How to make a solid fuel boiler for long burning with your own hands: instructions, drawing, diagram


Long burning boiler

A long-burn­ing boil­er is an improved type of sol­id fuel boil­ers. Such mod­els are pro­duced for a wide range of con­sumers, and are used for the pur­pose of heat­ing rooms for var­i­ous pur­pos­es.

Their basis is the prin­ci­ple of eco­nom­i­cal and long-term com­bus­tion of any sol­id fuel: coal, fire­wood, wood bri­quettes.

When using coal, one book­mark will be quite enough for the device to func­tion for five days. But devices that run on wood are notice­ably infe­ri­or to coal ones, because the longest burn­ing time is about thir­ty hours.

Advantages and types of long-burning boilers

Sol­id fuel boil­ers of long burn­ing have sev­er­al key ben­e­fits:

  1. Suf­fi­cient­ly high­ly effi­cient com­bus­tion of the fuel used, and the effi­cien­cy is approx­i­mate­ly 90%;
  2. The fire­box for lay­ing fuel is large;
  3. A small amount of car­bon diox­ide is released into the envi­ron­ment;
  4. In the pre­dom­i­nant num­ber of mod­els, elec­tron­ic automa­tion is arranged;
  5. There is an air sup­ply fan;
  6. Fuel is con­sumed in an eco­nom­i­cal amount.

These boil­ers are an alter­na­tive to gas heat­ing. A long-burn­ing heat­ing boil­er or TT boil­er is con­sid­ered prac­ti­cal and easy to use.

In addi­tion, it is char­ac­ter­ized by rel­a­tive­ly long ser­vice life. In addi­tion, these are the best mod­els in terms of envi­ron­men­tal friend­li­ness with effi­cien­cy and the amount of fuel con­sumed.

To date, on There are three types of man­u­fac­tur­ers on the mar­ket:

  • clas­si­cal;
  • pyrol­y­sis;
  • mine.



Sol­id fuel pyrol­y­sis boil­ers super long burn­ing work on the prin­ci­ple of burn­ing wood gas, which is released dur­ing smol­der­ing fire­wood. Their dis­tin­guish­ing char­ac­ter­is­tic is the flame, which resem­bles the flame of either a blow­torch or a gas burn­er. In the process of burn­ing the tem­per­a­ture inside the low­er cham­ber is about 12000 C.

Thanks to com­bus­tion occurs from top to bot­tomand the main heat exchang­er is arranged in the low­er part, the most effi­cient heat trans­fer is car­ried out, as well as the heat­ing of the coolant itself.

Main advan­tage thing is on one load, the device oper­ates until the fuel burns out com­plete­ly. The device oper­ates on the prin­ci­ple of pyrol­y­sis com­bus­tion, in which an insuf­fi­cient amount of oxy­gen and high tem­per­a­ture leads to the decom­po­si­tion of wood into a volatile sub­stance that caus­es com­bus­tion.

The advan­tages of the pyrol­y­sis type include:

  1. High effi­cien­cy of about 85%
  2. The load­ing hatch of the big sizes that gives the chance to clean the com­bus­tion cham­ber eas­i­ly
  3. For the man­u­fac­ture of the heat exchang­er, a thick sheet of high-qual­i­ty steel is used.
  4. Pow­er­ful fan
  5. The elec­tron­ic sys­tem is con­trolled by a cir­cu­la­tion pump
  6. Can be used for heat­ing indus­tri­al premis­es

Classic heating

classic heating

Mod­els of clas­sic sol­id fuel boil­ers have a fire­box with an increased vol­ume, so the dura­tion of com­bus­tion is also increased. They work for:

  • long-flame or brown coal;
  • wood bri­quettes;
  • fire­wood.

Such boil­ers have a rel­a­tive­ly low effi­cien­cy and a fair­ly short peri­od of work on one tab of fuel. The advan­tage of devices of this type can be called a fair­ly low price — from 300 dol­lars.

We advise you to pur­chase a clas­sic boil­er as a back­upwhen using a gas heat­ing boil­er.


