It’s not only warm by the fireplace!

Chemines Godin
The wood hearth needs to be fed with fuel, which is log­i­cal to store some­where near­by. It is con­ve­nient to clean the fire­place with a spe­cial tool
Reignoux Cre­ations Chemines Godin
In a closed fire­place, wood does not burn out as quick­ly as in an open one. One book­mark of well-dried birch logs is enough for 5–9h of the fire­place. That is, you will have to load fuel into the fire­place insert no more than 3–4 times a day.
Spartherm Feuerung­stech­nik
CheminEs Philippe Ribs are made on the ele­ments of the fur­naces in con­tact with the heat­ed air to improve heat trans­fer (a). Some mod­els of fur­naces are equipped direct­ly at the fac­to­ry with con­vec­tion cham­bers (b)
Fire­box with con­vec­tion cham­ber, fan for air sup­ply and air ducts
Chemines Seguin Duteriez
Air path ele­ments for fire­place air heat­ing with forced con­vec­tion
Reignoux Cre­ations For dec­o­rat­ing air out­lets in fire­place heat­ing sys­tems- spec­tac­u­lar ven­ti­la­tion grilles
Chemines Godin
The fur­nace (fire­place-boil­er) for the water heat­ing sys­tem is cov­ered with heat-insu­lat­ing mate­r­i­al to reduce heat loss for air heat­ing
Chemines Godin
In fire­places with a water jack­et, the fur­nace space from the out­side is “washed” not by room air, but by the heat car­ri­er of the heat­ing sys­tem.
“Return” (a) is con­nect­ed to the low­er zone of the water jack­et (b) of the fire­place, and heat is sup­plied to the sys­tem from its upper zone (in)
Fire­place boil­er WK 3
Fire­place stoves with water heat exchang­er- an excel­lent solu­tion for heat­ing two or three rooms. Some mod­els can heat water for domes­tic hot water

Nowa­days, the choice of heat­ing sys­tem for a coun­try house- not an easy task. AndIt is no coin­ci­dence, because the range of equip­ment is huge. One of the less com­mon, but nev­er­the­less very inter­est­ing ways to heat such a home - the use of a fire­place as a heat source for two or more rooms at the same time.

Let’s make a reser­va­tion right away: fire­place heat­ing today is not the most effi­cient and con­ve­nient to use. A prop­er­ly designed hot water heat­ing sys­tem based on a gas boil­er is more eco­nom­i­cal and eas­i­er to main­tain. There­fore, the own­ers of most coun­try hous­es use fire­places as a back­up source of heat. How­ev­er, for a dacha where gas is not sup­plied, and in cold weath­er, the own­ers vis­it on hol­i­days and only occa­sion­al­ly- on week­ends, such a sys­tem is suit­able as the main heat­ing of all rooms. ATon a damp chilly evening, you can quick­ly raise the tem­per­a­ture in the house and main­tain it at this lev­el for quite a long time with­out any prob­lems.

Is the game worth the candle?

Fire­place heat­ing sys­tems for sev­er­al rooms are built on the basis of fire­places with a closed fur­nace space. Now they are pop­u­lar all over the world, espe­cial­ly in West­ern Europe. Most often, such fire­box­es are made in the form of built-in cas­settes (made of cast iron or steel). They are equipped with doors with quartz glass that can with­stand tem­per­a­tures up to 800 C. In addi­tion, there is a wide range of fire­place stoves suit­able for the same pur­pose. With the door closed, you can reg­u­late the flow of air enter­ing the fur­nace by chang­ing the inten­si­ty of fuel com­bus­tion (there­fore, one por­tion of fire­wood is enough for the whole night). The effi­cien­cy of such fire­places- 75–91%, they are rel­a­tive­ly fire­proof (shoot­ing coals do not fly into the room).

Fire­places in the mir­ror of num­bers

Reignoux Cre­ationsIt is gen­er­al­ly accept­ed that 1 kW of ther­mal pow­er is enough to heat 10m2 rooms with a ceil­ing height of 3m. That is, a 12 kW fur­nace should the­o­ret­i­cal­ly heat 120m2. How­ev­er, this requires ide­al con­di­tions (wood humid­i­ty - 15–20%, chim­ney of opti­mal design, good ther­mal insu­la­tion of the house andetc.). There­fore, for exam­ple, about a fur­nace with a rat­ed pow­er of 12 kW, we can say that it will sure­ly heat only 90–100m2 area. Tonote: the pow­er of the fur­naces is deter­mined exper­i­men­tal­ly at the fac­to­ry.

