A long-burning boiler is an improved type of solid fuel boilers. Such models are produced for a wide range of consumers, and are used for the purpose of heating rooms for various purposes.
Their basis is the principle of economical and long-term combustion of any solid fuel: coal, firewood, wood briquettes.
When using coal, one bookmark will be quite enough for the device to function for five days. But devices that run on wood are noticeably inferior to coal ones, because the longest burning time is about thirty hours.
Advantages and types of long-burning boilers
Solid fuel boilers of long burning have several key benefits:
- Sufficiently highly efficient combustion of the fuel used, and the efficiency is approximately 90%;
- The firebox for laying fuel is large;
- A small amount of carbon dioxide is released into the environment;
- In the predominant number of models, electronic automation is arranged;
- There is an air supply fan;
- Fuel is consumed in an economical amount.
These boilers are an alternative to gas heating. A long-burning heating boiler or TT boiler is considered practical and easy to use.
In addition, it is characterized by relatively long service life. In addition, these are the best models in terms of environmental friendliness with efficiency and the amount of fuel consumed.
To date, on There are three types of manufacturers on the market:
Solid fuel pyrolysis boilers super long burning work on the principle of burning wood gas, which is released during smoldering firewood. Their distinguishing characteristic is the flame, which resembles the flame of either a blowtorch or a gas burner. In the process of burning the temperature inside the lower chamber is about 12000 C.
Thanks to combustion occurs from top to bottomand the main heat exchanger is arranged in the lower part, the most efficient heat transfer is carried out, as well as the heating of the coolant itself.
Main advantage thing is on one load, the device operates until the fuel burns out completely. The device operates on the principle of pyrolysis combustion, in which an insufficient amount of oxygen and high temperature leads to the decomposition of wood into a volatile substance that causes combustion.
The advantages of the pyrolysis type include:
- High efficiency of about 85%
- The loading hatch of the big sizes that gives the chance to clean the combustion chamber easily
- For the manufacture of the heat exchanger, a thick sheet of high-quality steel is used.
- Powerful fan
- The electronic system is controlled by a circulation pump
- Can be used for heating industrial premises
Models of classic solid fuel boilers have a firebox with an increased volume, so the duration of combustion is also increased. They work for:
- long-flame or brown coal;
- wood briquettes;
Such boilers have a relatively low efficiency and a fairly short period of work on one tab of fuel. The advantage of devices of this type can be called a fairly low price — from 300 dollars.
We advise you to purchase a classic boiler as a backupwhen using a gas heating boiler.
Boilers of long burning of shaft type Designed for burning a variety of bulk materials. The fan supplying the air flow to the furnace is controlled by a microprocessor, which automates and optimizes the combustion process. They are They are huge and have a very complex structure.
There are several benefits:
- Has a unique design;
- There is a loading door with a sufficiently large section and a huge bunker;
- Any material can be used as the main fuel;
- The temperature of the emissions does not exceed the norm.
Principle of operation
The principle of operation of solid fuel boilers for long burning It consists in burning one or another type of fuel by the method of upper or upper-lower combustion. At the time of this process there is an increase in the burning time of the fuelas well as the number of heat calories released.
The main distinguishing feature is the use of chambers with large parameters in which fuel is laid. Besides, top burning provides good results when burning just one bookmark.
Internal layout and drawings
There is no special grate with an ash pan in the solid fuel boiler, and there is a closed pan below. In this way, do not allow fuel to burn in the lower part of the furnace. The latter is built in the form of a cylinder.
The air flow is fed from above, after which the air distributor divides it throughout the volume. The distributor is movable — lowers and rises.
The upper part of the furnace is intended for the accumulation of combustion products. and particles of ash. They are separated from the primary combustion zone by a huge metal disk. At the entrance to the chamber there is an automatic draft regulator, which is a device for determining the temperature of the coolant, according to which the gas flow rate is regulated. The entire body is used as a heat exchanger.