Boil­ers of long burn­ing of shaft type Designed for burn­ing a vari­ety of bulk mate­ri­als. The fan sup­ply­ing the air flow to the fur­nace is con­trolled by a micro­proces­sor, which auto­mates and opti­mizes the com­bus­tion process. They are They are huge and have a very com­plex struc­ture.

There are sev­er­al ben­e­fits:

  • Has a unique design;
  • There is a load­ing door with a suf­fi­cient­ly large sec­tion and a huge bunker;
  • Any mate­r­i­al can be used as the main fuel;
  • The tem­per­a­ture of the emis­sions does not exceed the norm.

Principle of operation

The prin­ci­ple of oper­a­tion of sol­id fuel boil­ers for long burn­ing It con­sists in burn­ing one or anoth­er type of fuel by the method of upper or upper-low­er com­bus­tion. At the time of this process there is an increase in the burn­ing time of the fuelas well as the num­ber of heat calo­ries released.

The main dis­tin­guish­ing fea­ture is the use of cham­bers with large para­me­ters in which fuel is laid. Besides, top burn­ing pro­vides good results when burn­ing just one book­mark.

Internal layout and drawings


There is no spe­cial grate with an ash pan in the sol­id fuel boil­er, and there is a closed pan below. In this way, do not allow fuel to burn in the low­er part of the fur­nace. The lat­ter is built in the form of a cylin­der.

The air flow is fed from above, after which the air dis­trib­u­tor divides it through­out the vol­ume. The dis­trib­u­tor is mov­able — low­ers and ris­es.

The upper part of the fur­nace is intend­ed for the accu­mu­la­tion of com­bus­tion prod­ucts. and par­ti­cles of ash. They are sep­a­rat­ed from the pri­ma­ry com­bus­tion zone by a huge met­al disk. At the entrance to the cham­ber there is an auto­mat­ic draft reg­u­la­tor, which is a device for deter­min­ing the tem­per­a­ture of the coolant, accord­ing to which the gas flow rate is reg­u­lat­ed. The entire body is used as a heat exchang­er.

In addi­tion, the design has places for con­nect­ing the sup­ply water, return water, ther­mome­ter, draft reg­u­la­tor. Reli­a­bil­i­ty is pro­vid­ed thanks to a heat-insu­lat­ing cov­er.

Draw­ings of a long-burn­ing pyrol­y­sis boil­er with a water cir­cuit:

pyrolysis with water circuit

Instructions for the manufacture of a pyrolysis boiler

In the event that there is no mon­ey to pur­chase a pyrol­y­sis boil­er, you can try to make a sim­i­lar sol­id fuel boil­er your­self. First you need to study the draw­ings of this equip­ment. After all cal­cu­la­tions have been made, and the type of com­bus­tion has been estab­lished, work should begin.

Every­thing should be col­lect­ed nec­es­sary equip­ment and mate­ri­als:

  1. Sev­er­al sheets of stain­less steel;
  2. Pipe with a diam­e­ter of approx­i­mate­ly 4 cm;
  3. Weld­ing equip­ment;
  4. Rein­force­ment 2 cm thick;
  5. A fan that will sup­ply air to the cham­ber;
  6. Sev­er­al bricks;
  7. Auto­mat­ic sys­tem.

Accord­ing to the draw­ings, they are sep­a­rate­ly cre­at­ed:

  • frame;
  • air dis­trib­u­tor;
  • chim­ney;
  • door and cov­er for the upper part of the body.

First you need to cut the pipe, the length of which will be about a meter. More the bot­tom is made from one met­al sheetand then weld­ed to the pipe. At the same time, legs made from a chan­nel can also be weld­ed to this work­piece.

air distributor


Par­tic­u­lar atten­tion should be paid to the air dis­trib­u­tor. To do this, a cir­cle is cut out of sheet met­al with a diam­e­ter small­er than 20 mm from the diam­e­ter of the main pipe, and a hole of 2 cm is drilled in the mid­dle of it. low­er part com­bus­tion dis­trib­u­tor you need to weld the impellerhav­ing met­al blades. Their width should not exceed five cen­time­ters.