To deliv­er heat from the fur­nace to dif­fer­ent rooms, two types of sys­tems are used.- air and water. ATin the first case, the rooms receive it in the form of hot air streams- there is their air heat­ing. In the sec­ond- the coolant is heat­ed in the fur­nace, which is then sup­plied to the radi­a­tors installed in the rooms. The max­i­mum area of ​​all rooms that can be heat­ed with a sin­gle fire­place is 170–250m2. Alas, the max­i­mum pow­er of the fur­naces is not unlim­it­ed.- usu­al­ly it is equal to 24–30 kW.

Let us briefly dwell on the fea­tures of air and water fire­place heat­ing sys­tems, which are used for heat­ing sev­er­al rooms.

Attention air!

Air fire­place heat­ing sys­tems are bet­ter known in EU than water sys­tems. ATdur­ing their oper­a­tion, all the air that fills the heat­ed rooms is repeat­ed­ly dri­ven near the heat­ed room to about 300 With a closed fire­place insert, result­ing in heat. The fire­place insert is placed in a con­vec­tion cham­ber (called a warm air dis­trib­u­tor or cas­ing)- between them there is a gap through which the heat­ed air moves. There are numer­ous pro­tru­sions on the side, rear and top parts of the fur­nace, increas­ing the area of ​​heat exchange with the flow­ing air. It is bet­ter to pur­chase a fire­box togeth­er with a con­vec­tion cham­ber (in the form of a prod­uct ful­ly equipped with the man­u­fac­tur­er). But some­times it is more prof­itable to buy a fire­box and a cas­ing sep­a­rate­ly from a fire­place sup­pli­er. If a fac­to­ry-made con­vec­tion cham­ber is not pro­vid­ed for the fire­box, the fire­place frame itself can act as its role, in the niche of which the fire­box is installed. The chim­ney is cov­ered with a cas­ing made of heat-insu­lat­ed dry­wall. ATthe space between the fire­box and the niche, air enters through the hole under and above the fire­box.

ATin air fire­place heat­ing sys­tems with nat­ur­al con­vec­tion, cold air enters the low­er part of the space between the fire­box and the con­vec­tion cham­ber from the room where the fire­place is locat­ed. As it ris­es, it heats up. One part of the warm air is sent to the fire­place room, and the oth­er part goes through two or four short air ducts to the rooms adja­cent or locat­ed above the floor.

In an air fire­place heat­ing sys­tem with nat­ur­al con­vec­tion, the air is heat­ed by pass­ing near the hot sur­faces of the fire­place insert (a) and chim­ney (b) (the process is iden­ti­cal to air heat­ing in a water heat­ing con­vec­tor). through the vents (in) it enters the fire­place room and near­by rooms

The con­vec­tion sys­tem is inde­pen­dent of elec­tric­i­ty, silent. To dis­trib­ute warm air through­out the rooms, large-sec­tion air ducts are need­ed to reduce aero­dy­nam­ic drag. They must be made of non-com­bustible mate­ri­als (for exam­ple, gal­va­nized steel with a thick­ness of 0.5–1mm). It is manda­to­ry to pro­tect the places of pas­sage of chan­nels near com­bustible struc­tur­al ele­ments of the build­ing with fire-resis­tant insu­la­tion. This method of heat­ing allows you to heat up to two or four rooms, but in gen­er­al the effi­cien­cy of the sys­tem depends on the lay­out of the house. The length of the air ducts from the fire­place to the rooms should be no more than 2–3m, bends and nar­row­ing are unde­sir­able, U- and U‑shaped sec­tions are unac­cept­able. It is impos­si­ble to heat rooms locat­ed low­er than the fire­place, or far from it. Warm air is brought into the premis­es through met­al grilles, which are placed under the ceil­ing in rooms locat­ed on the same floor with a fire­place, and on the upper floors- at a height of 20–50cm from floor. You can equip a fire­place heat­ing sys­tem with nat­ur­al con­vec­tion based on any closed fire­box, for exam­ple Chemines Seguin Duteriez, Chemines Godin, IGC Franc Rene Brisach (all- France), Piazzetta (Italy) andoth­er cost of air ducts (mate­ri­als and work)- 15–50% of the price of the fur­nace, which is 15–170 thou­sand rubles.

In fire­place air heat­ing sys­tems with forced con­vec­tion, the air fill­ing the house is repeat­ed­ly dri­ven near the hot fire­box (a) using a spe­cial fan (b). Heat­ed air through heat-insu­lat­ed ducts (in) is blown into all heat­ed rooms

There are sys­tems with forced con­vec­tion. ATair is sucked into the space between the fur­nace and the con­vec­tion cham­ber and forced into the heat­ed rooms by one or more duct fans. Heat is trans­port­ed over a dis­tance of up to 10m (includ­ing rooms on the floor below). It is per­mis­si­ble to use air ducts of small diam­e­ter, includ­ing flex­i­ble heat-insu­lat­ed ven­ti­la­tion ducts. Sys­tems pro­vide uni­for­mi­ty of heat­ing, fil­ter and humid­i­fy heat­ed air. There are no prob­lems when lay­ing air ducts, which can be led to places where warm air exits, even in the under­ground space. Among the short­com­ings, first of all, it should be not­ed the noise of the fans (from 35dB) and a high­er price (one fan costs 3–150 $).

