In individual construction, sewerage is a complex set of engineering equipment designed for efficient and safe disposal of wastewater.
Its main purpose is to collect wastewater into a single highway and transport it for disposal.
But it is the high-quality preparation and arrangement of the sewerage system that largely determines the comfort in the house.
All pipes used in sewer systems are divided according to the material of manufacture, the length of a single element and the diameter. The most widely used pipes are made from the following materials.
Despite the fact that cast iron pipes have almost left the building materials market, if necessary, they can still be ordered today. Their main advantage is high mechanical strength.allowing you to lay shallow sewer lines even under the road.
However, a big the strength of cast iron is very unfortunately combined with high brittleness. At the same time, cast-iron drains silt up very quickly, require regular cleaning and are of considerable cost.
PVC (polyvinyl chloride)
Differs in low cost and acceptable operational characteristics. The main disadvantage of PVC is its high hardness. As a result, pipelines made of this material resonate very strongly and make noise when waste water passes through them.
With the strength of the material also leaves much to be desired. It is possible to lay PVC sewerage only in highly compacted soil or inside a protective box.
Pipes made of this material are distinguished by such qualities as:
- elasticitydue to which the polyethylene sewer, even after complete freezing, returns to its original geometry and can be further operated;
- insensitivity to chemical reagents;
- the possibility of laying in moving soils.
- softens at 80 degrees, what can lead to pipe deformation;
- great wear during the passage of abrasive particles.
Therefore, for sewerage systems, the option of pipes made of cross-linked polyethylene is more suitable. This material is more durable and able to withstand high temperatures without deformation and destruction.
For sewerage in a private house, polypropylene is of the greatest interest. It has a lot of advantages:
- acceptable cost;
- excellent wear resistanceallowing you not to worry when solid abrasive particles enter the sewer;
- softens only at 140 degreesx, allowing you to drain even boiling water into the sewer for as long as you like;
- resistant to chemicals. Only large volumes of concentrated acid can damage polypropylene pipes.
At the same time, with the external laying of polypropylene sewage, it should be well insulated. At temperatures below ‑5 degrees, the pipe will lose elasticity and may crack.
The diameter of the pipe in a private house depends on the purpose of the section of the highway:
- 40 or 50 mm for washbasin, kitchen sink, bathtub and other sanitary ware;
- 110 mm for the toilet, risers and mains.
The increased diameter of the pipe for connecting the toilet is necessary not only to simplify the descent of fecal masses. When the tank is completely drained through a narrow pipe, a vacuum effect may occur, which is fraught with disruption of the operation of all siphons in the system.
A sewerage scheme should be drawn up taking into account such factorshow:
- the expected volume of wastewater;
- soil characteristics;
- climatic features of the area (seasonal temperature changes, rainfall).
The system should consist of three main elements:
- internal sewer network;
- external highway;
- septic tank (cesspool).
Several rules apply to the calculation of sewer systems.
- When distributing sewer pipes, it is necessary to minimize the number of interchangesjoints and connections.
- If the house has several floors, then rooms with plumbing fixtures should be located one above the other. This will allow the use of common risers.
- The kitchen and bathroom are optimally located in adjacent roomsas close as possible to the sewer.
The diagram should show the exact location and characteristics of the following elements:
- sewer pipes with an indication of the materiallength and diameter;
- turning pointsbranches and inspection hatches;
- plumbing appliances;
- risers and collectors;
- branch lineb;
- septic tank.
As a result, the scheme of the sewer system should include the full amount of information necessary for its installation.
To install a septic tank on the site, preparation of a pit will be required. Its dimensions will be determined by the dimensions of the selected septic tank model and the characteristics of the soil. If the soil is very mobile, then the size of the pit should be increased by 25–40 cm. for each dimension.
This stock will allow pouring a concrete box for mechanical protection of the septic tank. The depth of the pit should be calculated so that the neck of the installed septic tank is flush with the ground level.
The depth of the trench under the sewer line should be less than 70–80 cm. This will keep it from freezing. In this case, the terrain should be taken into account. If the house is located much higher than the septic tank, then the trench near the foundation should be deeper. The minimum distance to the foundation of the building is 5 m.
