How to make a warm floor in a frame house

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Frame hous­es are gain­ing pop­u­lar­i­ty as an alter­na­tive to wood­en hous­es. Their main advan­tage is the quick instal­la­tion of walls and roofs. Since the weight of such a struc­ture is insignif­i­cant, there is no need to build a cap­i­tal foun­da­tion. The house can be installed on stilts.

Free air cir­cu­la­tion occurs under the floor, which pro­tects the wood­en logs and the sub­floor from mold and decay. This is also a big dis­ad­van­tage of such a house. Even well-made ther­mal insu­la­tion will not pro­tect against cold from under the floor. To cor­rect this short­com­ing, you should install a warm floor in a frame house.

Features of installation in a frame house

Installing a “warm floor” sys­tem in a frame house per­forms sev­er­al tasks:

  • improved liv­ing com­fort;
  • elim­i­nates the need to install wall bat­ter­ies;
  • reduces ener­gy costs.

Due to the light weight of the frame house struc­ture, it is installed on a colum­nar foun­da­tion. When installing a warm floor, it is not advis­able to use a stan­dard cement-sand mor­tar screed, from 30 cm in size. This will increase the weight of the house and cre­ate an addi­tion­al load on the foun­da­tion.

Warm floor in a frame house

In addi­tion to installing a warm floor, you should also take care of the insu­la­tion of the out­er walls of the frame house. Their thick­ness, as well as the over­lap, is small. With­out this event, it will not be pos­si­ble to achieve the prop­er lev­el of insu­la­tion at home.

Under­floor heat­ing is installed using:

  • water cir­cuit;
  • elec­tri­cal cir­cuit.

With a water type, heat­ing occurs with a coolant that cir­cu­lates through the tubes. The device of the elec­tric floor pro­vides for the lay­ing of cables that gen­er­ate heat.

Both types of sys­tem can be used for a frame house. There are only a few dif­fer­ences in the con­struc­tion of a water floor in a frame house on a pile foun­da­tion. Even at the stage of its con­struc­tion, the joints are care­ful­ly sealed and they try to iso­late all cold areas as much as pos­si­ble.

Under­floor heat­ing scheme

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Fac­tors that influ­ence the choice of under­floor heat­ing for a frame house:

  • house con­struc­tion;
  • cli­mat­ic con­di­tions of the area where the hous­ing is locat­ed;
  • geo­log­i­cal char­ac­ter­is­tics of the site;
  • car­ried out cal­cu­la­tion of heat loss­es.

A water heat­ed floor is more opti­mal for sav­ing and reduc­ing the cost of pay­ing for ener­gy for heat­ing a house. But this device requires a lit­tle more mon­ey than an elec­tric one.

Water floor sys­tem

They place water pipes under any type of fin­ish­ing floor cov­er­ing, whether it be tiles, lam­i­nate, par­quet, linoleum, porce­lain stoneware and oth­ers. They use the tech­nol­o­gy of installing a warm floor in hous­es built from any mate­r­i­al: wood, brick and poured con­crete.

In addi­tion to the advan­tages described, a warm floor in a frame house has its draw­backs. First of all, this is the high cost of com­po­nents, as well as hydraulic cal­cu­la­tions and a lim­it­ed choice of type of screed.

Choosing the type of underfloor heating

The cor­rect arrange­ment of the under­floor heat­ing sys­tem will save heat­ing costs and cre­ate com­fort and cozi­ness in the house. This is per­haps the most cor­rect ver­sion of a room heat­ing device, since the low­er part of the room is heat­ed.

After decid­ing to make a warm floor, you should choose its type: water or elec­tric.

Electric floor heating

Dif­fers in fast instal­la­tion and sim­plic­i­ty of con­nec­tion. A sig­nif­i­cant dis­ad­van­tage is the high cost of elec­tric­i­ty, which makes the cost of space heat­ing high.

