Frame houses are gaining popularity as an alternative to wooden houses. Their main advantage is the quick installation of walls and roofs. Since the weight of such a structure is insignificant, there is no need to build a capital foundation. The house can be installed on stilts.
Free air circulation occurs under the floor, which protects the wooden logs and the subfloor from mold and decay. This is also a big disadvantage of such a house. Even well-made thermal insulation will not protect against cold from under the floor. To correct this shortcoming, you should install a warm floor in a frame house.
Features of installation in a frame house
Installing a “warm floor” system in a frame house performs several tasks:
- improved living comfort;
- eliminates the need to install wall batteries;
- reduces energy costs.
Due to the light weight of the frame house structure, it is installed on a columnar foundation. When installing a warm floor, it is not advisable to use a standard cement-sand mortar screed, from 30 cm in size. This will increase the weight of the house and create an additional load on the foundation.
In addition to installing a warm floor, you should also take care of the insulation of the outer walls of the frame house. Their thickness, as well as the overlap, is small. Without this event, it will not be possible to achieve the proper level of insulation at home.
Underfloor heating is installed using:
- water circuit;
- electrical circuit.
With a water type, heating occurs with a coolant that circulates through the tubes. The device of the electric floor provides for the laying of cables that generate heat.
Both types of system can be used for a frame house. There are only a few differences in the construction of a water floor in a frame house on a pile foundation. Even at the stage of its construction, the joints are carefully sealed and they try to isolate all cold areas as much as possible.
Factors that influence the choice of underfloor heating for a frame house:
- house construction;
- climatic conditions of the area where the housing is located;
- geological characteristics of the site;
- carried out calculation of heat losses.
A water heated floor is more optimal for saving and reducing the cost of paying for energy for heating a house. But this device requires a little more money than an electric one.
They place water pipes under any type of finishing floor covering, whether it be tiles, laminate, parquet, linoleum, porcelain stoneware and others. They use the technology of installing a warm floor in houses built from any material: wood, brick and poured concrete.
In addition to the advantages described, a warm floor in a frame house has its drawbacks. First of all, this is the high cost of components, as well as hydraulic calculations and a limited choice of type of screed.
Choosing the type of underfloor heating
The correct arrangement of the underfloor heating system will save heating costs and create comfort and coziness in the house. This is perhaps the most correct version of a room heating device, since the lower part of the room is heated.
After deciding to make a warm floor, you should choose its type: water or electric.
Electric floor heating
Differs in fast installation and simplicity of connection. A significant disadvantage is the high cost of electricity, which makes the cost of space heating high.
Electric underfloor heating is installed under the surface of the floor free from furniture. Its installation under the sofa, cabinets and bed is not effective and the cables can burn out from overheating. When calculating the power of the system, it is taken into account that 0.1 kW of energy is consumed per square meter of area. Heating a room of standard sizes (14–16 sq.m.) may require 1.5 kW of electricity.
There are two main types of electric floor heating system:
The principle of heating is infrared and convection.
The installation of such a system is carried out in a screed. From above, almost all types of flooring are used. It can be ceramic tiles, linoleum, laminate. Natural parquet or cork flooring is considered undesirable. These materials can dry out, and besides, cork does not transmit heat very well.
When choosing a cable floor, its electromagnetic radiation should be taken into account. In residential premises, it is recommended to use a two-wire wire, the negative impact of which on the human body is less.
The film electric floor can be installed without a screed. It is spread directly under the floor covering. This greatly speeds up the installation process and reduces labor costs.
The advantages of the electric floor heating system include the absence of a screed or its very thin layer, quick installation and instant heating.
There are also disadvantages. This is a high consumption of electricity and dependence on its constant availability. It is not recommended to install in rooms with high humidity.
Water heated floor
The operation of a water heated floor is cheaper. Heating comes from a coolant, which is heated by a gas or solid fuel boiler. The operation of the system is not so dependent on electricity, especially when using a wood or coal boiler.
The standard installation of a water floor provides for its laying in a concrete screed, the size of which is 5–7 cm. This limited its installation in frame houses, where it is technically difficult and impractical to fill the floor or ceiling with a cement-sand mortar. Therefore, a more innovative system was invented — a light water floor, which is carried out without a screed.
It has a number of advantages:
- lower weight of the structure, which allows the installation of a warm floor in a frame or wooden house
- the system is ready for operation immediately after installation;
- smaller thickness of the floor layer;
- Possibility of custom-made.
There are two types of light underfloor heating:
- polystyrene foam.
The cost of a wooden system is cheaper, but its installation is more laborious. Used for installation on lags. The thickness of the structure is small and does not carry an additional load on the structure of the house. For greater efficiency, a heater with reflective foil is additionally installed on the wooden floor.
To prevent the direction of warm air downwards, a light underfloor heating system with expanded polystyrene is used. Aluminum plates are fixed on its soft layer, and on top the structure is covered with a moisture-resistant gypsum-fiber sheet.
To control the water floor system, bulky additional equipment is used, which allows you to turn off the system in each room separately.
Installation of different types of underfloor heating
Electric underfloor heating is mounted in several ways:
- heating mats;
- infrared mats and film.
Each of these methods has some differences. A warm floor using cables can be placed inside the screed or laid on a boardwalk. The infrared film can be placed directly under the finished floor covering.
