Solid fuel boiler for the house of the Czech company Viadrus

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Czech boiler in a private house

Heat­ing sys­tems dif­fer in range, oper­at­ing modes and types of basic ele­ments:

  1. heat source;
  2. heat gen­er­at­ing device;
  3. coolant (envi­ron­ment that trans­mits the gen­er­at­ed ener­gy).

The sol­id pro­pel­lant heat­ing heat­gen­er­a­tor heats the liq­uid heat car­ri­er used for heat­ing and hot water sup­ply. This heat­ing unit heats pri­vate hous­es and spa­cious cot­tages, out­build­ings and small pub­lic build­ings.

Advantages of solid fuel boilers

Sol­id fuel heat­ing heat gen­er­a­tors have a large num­ber of pos­i­tive qual­i­ties:

  1. deprive heat­ing of depen­dence on cen­tral­ized ener­gy sources (gas), tar­iffs for them, pres­sure in the main pipe, the state of the dis­tri­b­u­tion net­work;
  2. do not require thor­ough water treat­ment (as elec­tric — to pre­serve heat trans­fer from the sur­face of the heat­ing ele­ments);heating heat generators on solid fuel
  3. do not force to cre­ate a fuel sup­ply sys­tem (as for gas — from the main), install con­tain­ers for sev­er­al tons, for diesel fuel, fuel oil, an elec­tric pump for their con­tin­u­ous sup­ply;
  4. explo­sion-proofnot eas­i­ly flam­ma­ble (unlike gas, diesel);
  5. low­er oper­at­ing coststhan elec­tric, liq­uid fuel units, a kilo­watt-hour of pro­duced ther­mal ener­gy is cheap­er;
  6. from liq­uid fuel more envi­ron­men­tal­ly friend­ly;
  7. many mod­els not depen­dent on elec­tric­i­ty;
  8. do not react to air pol­lu­tion (unlike gas and liq­uid fuel), suc­cess­ful­ly heat unfin­ished premis­es;
  9. sol­id organ­ic fuel ash — fer­til­iz­er.

Types of solid fuel boilers for the home

The fuel used is the main cri­te­ri­on for divid­ing heat­ing boil­ers into types. Elec­tric­i­ty is used by elec­tric units, nat­ur­al gas — gas, fuel oil, diesel fuel — liq­uid fuel. Sol­id fuel units “feed” on wood, peat and prod­ucts from them, coal (stone, brown), coke.

The prin­ci­ple of oper­a­tion of the sys­tem is sim­ple.

principle of operation

Fuel is fed into the com­bus­tion cham­ber, ignites. If there is a gas gen­er­a­tor, then it turns into com­bustible gas­es — it is gasi­fied.

A torch of burn­ing gas is sent to the tank, heats the water, which cir­cu­lates in the sys­tem by grav­i­ty or under pres­sure (due to the pump). Boil­ers with a gas gen­er­a­tor are called pyrol­y­sis. Less ash remains in them, soot is almost not formed. The effi­cien­cy of pyrol­y­sis ovens is high­er than tra­di­tion­al ones, but they are more expen­sive.

To main­tain the pyrol­y­sis regime, the mois­ture con­tent of fire­wood should be kept with­in the per­mis­si­ble lim­its.

The heat from the water is trans­ferred into the room through radi­a­tors, con­vec­tors, pipe reg­is­ters.

Dis­ad­van­tages of sol­id fuel heat gen­er­a­tors:

  • require a spe­cial room for instal­la­tion;
  • air ducts are need­ed for air sup­ply, chim­neys for the removal of com­bus­tion prod­ucts;
  • a suf­fi­cient­ly spa­cious room is required for fuel sup­ply;
  • not free deliv­ery, unload­ing;
  • an almost con­tin­u­ous pres­ence of a per­son is nec­es­sary (to con­trol the com­bus­tion process, fuel sup­ply, igni­tion, if these process­es are not auto­mat­ed).

Automa­tion of the oper­a­tion of the heat­ing unit — equip­ping it with a bunker for the oper­a­tional reserve of fuel, screw feed­ers, a spe­cial vol­u­met­ric type burn­er with a built-in pho­to­sen­sor.

Wood burning boiler in the living roomThe inclu­sion of a pump, ther­mo­stat, elec­tron­ic sen­sors, safe­ty valves in the sys­tem makes the heat­ing mode con­stant for sev­er­al days. From the con­trol pan­el tem­per­a­ture, a dai­ly cycle of work, inclu­sion, shut­down are set.

In order to auto­mate the main­te­nance of the fur­nace as much as pos­si­ble, it is nec­es­sary to oper­ate fuel units with a con­stant shape and size. These qual­i­ties are pos­sessed by gran­u­lar raw mate­ri­als.

Wood, peat gran­ules (pel­lets) are eco­nom­i­cal, envi­ron­men­tal­ly friend­ly. In terms of ener­gy effi­cien­cy, a pel­let boil­er is com­pa­ra­ble to a gas boil­er (effi­cien­cy 85–93%).