Elec­tric under­floor heat­ing is installed under the sur­face of the floor free from fur­ni­ture. Its instal­la­tion under the sofa, cab­i­nets and bed is not effec­tive and the cables can burn out from over­heat­ing. When cal­cu­lat­ing the pow­er of the sys­tem, it is tak­en into account that 0.1 kW of ener­gy is con­sumed per square meter of area. Heat­ing a room of stan­dard sizes (14–16 sq.m.) may require 1.5 kW of elec­tric­i­ty.

Elec­tric cable under­floor heat­ing

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There are two main types of elec­tric floor heat­ing sys­tem:

  • cable;
  • film.

The prin­ci­ple of heat­ing is infrared and con­vec­tion.

The instal­la­tion of such a sys­tem is car­ried out in a screed. From above, almost all types of floor­ing are used. It can be ceram­ic tiles, linoleum, lam­i­nate. Nat­ur­al par­quet or cork floor­ing is con­sid­ered unde­sir­able. These mate­ri­als can dry out, and besides, cork does not trans­mit heat very well.

When choos­ing a cable floor, its elec­tro­mag­net­ic radi­a­tion should be tak­en into account. In res­i­den­tial premis­es, it is rec­om­mend­ed to use a two-wire wire, the neg­a­tive impact of which on the human body is less.

The film elec­tric floor can be installed with­out a screed. It is spread direct­ly under the floor cov­er­ing. This great­ly speeds up the instal­la­tion process and reduces labor costs.

The advan­tages of the elec­tric floor heat­ing sys­tem include the absence of a screed or its very thin lay­er, quick instal­la­tion and instant heat­ing.

Installing an elec­tric floor with a cable

There are also dis­ad­van­tages. This is a high con­sump­tion of elec­tric­i­ty and depen­dence on its con­stant avail­abil­i­ty. It is not rec­om­mend­ed to install in rooms with high humid­i­ty.

Water heated floor

The oper­a­tion of a water heat­ed floor is cheap­er. Heat­ing comes from a coolant, which is heat­ed by a gas or sol­id fuel boil­er. The oper­a­tion of the sys­tem is not so depen­dent on elec­tric­i­ty, espe­cial­ly when using a wood or coal boil­er.

The stan­dard instal­la­tion of a water floor pro­vides for its lay­ing in a con­crete screed, the size of which is 5–7 cm. This lim­it­ed its instal­la­tion in frame hous­es, where it is tech­ni­cal­ly dif­fi­cult and imprac­ti­cal to fill the floor or ceil­ing with a cement-sand mor­tar. There­fore, a more inno­v­a­tive sys­tem was invent­ed — a light water floor, which is car­ried out with­out a screed.

It has a num­ber of advan­tages:

  • low­er weight of the struc­ture, which allows the instal­la­tion of a warm floor in a frame or wood­en house
  • the sys­tem is ready for oper­a­tion imme­di­ate­ly after instal­la­tion;
  • small­er thick­ness of the floor lay­er;
  • Pos­si­bil­i­ty of cus­tom-made.

There are two types of light under­floor heat­ing:

  • wood;
  • poly­styrene foam.

The cost of a wood­en sys­tem is cheap­er, but its instal­la­tion is more labo­ri­ous. Used for instal­la­tion on lags. The thick­ness of the struc­ture is small and does not car­ry an addi­tion­al load on the struc­ture of the house. For greater effi­cien­cy, a heater with reflec­tive foil is addi­tion­al­ly installed on the wood­en floor.

Installing bea­cons when installing a water floor

To pre­vent the direc­tion of warm air down­wards, a light under­floor heat­ing sys­tem with expand­ed poly­styrene is used. Alu­minum plates are fixed on its soft lay­er, and on top the struc­ture is cov­ered with a mois­ture-resis­tant gyp­sum-fiber sheet.

To con­trol the water floor sys­tem, bulky addi­tion­al equip­ment is used, which allows you to turn off the sys­tem in each room sep­a­rate­ly.

Installation of different types of underfloor heating

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Elec­tric under­floor heat­ing is mount­ed in sev­er­al ways:

  • cable;
  • heat­ing mats;
  • infrared mats and film.

