The comfort of residential buildings is increasing all the time, to a large extent this is facilitated by such an innovative heating system solution as “warm floors”. The heat coming from the floor creates a special atmosphere of habitation and comfort in the room.
The modern market offers several basic varieties of such floors, and water — structurally is the most promising model.
To equip it, you will need pipes that ensure the movement of the heat carrier and additional components that increase the overall efficiency of the system. To simplify installation and make it convenient — use mats for insulation.
What are mats for?
The functional effect of the water floor depends on how well and technically the thermal insulation system was arrangedas well as from the correct laying of heat pipes on top of it.
It does not make sense to refuse it, since then most of the energy will go to heating the floor slabs or the foundation. Thermal insulation helps to correct heat flows in the required direction. If the heat goes up, then unnecessary energy consumption is prevented.
It is also important that the mats take on a fairly large load. It consists of the gravity of the pipes themselves, which are filled with a heat carrier, from the mass of the screed blocking the pipeline, the finishing floor covering and dynamic external loads that are inevitable after the start of operation.
The material used to create the substrate must be very dense in order to resist and not deform. Its minimum allowable density is 35 kg/m³.
Mats are of several types.
Manufactured from expanded polyurethane foam. They are used in cases where the floor is laid as an addition to the central heating system. The specific name of the material is penofol, it is on one side that it is covered with a layer of foil.
It is laid with foil to the top, and heating pipes are placed on it. Such products are not suitable for arranging a warm water floor if the housing is located on the ground floor and there are basements under it. It makes no sense to use them in the repair of a private one-story house.
Under such conditions, their efficiency in terms of heat retention is minimal, which means that the entire system will be inefficient.
To fix such mats, you need to purchase additional fasteners.for example, a metal coarse mesh, a set of clamps, clips or staples.
They can also be classified as a foil substrate for a water-heated floor.they are made of expanded polystyrene, but at the same time it is high-density, from 30–35 kg / m³.
The product also includes a layer of foil and a layer of polymer film with protective function. This film has special markings that will help when laying pipes. This type of mats is quite effective as a heat-insulating material.
The density is such that the pipe clamps are held very securely. A screed will lie well on top of such a substrate.which will not crack the setting.
Film mats are used to create underfloor heating where it will be the primary source of heat. An additional lamella system ensures excellent styling, so the heat is retained for a long time.
One of the best thermal insulation mats for underfloor heating. Their thickness ranges from 40–50 mm, which allows them to be used as a substrate. An important parameter is the high density, from 40 kg/m³. Perfect for rooms in which it is planned to make the floor the only element of the heating system.
The material is practically not subject to wear and deformation. Pipes are attached to them using special plastic fasteners. Minus — before laying pipes, the master must personally apply the markup.
After laying, the substrate is covered with a layer of polyethylene, to prevent a chemical reaction at the moment of contact between the sheets and the cement-containing screed.
With bosses (profile)
The most used model of polystyrene foam substrate. They are made using the hydropellent stamping method, as a result of which bosses appear, peculiar protrusions that are arranged in even rows on the surface of the product.
Bosses make it possible to quickly lay pipes until the moment of test crimping and pouring with a screed. High-density slabs for underfloor heating are square in shape and have a thickness of 10 to 35 mm. The protrusions are low, about 25 mm in height, usually cubic or cylindrical, in the space between them a pipe fits freely.
The pipes are securely fixed and do not move when poured with a finishing screed. Available with and without laminate, the first ones have a layer of vapor barrier film coating on top.
Characteristics of expanded polystyrene
Its density should be 40 kg / m³ so that the products can withstand various mechanical loads. Expanded polystyrene has low thermal conductivity, it is only 0.037 to 0.052 W/m×K. This is necessary for good thermal insulation.
Products with lugs are able to absorb sounds and noises. The standard noise absorption rate is 24 dB with a layer thickness of 20 mm.
Reliable waterproofing is provided by laminate and centering fasteners located at the ends of each panel. They are necessary for laying out a continuous surface from individual elements. Profile mats for underfloor heating water perfectly interlock with each other, and this eliminates the possibility of the formation of suture cracks. Standard plate parameters are 1.0 × 1.0 or 0.8 × 0.6 m.
Benefits of using mats
If the mat is installed correctly, it can serve as an excellent soundproofing material. But there is a significant nuance — water heated floor should be absolutely safe for those who live below. Therefore, along with reliability and durability, such a criterion as waterproofing is valued. And the same layer is designed to protect the substrate itself from the damaging effects of the floor cement mortar.
There is an unprofessional opinion, whose supporters talk about the possibility of refusing mats when laying floors. But this position is erroneous, since heat losses will be so great that they will inevitably lead to significant financial losses.
If we consider the cost of all water floor systems as a whole, then the price of heaters is not so high. BUT a design made once and by the mind — one hundred percent will pay off during operation.
- All parts must be connected to each other. And under the sheets, regardless of their type, there must be a substrate made of a waterproofing film;
- Along the perimeter of the floor at the edge of the wall waterproofing film is fixed using a damper tape;
- Slabs are laid on top of the waterproofing, mats for a water-heated floor made of foam board must be fastened together with the help of locking mechanisms provided at the ends. If the weight and thickness of the insulation allow, then the plates can be additionally fixed with glue;
- It is strictly forbidden to use nails for fastening and so on, since this violates the integrity of the product and greatly reduces its strength;
- Flat plates without fasteners are laid very tightly and seated on a glue “cushion”. Foil products are glued with tape to achieve complete tightness;
- Once the sheets are fixed — start marking and laying the water circuit;
- The final stage — top coat for underfloor heating.
Prices and how to choose
Saving heat and energy speaks for itself, making water floor mats a well-founded purchase:
- Before purchasing a substrate, you need to demand from the seller all the documents, certifying not only the quality of the product, but also confirming its fire and environmental standards. Mats without such documents may be brand name fakes and will not be able to withstand the expected loads;
- It is better to choose those products that have a laminating layer is a guarantee of additional insulation. This coating adheres perfectly to both semi-dry and wet screed;
- The thickness of the mat is chosen, taking into account the thickness of the screed itself. and finish coating. It is necessary to pay attention to the thermal insulation in the room, since many ceilings already have a similar layer.
- Sometimes the design of a warm water floor allows you to purchase mats with bosses that do not have thermal insulation qualities. But in this case, their only plus is the reliable fixation of the pipeline system.
average price on mats for a warm water floor:
- REHAUGermany: from 8 dollars per item.
- OVENTROPGermany: from 1 dollars (roll substrate) to 12$ per product;
- EnergoflexEurope: from 20 rubles to 70 rubles per item.
After the decision was made to create a water floor, you need to carefully consider all the small details and nuances of working with this system. The purchase and installation of correctly selected mounting mats for a water-heated floor helps save a lot of money when heating your own home.
The main thing is to calculate all the parameters in advance and buy exactly what fits the given conditions.