Such sys­tems are opti­mal for space heat­ing in a house for sea­son­al liv­ing, which is rarely vis­it­ed in win­ter. The main thing is that there are no inter­rup­tions in the sup­ply of elec­tric­i­ty. You can­not use a forced con­vec­tion sys­tem if there is no elec­tric­i­ty: the fans may fail.

If there is no room for a fan on the fire­box or con­vec­tion cham­ber, it is installed in the attic. FROMwith an air out­let in the upper part of the con­vec­tion cham­ber, it is “con­nect­ed” with a heat-insu­lat­ed air duct. From the fan to each heat­ed room there is an indi­vid­ual chan­nel for sup­ply­ing warm air. In the attic there is also a fil­ter box for clean­ing heat­ed air and some­times- a humid­i­fi­er to increase its rel­a­tive humid­i­ty. The fan speed con­trol unit is placed in the fire­place room on the wall.

Spe­cial cen­trifu­gal fans with a capac­i­ty of 300–600m3/h with one inlet con­nec­tion and two or more- at the out­let, flex­i­ble heat-insu­lat­ed air ducts, wall-mount­ed air out­let grilles, sim­i­lar in style to a fire­box or fire­place stove, are sup­plied by almost all man­u­fac­tur­ers of sol­id fuel fire­places. ATinclud­ing, for exam­ple, Supra (France), Chem­inees Seguin Duteriez, Chem­inees godin andetc. It is worth men­tion­ing Dar­co (Poland), which spe­cial­izes in com­po­nents for fire­place heat dis­tri­b­u­tion sys­tems.

ATSome fur­naces have a fan installed as an option (pur­chased sep­a­rate­ly). For exam­ple, any fire­box of the com­pa­ny Piazzetta It is designed in such a way that a spe­cial pre­fix for forced air sup­ply Mul­ti­fuo­co can be installed under it. Its fan capac­i­ty is 300m3/h The oper­a­tion of the sys­tem is con­trolled by the remote con­trol, which turns on the fan, changes the speed.

ATin cas­es where it is nec­es­sary to reduce the num­ber of instal­la­tion oper­a­tions when orga­niz­ing air fire­place heat­ing, a ready-to-install monoblock is con­ve­nient- fur­nace with con­vec­tion cham­ber and built-in fan- one or more. So, Ecostar fire­places (EdilKa­minItaly) equipped with two fans- this increas­es the reli­a­bil­i­ty of the sys­tem. Heat­ed air is sup­plied through air ducts made of alu­minum pipes. The fans are con­trolled by a three-posi­tion switch, select­ing between slow oper­a­tion, fast oper­a­tion or stand­by. To pro­tect against over­heat­ing, the fire­place is equipped with a sen­sor: when the tem­per­a­ture reach­es 50 C, it will auto­mat­i­cal­ly turn on the fans at a slow speed and also turn them off auto­mat­i­cal­ly when the tem­per­a­ture drops below 50 FROM.

hot rapids

Water fire­place heat­ing sys­tems remain a nov­el­ty for Euro­pean con­sumers, since there are very few mod­els of fire­places suit­able for their cre­ation on sale. Such sys­tems make it pos­si­ble to effec­tive­ly heat remote parts of the build­ing and accu­mu­late the heat of burn­ing fuel, heat­ing the coolant (antifreeze is used in tem­po­rary res­i­dences). Such instal­la­tions can oper­ate both inde­pen­dent­ly and in con­junc­tion with gas, oil and elec­tric boil­ers, serve to heat water in the DHW sys­tem andoth­ers

Grav­i­ty (non-pump) fire­place heat­ing sys­tems are built on the basis of closed fire­place inserts with built-in heat exchang­ers (the so-called water-jack­et­ed fire­places) and water radi­a­tors with low hydraulic resis­tance. ATthey use the abil­i­ty of water to change its den­si­ty at dif­fer­ent tem­per­a­tures (due to which the cir­cu­la­tion of the coolant occurs). Advan­tages of such a sys­tem- sim­plic­i­ty of device and oper­a­tion; inde­pen­dence from the sup­ply of elec­tri­cal ener­gy; lack of cir­cu­la­tion pumps, noise and vibra­tion; dura­bil­i­ty (with prop­er oper­a­tion, the sys­tem can func­tion for 15–20 years or more with­out major repairs). Among the short­com­ings- reduced range (up to 20m hor­i­zon­tal­ly), due to low cir­cu­la­tion pres­sure; sol­id diam­e­ter pipes for the coolant; the inabil­i­ty to heat the floors locat­ed below the fire­place room. Such a sys­tem heats the coolant for 20–30 min­utes, and it also cools down quick­ly (depend­ing on the heat capac­i­ty of the house). There­fore, it is bet­ter to use heat­ing devices with a large heat capac­i­ty in the sys­tem, such as cast-iron radi­a­tors. Toone fire­box can con­nect from 2–3 to 15 radi­a­tors.

