Wood stoves have been serving people regularly for hundreds of years, and they are not going to give up their positions. Using them is not difficult, but there are certain rules that cannot be violated. This threatens with excessive fuel consumption, threatens the serviceability of the structure, health and even life of people. Therefore, we will analyze in detail how to properly heat the stove with wood.
All about how to heat a wood stove
How wood burns
Operating mode and underflooding
Features of melting “problem” furnaces
Sauna stove tips
Stages of the combustion process
The heat entering the room comes from the combustion of wood. It is important to organize the combustion process in such a way as to obtain maximum efficiency and safety at each stage. Combustion does not occur instantly. This is a fairly long period, which can be divided into two stages.
The wood is placed in a combustion chamber and ignited. First, wood is heated or pyrolysis occurs, during which combustible or pyrolysis gas is released. Gradually, it lights up, further heating the fuel material.
The temperature of firewood heated by burning pyrolysis gases increases to the point of ignition. The entire bookmark ignites and burns evenly.
You need to know that without a sufficient supply of oxygen, pyrolysis gases burn out very quickly and exit through the chimney. In order for the combustion to be long and uniform, it is necessary to maintain the optimal temperature in the furnace, ensure the supply of oxygen, and make sure that the pyrolysis gas burns out completely.
It is possible to load fuel into the chamber and set it on fire only after the equipment is prepared for melting. Such actions are performed step by step.
Step by step process
- We examine the grate. This is the name of the cast iron grate, which allows air to penetrate under the poles, saturating them with oxygen. The grate must be clean. If it’s not, we clean it up.
- We open the ash pan. We remove from it all the accumulated ash. So we will ensure uniform access of air to all logs.
- We look at the structure. We check the operation of dampers, valves. They should move normally, close tightly. We pay special attention to the cleanliness of the chimney so that the smoke can escape freely. There should be no cracks on its inside.
Only after that you can melt the stove.
How to heat the stove in the house with wood
If you immediately put a full load into the chamber, it will be very difficult to bring the heater into operation. Therefore, they begin with kindling, the main task of which is to obtain pyrolysis gas and thereby ensure the desired temperature inside the combustion chamber. To increase the speed of the process, an air supply is required. It is regulated with the help of a blower door and oven views (flaps).
At the time of kindling, the ash pan closes, the view is open. A small number of wooden poles fit into the firebox. Usually they take birch, oak, etc. Some flammable materials are placed under the middle of the first row: birch bark, splinter, shavings or paper. With their help, ignition is carried out. Only after the appearance of flames under the kindling load, the bulk of the logs are laid.
They are placed in a cage or horizontal rows. A small distance is left between the laying elements, about 9–15 mm. It is necessary for the access of oxygen and the removal of combustion products. Correctly lay the logs so that about 180–200 mm of free space remains up to the ceiling of the furnace compartment. When choosing a bookmark height, the quality of firewood is taken into account.
How to choose the height of the bookmark for the quality of firewood
- Raw, recently harvested wood — no higher than 140 mm.
- Old logs without additional drying or aged for a year — 180–220 mm.
- Pre-dried fuel in the room or aged for two years or more — 280–300 mm.
After laying the poles gradually flare up, the heater enters the operating mode.
Operating mode and underflooding
In all the recommendations on how to flood the stove at home with wood, it is emphasized that as soon as the wood flares up, it is necessary to ensure air flow. Therefore, the blower door opens completely. Further, combustion, if necessary, is regulated by partial cover of the views and the blower door. Normally, the operating mode is characterized by the presence of a golden, straw-like flame.
If the draft is insufficient, soot appears, the fire acquires a red tint. This means that there is not enough oxygen for combustion. You need to open the view to correct the situation. There is an opposite situation, when the flame becomes almost white, starts to buzz. This indicates excessive traction. You need to close the blower door.
Sometimes one bookmark is not enough for the normal operation of the furnace; additional loading or stoking is required.
When underflooding is needed
- The bookmark did not burn completely, and the combustion slowed down.