Each of these meth­ods has some dif­fer­ences. A warm floor using cables can be placed inside the screed or laid on a board­walk. The infrared film can be placed direct­ly under the fin­ished floor cov­er­ing.

The oper­a­tion of the sys­tem is con­trolled by a ther­mo­stat. There­fore, instal­la­tion work begins pre­cise­ly with its instal­la­tion on the wall. Mount it on the wall, at a dis­tance of 30 cm from the floor sur­face. The tem­per­a­ture con­troller is placed in a hole on the wall sur­face and chan­nels for cable lay­ing are brought to it.

If there is high humid­i­ty in the room where the cable floor will be installed, the ther­mo­stat should be moved to anoth­er room.

The sur­face on which the cable elec­tric floor will be installed is cov­ered with plas­tic wrap and heat-insu­lat­ing mate­r­i­al. Then a rein­forc­ing mesh is laid on which the cable is attached.

Cable floor instal­la­tion dia­gram

The out­put of the heat­ing cable is con­nect­ed to the ther­mo­stat and the sys­tem is checked for oper­abil­i­ty. Then a screed is poured in a thin lay­er.

The elec­tri­cal sys­tem of a warm floor in a frame house is installed on wood­en logs. A lay­er of water­proof­ing and a heat-reflect­ing lay­er of spe­cial foil are spread under them. On the logs, in the places where the sys­tem is laid, cuts are made, into which the cable is laid, in any of the ways.

From above, to pro­tect the under­floor heat­ing sys­tem, a fine ply­wood or chip­board coat­ing is laid, and then the fin­ish­ing floor.

The device of a water heat­ed floor in any frame house is car­ried out in two ways. The first of these is a float­ing screed device, the thick­ness of which should not exceed 5 cm. The struc­ture of the house must with­stand this load with­out prob­lems.

Instal­la­tion of the floor “snake”

Fill­ing the floor begins with the instal­la­tion of a water­proof­ing lay­er. It is laid on the rough base of the floor. For these pur­pos­es, use a plas­tic film. It is spread out on the floor with an over­lap. The strips of mate­r­i­al are attached to the wall and between them­selves with mount­ing tape.

The film serves to pre­vent the absorp­tion of mois­ture from the solu­tion by the rough base and inter­feres with its adhe­sion to con­crete.

The next step is the instal­la­tion of a heat-insu­lat­ing lay­er. Apply any roll insu­la­tion and heat-reflect­ing foil. A rein­forc­ing mesh is spread over this lay­er and a damper tape is glued to the wall.

Way of lay­ing water pipes

With a large area of ​​u200bu200bthe room (more than 40 sq. M.), It is divid­ed into sev­er­al inde­pen­dent parts, where the pipe con­tours are laid sep­a­rate­ly.

The tubes them­selves are placed in two ways: snake or snail. In the con­di­tions of a frame house, lay­ing is done in incre­ments of 10–15 cen­time­ters.

Water cir­cuits are attached to the rein­forc­ing mesh with clamps so that they do not move when poured.

After com­plete instal­la­tion of the sys­tem, it is test­ed for tight­ness. To do this, the sys­tem is filled with water and left for a day. At a con­stant lev­el of pres­sure in the pipes, the screed is poured.

For this, bea­cons are set up, along which the cement-sand mor­tar will be poured. They begin to pour the screed from the oppo­site wall from the door. When the mor­tar sets, the bea­cons are removed, and the voids are filled with liq­uid cement mor­tar. Excess pieces of plas­tic film are removed.

The float­ing screed, the cre­ation of which was described above, has no con­tact with either the wood­en floor or the same walls of the house. There­fore, the tree will not be sub­ject to the process­es of expan­sion and shrink­age, which can lead to dam­age to the frame house.

Instal­la­tion of a wood­en floor heat­ing sys­tem

On a wood­en floor­ing, a warm floor sys­tem is mount­ed as fol­lows. The ini­tial stage is the lay­ing of a lay­er of poly­eth­yl­ene film on the base. Then spread the insu­la­tion — foil poly­styrene foam.