In grav­i­ty heat­ing sys­tems, radi­a­tors (a) can be locat­ed on the same floor as the fire­place (b) or high­er. To com­pen­sate for the expan­sion of the coolant in the sys­tem, an expan­sion tank is required (in)

Fire­place with water jack­etis, for exam­ple, 851 CH (Chemines Godin), which runs on wood and is ide­al for use as a heat gen­er­a­tor in grav­i­ty heat­ing sys­tems, costs 120 — 1400$. Inex­pen­sive mod­els (price- about 400 $) are pro­duced in Poland and Europe.

The cost of wood-burn­ing stoves with a built-in heat exchang­er for grav­i­ty heat­ing sys­tems is 17–1300$. Their pow­er does not exceed 14–15 kW, while most of it is trans­mit­ted through a water heat­ing sys­tem, and a small­er part is used to heat the air “wash­ing” the hot sur­faces of the fur­nace. Enbra (Czech Repub­lic) offers Olymp and Afrodi­ta fire­place stoves with built-in heat exchang­ers with a max­i­mum pow­er of 4–6 kW. The Ecoidro mod­el is also very inter­est­ing in terms of design (EdilKa­min).

Fire­place heat­ing sys­tems with forced cir­cu­la­tion of the coolant are also used. Their dis­ad­van­tage- depen­dence on the avail­abil­i­ty of elec­tric­i­ty in the house, nec­es­sary for the oper­a­tion of the cir­cu­la­tion pump. But it is thanks to the pump that the coolant is deliv­ered to any part of the build­ing, includ­ing the low­er floors. The sys­tem will quick­ly raise the tem­per­a­ture in the rooms to com­fort­able val­ues ​​and will main­tain it at this lev­el. When installing radi­a­tors, you can get by with pipes of small diam­e­ter (10–15mm), use col­lec­tor wiring of pipes through­out the premis­es, use any heat­ing devices, includ­ing those with increased hydraulic resis­tance. BUTif the fire­place is equipped with a plate heat exchang­er, the house can be pro­vid­ed not only with heat, but also with hot water at two points of water intake (for exam­ple, in the bath­room and kitchen).

It's not only warm by the fireplace!

“Return” (a) is con­nect­ed to the low­er zone of the water jack­et (b) of the fire­place, and heat is sup­plied to the sys­tem from its upper zone (in)

If you plan to heat the fire­place with wood, it is most con­ve­nient to pur­chase a fire­place insert or fire­place stove, which the man­u­fac­tur­er has ful­ly equipped with every­thing that is required to orga­nize the water sup­ply to the radi­a­tors (pump, expan­sion tank, nec­es­sary automa­tion andt.etc.),- for exam­ple, one of the fire­place inserts Jol­ly-Mec (Italy). But you can pur­chase com­po­nents for the sys­tem and sep­a­rate­ly.

Pel­let fire­places used as a heat gen­er­a­tor for a water heat­ing sys­tem are usu­al­ly equipped with every­thing nec­es­sary to con­nect to radi­a­tors. To cre­ate a pel­let-fired water fire­place heat­ing sys­tem in the house, an Eco­log­i­ca Idro stove (Atmos, Czech Repub­lic), equipped with a 8.5 kW water heat exchang­er, is suit­able. It is equipped with an expan­sion tank with a vol­ume of 12l and cir­cu­la­tion pump; there is also a remote con­trol that allows you to adjust the pow­er and tem­per­a­ture in the room with­out get­ting up from your favorite chair. Price- about 1500$. Sim­i­lar equip­ment- pel­let stoves-fire­places Ter­ma water SFT (FACI, Italy) with a capac­i­ty of 18–28 kW, the cost of which ranges from 200–207 thou­sand rubles. The Hidro­cop­per mod­el (Eco­for­est, Spain) with a capac­i­ty of 5–18 kW costs 1400$. Among the pel­let fire­places built into the fire­place frame, ready for con­nec­tion to a water heat­ing sys­tem, it should be not­ed high­ly effi­cient mod­els of fire­box­es Serenis­si­ma (Italy) for about 240 thou­sand rubles. In addi­tion to pel­let fire­places with a water heat exchang­er, you can pur­chase a device with built-in cen­trifu­gal fans for air heat­ing.

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