Gas boiler plants are the most popular devices for heating and creating hot water supply for private and multi-apartment buildings. This equipment is functional, reliable and with proper care can serve its owner for decades. But, any technique has an unpleasant property to break, and at the most inopportune moment.
According to the safety rules, the repair of gas boilers must be carried out by personnel who have been trained and have a gas management permit for this. There are cases when a gas boiler repairman is not “at hand” or a breakdown of the boiler plant is not related to the “gas components” of the heating system (CO). Knowing the main causes of breakdowns of a gas boiler, you can always repair it on your own, without involving expensive specialists in this process.
What do you need to know?
Before you start self-repairing a gas boiler at home, you need to familiarize yourself with the main components of the boiler installation and automation, since it is the safety group that most often causes the failure of the gas boiler.
- Thrust sensor — reacts to flue gas temperature changes. The operation of the boiler automation due to the lack of traction occurs when the temperature of the exhaust gases rises above 75 ° C.
- A safety valve, or, as experts call it, a blast valve. This device dumps excess coolant when the set pressure threshold is exceeded.
- Thermostat (limit). Even by the name, the purpose of the device is clear: control over the maximum temperature of the coolant in the circuit of the boiler plant.
- The electrode responsible for controlling the flame in the combustion chamber. In the absence of a flame, the combustion chamber is filled with gas. Even one spark is enough to cause an explosion of the boiler plant. To prevent this from happening, the electrode gives a command to the controller, which, in turn, controls the gas valve, shutting off the fuel supply to the burner.
In turbocharged heating equipment, another element is installed that belongs to the safety group — this is a monostat, which is responsible for the speed of exhaust gases. This device is very useful in case of deterioration of smoke removal due to a clogged chimney or an air turbine failure.
Important! Automation is responsible for the correct operation of the gas boiler. We strongly do not recommend repairing automation, replacing its components and setting up their work on your own. It is best to entrust the repair and maintenance of gas boilers to specialists.
There is a list of problems in gas boilers, most of which any home master can handle.
Important! If you smell gas or notice smoke in the boiler room, immediately turn off the gas supply to the boiler plant, turn off the power to the equipment, open the windows and leave the room until the gas service specialists arrive.
Experts rightly consider the heat exchanger to be the component that needs the most maintenance. The first problem is soot deposits on the coil, which significantly reduces heat transfer. The second problem is more serious — scale, which (when using hard water) settling on the inner surfaces of the pipeline, reduces its flow area, and, consequently, the circulation of the coolant.
With a decrease in the cross section of the coil, the following increases significantly:
- dynamic pressure in the boiler circuit (causes problems with seals and leaks at the junction of the pipeline and elements).
- load on the circulation pump (may lead to complete failure).
Self-repair of gas heating boilers must begin with cleaning the heat exchanger from soot. To carry out this operation, you should “arm yourself” with a paint brush and a metal sponge (kitchen sample).
Bearings are the most problematic part of any fan. Due to the increase in the coefficient of friction in the bearing, the heating increases and the speed of rotation of the rotor, and hence the blades, is significantly reduced. There is another reason for the heating of the housing associated with a decrease in the performance of an air turbine — an inter-turn circuit.
In the first case, repairs can be done by hand by spinning the device and lubricating the bearing with “graphite”, or any other high-temperature-resistant grease. In case of problems with the motor winding, it is unlikely that it will be possible to solve this issue without the intervention of specialists.
Settings are a “trouble” that can affect the owners of almost all volatile boiler plants, regardless of the manufacturer and brand of equipment. The problem may be in the voltage drop, which led to the failure of the settings. But, most often — the boiler starts to work inadequately after the intervention of the owner or “unfortunate repairmen” from the nearest workshop.
Tip: Self-repair of the control board of a gas boiler is a thankless task: any problem associated with electronics can lead to failure of the boiler installation or, worse, to an emergency. Entrust competent adjustment of the boiler to professionals.
Why does the boiler not turn on?
Quite often, the boiler does not start due to a clogged chimney. Solve the problem simply by disassembling the chimney into its components, and cleaning them of debris and soot.
Tip: if you do not want to wash furniture, floors, walls and ceilings of the boiler room from soot, as well as a cat that has run into the room, perform all disassembly and cleaning operations with the vacuum cleaner turned on.
The boiler may not turn on due to failure or incorrect operation of the gas valve. Diagnostics can be carried out quite simply: it is necessary to determine whether the boiler is connected to the mains and whether gas is supplied to the burner. If everything is in order, then the problem is in the control board or in the valve. Repairing the gas valve of a gas boiler with your own hands is an operation, although not the most difficult, but extremely responsible, which can only be entrusted to professionals.
And as a conclusion: it should be remembered that the best measure to prevent boiler breakdowns is regular maintenance. It is best to do it twice a year: before and after the heating season.