- The oven has not warmed up enough.
- The logs burn out too quickly.
- Insufficient amount of fuel.
The pad has some special features. It is carried out when the stove has already entered the operating mode. Lowering the temperature can break it. Therefore, you can put poles only after 25–40 minutes of normal operation of the device, provided that it is normally warmed up. Opening the door for more than half a minute is not recommended. If during this time it was not possible to do what you need, you can re-open it only after 3–4 minutes.
Additional loading is carried out after the first bookmark has completely subsided, the middle of all the poles have been charred. Fuel is placed in rows or in a cage with the minimum allowable clearance to the top of the compartment. At first, only one field is laid. It is placed diagonally across the chamber and waited for it to ignite. After that, lay out the rest in rows. They wait 6–8 minutes until they flare up well, adjust the draft with a view and a blower.
Solid fuel long-burning appliances are designed in such a way that one bookmark is enough for a long time. For ordinary wood-burning stoves, one portion is enough for a short time. At best, not 6–8 hours. Therefore, to maintain the operating mode, it is necessary to re-bookmark. It is performed when the tree is almost burned out, but a bluish light flame remains.
In the process of laying a new portion, two important conditions are observed. First, carbon monoxide must not be allowed to enter the room. Secondly, you need to maintain a high temperature, which will greatly facilitate re-kindling. Therefore, do everything as quickly as possible. They begin with the fact that the smoldering remains of firewood and coals are carefully raked into the center of the chamber. So that they are in the middle of the new bookmark. Then everything is done in the same way as the first time.
How to heat “problem” stoves
These, for example, include heating devices that have not been used for a long time. In addition, it is more difficult to flood any stove appliance in winter. First, let’s figure out how to heat a bathhouse or a house with firewood after a long break.
- We inspect the equipment to make sure it is in good working order.
- Warm up the chimney. To do this, set the maximum thrust, open the views and the blower door. Roll a tube out of cardboard or paper. We introduce it into the cleaning window, set it on fire. We warm up the pipe until a characteristic hum appears.
- We close the cleaning window, put flammable material into the chamber: sawdust, paper scraps. We set fire to them until they burn out, once again we check the quality of the chimney.
After that, you can heat the stove. In cold weather, the burning of a heating bookmark is added to the actions described above. To do this, about half of the usual amount of fuel is put into the chamber. It is burned at maximum draft until coals are formed. After that, a full load is performed with kindling and exit to the operating mode.
In winter it is very important to use dry fuel. Even if it has been dried for more than two years, it needs to be dried out in cold weather. Poleshki are brought into the house or bathhouse in advance, three to four days or even earlier. It all depends on the volume of the oven where they are placed. There they are stored until the moment of use and at the same time dry to the desired condition. If there is no traditional European undercooking, they allocate a special place for storage.
Also in winter, the pipe is regularly checked so that it is not clogged with snow. Otherwise, it will melt and the resulting water will begin to flow down. It will mix with soot, which will give an aggressive liquid that corrodes metal parts of the equipment. Possible cracking of the inside of the chimney.
Tips for Kindling the Sauna Stove
And a little about how to flood a wood-fired sauna. In general, the process is no different from that described above, but there are some features. Before ignition, in addition to the mandatory serviceability check, the equipment is checked for the presence of water in the boiler. Without it, it is strictly forbidden to melt the stove. The valve is opened before kindling.
After the flame has flared up, cover the blower door and move the valve to the boiler. At the same time, the exit to the chimney is closed. When the water in the container boiled, the poles burned out and turned into red coals, the stones became hot, the temperature in the steam room rose, you can start bathing procedures. Pre-open the valves and close the doors of the furnace and blower.
Learning how to use wood-burning heaters is not so difficult. It is important to always be aware of their potential danger. Flammable liquids are never used for ignition. This leads to a fire. The floor near the firebox is always finished with non-combustible materials, the fuel is stored so that there is no risk of ignition. The chimney damper closes completely only after all the carbon monoxide has escaped. It is determined by the color of the flame. Their blue shades go away.