPE) it is advis­able to use for wells with a shal­low depth (up to 50 meters), pro­vid­ed that there are no quick­sand in the soil. Since the main dis­ad­van­tage of PVC pipes is low strength, it is bet­ter to use them on sim­ple soils. The advan­tages include the absence of cor­ro­sion, and the impos­si­bil­i­ty of for­eign com­po­nents enter­ing the water due to the qual­i­ty of the mate­r­i­al.

The cost of hydraulic drilling

Price for drilling of 1 lin­ear meter is 2000–30 dol­lars, depend­ing on the region. A num­ber of fac­tors will also affect the for­ma­tion of the price, such as:

  • drilling type;
  • mate­ri­als used;
  • dis­tance from the con­trac­tor to the cus­tomer.

If we make a cal­cu­la­tion for a small well, 10 meters deep, then experts will make it turnkey for about 20,000–300 dol­lars. This includes the cost of labor and the cost of mate­ri­als.

How much does it cost to break through the source?If you punch the source your­self, then you need to pur­chase:

  1. steel pipes — 10 m (if using per­fo­rat­ing tech­nique);
  2. mate­r­i­al for the man­u­fac­ture of tripods;
  3. head­stock, ropes, rollers;
  4. pump.

In addi­tion, addi­tion­al mate­ri­als will be need­ed — self-tap­ping screws, stain­less steel mesh, sealant for thread­ed con­nec­tions. Even a pre­lim­i­nary price cal­cu­la­tion shows that it is more eco­nom­i­cal to break through a shal­low well and do it your­self.

But if there is a need for a large deb­it or arte­sian water, then you will have to turn to spe­cial­ists, since this can only be done with spe­cial equip­ment!

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