In addition, the design has places for connecting the supply water, return water, thermometer, draft regulator. Reliability is provided thanks to a heat-insulating cover.
Drawings of a long-burning pyrolysis boiler with a water circuit:
Instructions for the manufacture of a pyrolysis boiler
In the event that there is no money to purchase a pyrolysis boiler, you can try to make a similar solid fuel boiler yourself. First you need to study the drawings of this equipment. After all calculations have been made, and the type of combustion has been established, work should begin.
Everything should be collected necessary equipment and materials:
- Several sheets of stainless steel;
- Pipe with a diameter of approximately 4 cm;
- Welding equipment;
- Reinforcement 2 cm thick;
- A fan that will supply air to the chamber;
- Several bricks;
- Automatic system.
According to the drawings, they are separately created:
- air distributor;
- door and cover for the upper part of the body.
First you need to cut the pipe, the length of which will be about a meter. More the bottom is made from one metal sheetand then welded to the pipe. At the same time, legs made from a channel can also be welded to this workpiece.
Particular attention should be paid to the air distributor. To do this, a circle is cut out of sheet metal with a diameter smaller than 20 mm from the diameter of the main pipe, and a hole of 2 cm is drilled in the middle of it. lower part combustion distributor you need to weld the impellerhaving metal blades. Their width should not exceed five centimeters.
A pipe with a diameter of 60 mm and a height slightly less than the height of the boiler itself is attached to its upper part. A damper is attached to the top of this pipe, designed to regulate the volume of oxygen.
At the bottom of the workpiece you need to cut a place for the door, through which it will be possible to remove the accumulated ash. Then a valve and several hinges are welded to the door. A chimney with a diameter of 10 cm is made on top of the structure. Up to half a meter, it should be in an almost horizontal position, and then go into a special heat exchanger.
When making a cover, you need to take care of the hole intended for fastening the distributor pipe. It is necessary that it fits snugly against the body of the combustion chamber.
DIY solid fuel boiler video:
Connection and installation
The device can be installed and connected independently. The installation method is selected depending on several features of the solid fuel boiler:
- The outer walls of the firebox can get very hot even if there is a water jacket around it;
- Homemade products have single walls.
The boiler must not be installed closer than half a meter from the adjoining wall. In the event that it is made of combustible material, it is necessary to provide additional protection from brickwork or galvanized sheets in conjunction with an asbestos gasket.
Then between the ceiling and the chimney leave space at least 25 centimeters widewhich filled with basalt wool and sewn up with galvanization.
Besides you need to make the right foundation, because the device has a large mass, which increases significantly after laying a large amount of fuel. Usually it is made of reinforced concrete, filled with crushed stone. Then a chimney prepared in advance with their own hands is attached to the boiler and connected to the water circuit.
Connection diagram to the water circuit:
For solid fuel boilers, different types of fuel can be used:
- hard and brown coal;
- wood briquettes with firewood;
- oil shale with peat.
Wood is characterized by a high yield of volatile substances during combustion. Hard coal is the most popular fuel. Oil shales are relatively rarely used for solid fuel heating, due to their high ash content.
First, the selected type of fuel must be loaded into the furnace. If coal is used for kindling, then replenishing it during combustion is prohibited. However, if wood is used, firewood must be added to the firebox. It is impossible at the same time to open the doors wide, so as not to get burned.
It is better to take absolutely dry fuel, because moisture can degrade its quality.
When heating with peat and coal, it is imperative to use an air flow manifold.
For any type of device fuel is loaded only through the door at the top of the equipment.
Boiler prices and manufacturing costs
Today, a fairly wide range of solid fuel boilers for long burning is presented on the market. Thanks to this, you can choose a model with the most suitable characteristics and at an affordable price. So, the minimum cost of the boiler is about 250$, and the maximum can exceed 500 dollars.
However, with insufficient funds, you can order the manufacture of the boiler to the master or do it yourself. The last option is the most cost effective. After all materials are relatively cheap, and the schemes are nothing complicated. Blanks can get by about 100–150$.