The operation of the system is controlled by a thermostat. Therefore, installation work begins precisely with its installation on the wall. Mount it on the wall, at a distance of 30 cm from the floor surface. The temperature controller is placed in a hole on the wall surface and channels for cable laying are brought to it.
If there is high humidity in the room where the cable floor will be installed, the thermostat should be moved to another room.
The surface on which the cable electric floor will be installed is covered with plastic wrap and heat-insulating material. Then a reinforcing mesh is laid on which the cable is attached.
The output of the heating cable is connected to the thermostat and the system is checked for operability. Then a screed is poured in a thin layer.
The electrical system of a warm floor in a frame house is installed on wooden logs. A layer of waterproofing and a heat-reflecting layer of special foil are spread under them. On the logs, in the places where the system is laid, cuts are made, into which the cable is laid, in any of the ways.
From above, to protect the underfloor heating system, a fine plywood or chipboard coating is laid, and then the finishing floor.
The device of a water heated floor in any frame house is carried out in two ways. The first of these is a floating screed device, the thickness of which should not exceed 5 cm. The structure of the house must withstand this load without problems.
Filling the floor begins with the installation of a waterproofing layer. It is laid on the rough base of the floor. For these purposes, use a plastic film. It is spread out on the floor with an overlap. The strips of material are attached to the wall and between themselves with mounting tape.
The film serves to prevent the absorption of moisture from the solution by the rough base and interferes with its adhesion to concrete.
The next step is the installation of a heat-insulating layer. Apply any roll insulation and heat-reflecting foil. A reinforcing mesh is spread over this layer and a damper tape is glued to the wall.
With a large area of u200bu200bthe room (more than 40 sq. M.), It is divided into several independent parts, where the pipe contours are laid separately.
The tubes themselves are placed in two ways: snake or snail. In the conditions of a frame house, laying is done in increments of 10–15 centimeters.
Water circuits are attached to the reinforcing mesh with clamps so that they do not move when poured.
After complete installation of the system, it is tested for tightness. To do this, the system is filled with water and left for a day. At a constant level of pressure in the pipes, the screed is poured.
For this, beacons are set up, along which the cement-sand mortar will be poured. They begin to pour the screed from the opposite wall from the door. When the mortar sets, the beacons are removed, and the voids are filled with liquid cement mortar. Excess pieces of plastic film are removed.
The floating screed, the creation of which was described above, has no contact with either the wooden floor or the same walls of the house. Therefore, the tree will not be subject to the processes of expansion and shrinkage, which can lead to damage to the frame house.
On a wooden flooring, a warm floor system is mounted as follows. The initial stage is the laying of a layer of polyethylene film on the base. Then spread the insulation — foil polystyrene foam.
Then a frame for the water circuit is made from the boards. To do this, grooves for tubes are cut in the boards. Laying is carried out with a minimum step. From above, the water floor system is covered with a metal sheet for a more even distribution of the radiated heat. The next layer is sheets of plywood or chipboard, on which the finishing flooring is laid. The system must be checked for tightness by pressure testing.
The device of dry polystyrene screed under the laminate
Much has been said above that a standard screed is not quite suitable for a wooden house.
One of the innovative options for installing a warm floor under a laminate in a frame house is the use of a dry polystyrene screed. It is carried out in several stages.
First, light polystyrene blocks are laid on the floor. They are interconnected by locking mechanisms that are on each panel. In a room up to 40 sq. m. installation is carried out in a few hours due to the light weight and convenient dimensions of polystyrene foam blocks.
Then, flexible tubes are installed on this base in the prepared grooves. The scheme of their laying can be different: snake, spiral, snail and others. After the final installation of the pipes, they are hydraulically tested. The purpose of this event is to identify leaks and other system errors.
At the next stage, special plates are laid on the surface of the polystyrene blocks, which distribute heat and install a waterproofing material.
The final stage consists in laying the laminate on the produced dry screed.
Rules for the operation of a warm floor
Underfloor heating systems, regardless of their type, are characterized by low operating costs. They do not need special maintenance, and the service life itself is tens of years.
If the electrical elements of the system are damaged, they do not pose a threat to human life, but their replacement is a very troublesome business.
A system of water and electric underfloor heating will serve you well if you follow some recommendations for proper installation and ensuring optimal working conditions:
- The first important factor for the optimal operation of the system is its power parameters. A common mistake is to install cable underfloor heating in a low or high capacity screed. The cable laying step depends on the power. With its low value (up to 100 W per cubic meter), it is 16 cm. In this case, the floor heating will occur in uneven linear stripes. If the power is higher than necessary (from 190 watts per cubic meter), the laying step may be less than 6 cm. This will lead to overheating of the turns passing nearby, and the failure of the system.
- A warm floor is installed under the floor surface, on which there will be no furniture, large household appliances, plumbing. The lack of uniform heat transfer can lead to overheating of the joints of the system and its breakdown.
- For the underfloor heating system, you should use the finishing floor covering that is combined with it. For example, carpet, laminate, linoleum, porcelain stoneware and ceramic tiles. It is not advisable to install a material with low thermal conductivity on a warm floor. The heat generated by the tubes or cable will be reflected, causing the system to overheat.
It is necessary to properly use the thermostat in the electric type of underfloor heating, preventing it from working under heavy load. Without this element, it is strictly forbidden to use the system. For reliable and durable operation of the warm floor, it is recommended to take breaks in its operation.