The main pipe should be laid at a slight angle towards the septic tank. For this, the optimal increase in the depth of the trench should be about 3 mm per 1 m. Such a slope will ensure the unhindered passage of drains. With a smaller slope, there are congestion.
Exceeding the specified slope can lead to the fact that the water will drain too quickly into the septic tank, not having time to take fecal matter with it. This is also fraught with congestion.
To make it easier to control the depth of the trench, it is worth preparing a wooden beam with divisions in advance. Divisions are applied for certain distances from the foundation. For example, at two meters from the house, the depth should be 800, at four — 806, etc.
As you move away from home, the depth should always increase.. Its reduction in any area is unacceptable. Even a small “hump” will lead not only to difficulty in flow, but also to the appearance of an air lock, which will further worsen the situation.
Turns of the highway can also impede the flow. As far as possible, they should be avoided. If you can’t do without a bend, you should organize a turn of the maximum possible radius. At the turning point, it is desirable to arrange a revision well.
Particular attention should be paid to the depth of the sewer if it passes under a car park or road. In this case, it should be increased by several tens of centimeters.
To prevent the pipe from sinking into the ground, the bottom of the trench must be sealed with a sand cushion. The thickness of the pillow is 10–15 cm.
For medium and cold climatic zones, the sewer line must be insulated. As a heater, polyurethane foam or expanded polystyrene sheets with a shielding layer of foil can be used.
Particularly careful insulation is required for hatches in revision wells and collectors. In a fairly mild climate, insulation should be performed only for the upper part of the pipe.
Elements of the internal sewer network must be reduced to a common riser that acts as a collector. The optimal place for laying horizontal pipe sections is in the floor screed. In this case, it is desirable to give the pipe a slight slope.
The use of 90 degree elbows in sewer systems is not recommended. Pipe turns are best organized using several bends at 30 or 45 degrees.
Efficient ventilation for the sewerage system in a private house is necessary for several reasons.
- This will allow the septic tank to function normally. During the decomposition of wastewater, gases are released, the excess of which can stop this process. Ventilation will also contribute to gas removal.
- If the system is maintained at atmospheric pressure, then improve her performance. Without ventilation, water hammer and the appearance of vacuum zones are possible.
- Ventilated sewer can last longere than its hermetic version.
The easiest way to organize ventilation is to install a fan pipe, which is a vertical continuation of the riser. The upper cut of the fan pipe is displayed above the roof level at a distance of at least 70 cm. It is impossible to combine general ventilation in the house with a fan pipe.
Prices for materials and installation
Prices for materials for sewerage systems depend on their material of manufacture and linear dimensions. Roughly they will be as follows:
- PPR pipe for internal sewerage with a diameter of 110 mm, length 1 m — 830 rubles;
- the same with a diameter of 50 mm — 720 rubles;
- revision 50 mm — 1,5 dollars;
- plug 50 mm — 10 rubles;
- toilet connection unit 110 × 87 — 2 dollars;
- PVC pipe for external sewerage 5 m long — 12$;
- 300 l septic tank (Ecoprom Rostok Mini) — 370$.
The total cost of the system will depend on the number and distance of plumbing devices, as well as the distance to the septic tank.
If it is planned to involve third-party workers for the sewerage device, then the prices will be something like this:
- installation of internal sewerage — 175–620 rubles. for 1 linear meter;
- plumbing connection — from 2 dollars;
- installation of an external line 100 mm — 200–3,5 dollars. for 1 r.m.
When doing the work on your own, the price of installation will only be the time spent.
The topic of arranging individual sewerage is actively discussed on the network on thematic resources. Here are the most characteristic reviews from such systems:
Alla Litvinenko, Saratov:
A family of 5 people, a year ago they installed an autonomous sewage system. Now we don’t feel smells, and we don’t see sewage either.
Ivanna Knopaka, Kasimov:
We’ve had a septic tank for six years. There are no problems with sewerage, plus a septic tank provides technical water.
With apparent complexity, the arrangement of sewerage in a cottage is quite accessible to any homeowner. Understanding the principles of its work and observing the technology, you can even assemble it yourself. But if for one reason or another this does not work out, there is always the opportunity to seek help from specialists..