attach the pipe

Rice. 2

A pipe with a diam­e­ter of 60 mm and a height slight­ly less than the height of the boil­er itself is attached to its upper part. A damper is attached to the top of this pipe, designed to reg­u­late the vol­ume of oxy­gen.

pipe with a diameter of 60 mm

Rice. 3

At the bot­tom of the work­piece you need to cut a place for the door, through which it will be pos­si­ble to remove the accu­mu­lat­ed ash. Then a valve and sev­er­al hinges are weld­ed to the door. A chim­ney with a diam­e­ter of 10 cm is made on top of the struc­ture. Up to half a meter, it should be in an almost hor­i­zon­tal posi­tion, and then go into a spe­cial heat exchang­er.

When mak­ing a cov­er, you need to take care of the hole intend­ed for fas­ten­ing the dis­trib­u­tor pipe. It is nec­es­sary that it fits snug­ly against the body of the com­bus­tion cham­ber.

DIY sol­id fuel boil­er video:

Connection and installation

The device can be installed and con­nect­ed inde­pen­dent­ly. The instal­la­tion method is select­ed depend­ing on sev­er­al fea­tures of the sol­id fuel boil­er:

  • The out­er walls of the fire­box can get very hot even if there is a water jack­et around it;
  • Home­made prod­ucts have sin­gle walls.

The boil­er must not be installed clos­er than half a meter from the adjoin­ing wall. In the event that it is made of com­bustible mate­r­i­al, it is nec­es­sary to pro­vide addi­tion­al pro­tec­tion from brick­work or gal­va­nized sheets in con­junc­tion with an asbestos gas­ket.

Then between the ceil­ing and the chim­ney leave space at least 25 cen­time­ters widewhich filled with basalt wool and sewn up with gal­va­niza­tion.

pouring the foundation

Besides you need to make the right foun­da­tion, because the device has a large mass, which increas­es sig­nif­i­cant­ly after lay­ing a large amount of fuel. Usu­al­ly it is made of rein­forced con­crete, filled with crushed stone. Then a chim­ney pre­pared in advance with their own hands is attached to the boil­er and con­nect­ed to the water cir­cuit.

Con­nec­tion dia­gram to the water cir­cuit:

connection to the water circuit

Boiler use

types of fuel

For sol­id fuel boil­ers, dif­fer­ent types of fuel can be used:

  • hard and brown coal;
  • anthracite;
  • wood bri­quettes with fire­wood;
  • oil shale with peat.

Wood is char­ac­ter­ized by a high yield of volatile sub­stances dur­ing com­bus­tion. Hard coal is the most pop­u­lar fuel. Oil shales are rel­a­tive­ly rarely used for sol­id fuel heat­ing, due to their high ash con­tent.

First, the select­ed type of fuel must be loaded into the fur­nace. If coal is used for kin­dling, then replen­ish­ing it dur­ing com­bus­tion is pro­hib­it­ed. How­ev­er, if wood is used, fire­wood must be added to the fire­box. It is impos­si­ble at the same time to open the doors wide, so as not to get burned.

It is bet­ter to take absolute­ly dry fuel, because mois­ture can degrade its qual­i­ty.

When heat­ing with peat and coal, it is imper­a­tive to use an air flow man­i­fold.

For any type of device fuel is loaded only through the door at the top of the equip­ment.

Boiler prices and manufacturing costs

Today, a fair­ly wide range of sol­id fuel boil­ers for long burn­ing is pre­sent­ed on the mar­ket. Thanks to this, you can choose a mod­el with the most suit­able char­ac­ter­is­tics and at an afford­able price. So, the min­i­mum cost of the boil­er is about 250$, and the max­i­mum can exceed 500 dol­lars.

How­ev­er, with insuf­fi­cient funds, you can order the man­u­fac­ture of the boil­er to the mas­ter or do it your­self. The last option is the most cost effec­tive. After all mate­ri­als are rel­a­tive­ly cheap, and the schemes are noth­ing com­pli­cat­ed. Blanks can get by about 100–150$.

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