Then a frame for the water cir­cuit is made from the boards. To do this, grooves for tubes are cut in the boards. Lay­ing is car­ried out with a min­i­mum step. From above, the water floor sys­tem is cov­ered with a met­al sheet for a more even dis­tri­b­u­tion of the radi­at­ed heat. The next lay­er is sheets of ply­wood or chip­board, on which the fin­ish­ing floor­ing is laid. The sys­tem must be checked for tight­ness by pres­sure test­ing.

The device of dry polystyrene screed under the laminate

Much has been said above that a stan­dard screed is not quite suit­able for a wood­en house.

One of the inno­v­a­tive options for installing a warm floor under a lam­i­nate in a frame house is the use of a dry poly­styrene screed. It is car­ried out in sev­er­al stages.

First, light poly­styrene blocks are laid on the floor. They are inter­con­nect­ed by lock­ing mech­a­nisms that are on each pan­el. In a room up to 40 sq. m. instal­la­tion is car­ried out in a few hours due to the light weight and con­ve­nient dimen­sions of poly­styrene foam blocks.

Using Sty­ro­foam Blocks

Then, flex­i­ble tubes are installed on this base in the pre­pared grooves. The scheme of their lay­ing can be dif­fer­ent: snake, spi­ral, snail and oth­ers. After the final instal­la­tion of the pipes, they are hydrauli­cal­ly test­ed. The pur­pose of this event is to iden­ti­fy leaks and oth­er sys­tem errors.

At the next stage, spe­cial plates are laid on the sur­face of the poly­styrene blocks, which dis­trib­ute heat and install a water­proof­ing mate­r­i­al.

The final stage con­sists in lay­ing the lam­i­nate on the pro­duced dry screed.

Rules for the operation of a warm floor

Under­floor heat­ing sys­tems, regard­less of their type, are char­ac­ter­ized by low oper­at­ing costs. They do not need spe­cial main­te­nance, and the ser­vice life itself is tens of years.

“Pie” under­floor heat­ing

If the elec­tri­cal ele­ments of the sys­tem are dam­aged, they do not pose a threat to human life, but their replace­ment is a very trou­ble­some busi­ness.

A sys­tem of water and elec­tric under­floor heat­ing will serve you well if you fol­low some rec­om­men­da­tions for prop­er instal­la­tion and ensur­ing opti­mal work­ing con­di­tions:

  • The first impor­tant fac­tor for the opti­mal oper­a­tion of the sys­tem is its pow­er para­me­ters. A com­mon mis­take is to install cable under­floor heat­ing in a low or high capac­i­ty screed. The cable lay­ing step depends on the pow­er. With its low val­ue (up to 100 W per cubic meter), it is 16 cm. In this case, the floor heat­ing will occur in uneven lin­ear stripes. If the pow­er is high­er than nec­es­sary (from 190 watts per cubic meter), the lay­ing step may be less than 6 cm. This will lead to over­heat­ing of the turns pass­ing near­by, and the fail­ure of the sys­tem.
  • A warm floor is installed under the floor sur­face, on which there will be no fur­ni­ture, large house­hold appli­ances, plumb­ing. The lack of uni­form heat trans­fer can lead to over­heat­ing of the joints of the sys­tem and its break­down.
  • For the under­floor heat­ing sys­tem, you should use the fin­ish­ing floor cov­er­ing that is com­bined with it. For exam­ple, car­pet, lam­i­nate, linoleum, porce­lain stoneware and ceram­ic tiles. It is not advis­able to install a mate­r­i­al with low ther­mal con­duc­tiv­i­ty on a warm floor. The heat gen­er­at­ed by the tubes or cable will be reflect­ed, caus­ing the sys­tem to over­heat.

It is nec­es­sary to prop­er­ly use the ther­mo­stat in the elec­tric type of under­floor heat­ing, pre­vent­ing it from work­ing under heavy load. With­out this ele­ment, it is strict­ly for­bid­den to use the sys­tem. For reli­able and durable oper­a­tion of the warm floor, it is rec­om­mend­ed to take breaks in its oper­a­tion.

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