Raw mate­ri­als (chips, saw­dust, shav­ings) are crushed to a pow­der frac­tion, dried, gran­u­lat­ed. The final mois­ture con­tent of the gran­ules is 8–12%, the den­si­ty is 5–10 times high­er than that of the feed­stock. The stan­dard “grain” shape is a cylin­der, d = 6–10 mm, l = 5–70 mm.



A pel­let stove requires human par­tic­i­pa­tion when the sup­ply of pel­lets in the oper­a­tional bunker runs out — once every 5–7 days. There are mod­els with a vol­u­met­ric fuel bunker. Autonomous mode of their work on one gas sta­tion reach­es 30 days. Ash­es are removed month­ly.

On a note. Wood­work­ing waste is the most com­mon mate­r­i­al for fuel pel­lets (pel­lets). How­ev­er, not only crushed saw­dust, chips and shav­ings, but also waste from oil extrac­tion and agri­cul­tur­al pro­duc­tion are suit­able for the role of raw mate­ri­als for alter­na­tive fuels. Sun­flower husks (crushed to 2–4 mm), straw are not infe­ri­or to recy­cled wood in qual­i­ty, have a low­er ash con­tent (almost 2.5 times), and are cheap­er.

Pel­lets are more con­ve­nient to store than fire­wood, their calorif­ic val­ue is almost 1.5 times high­er (in this indi­ca­tor they are com­pa­ra­ble to coal). The life of the boil­er on pel­lets reach­es 20 years.

Dis­ad­van­tages of pel­let heat gen­er­a­tors:

  • humid micro­cli­mate dur­ing stor­age and trans­porta­tion is fraught with a decrease in the ener­gy val­ue of the fuel;
  • design fea­tures of pel­let aggre­gates affect their cost.

When decid­ing which sol­id fuel boil­er to choose, the qual­i­ty and area of ​​u200bu200bthe house are tak­en into account. When choos­ing the pow­er of the unit, with low heat loss­es and ceil­ings not high­er than 2.7 m, they approx­i­mate­ly con­sid­er: 1 kW per 10 m2. The opti­mal area of ​​a house heat­ed by a pel­let heat gen­er­a­tor is 120–170 sq. m.

In the fur­nace of tra­di­tion­al boil­ers, fire­wood and coal are loaded every 3–6 hours. New gen­er­a­tion units (with fire­box extend­ed upwards, spe­cial air sup­ply) burn fuel slow­ly (7 days of work on one tab).

They also say about pyrol­y­sis units: “long burn­ing”, not­ing the increased time of their work on one load. Then, before choos­ing a long-burn­ing sol­id fuel boil­er, you should take care of a spa­cious fire­wood shed for dry­ing logs.

The main features and characteristics of solid fuel boilers Viadrus (Czech Republic)

The range of Viar­dus sol­id fuel boil­ers is rep­re­sent­ed by 13 types:

  • sev­en of them require man­u­al load­ing of fuel;
  • at six, fuel is sup­plied auto­mat­i­cal­ly.

It is per­mis­si­ble to heat all devices with man­u­al load­ing with fire­wood, and in the Lig­na­tor and Hefais­tos P1 mod­els, only pieces of wood can be burned.

The max­i­mum ther­mal pow­er of the Lig­na­tor is the low­est of the non-auto­mat­ic units — 34 kWh (with wood mois­ture less than 20%), but the effi­cien­cy is high — almost 90%.

On a note. Devel­op­ers of sol­id fuel boil­ers take 15 (less often 12) kW as the min­i­mum pow­er. It is more eco­nom­i­cal­ly fea­si­ble to gen­er­ate a small­er amount of ther­mal ener­gy (heat a small space) with a fire­place. (A fire­place equipped with a water cir­cuit can be con­nect­ed to a heat­ing radi­a­tor, the effi­cien­cy of such a sys­tem is 85%).VIADRUS Hefaistos P1 30-100 kW

Hefais­tos P1 is much more pow­er­ful — it pro­duces 30–100 kW of heat per hour (depend­ing on the num­ber of sec­tions) at oper­at­ing pres­sure up to 400 kPa, fuel con­sump­tion 8–27 kg/h, com­bus­tion effi­cien­cy 83–89%. The diam­e­ter of the logs is 8–15 cm, the length is deter­mined by the depth of the fire­box.

Unlike Lig­na­tor, Hefais­tos P1 is pyrol­y­sis.

The “man­u­al” mod­els of the Her­cules series are less “choosy in nutri­tion”: they pre­fer fire­wood, but “assim­i­late” oth­er sol­id fuels:

  • mod­el U28 can be fired with lig­nite (the stove will give 17–46 kWh);
  • the same type of fos­sil, coke is suit­able for the oper­a­tion of Her­cules U24 (13–74 kWh);
  • in mod­els U22, U26 they burn coke, hard coal (which releas­es more heat dur­ing com­bus­tion than brown).

A fea­ture of Her­cules U22 (which has a ther­mal pow­er of 12–58 kWh) is the abil­i­ty to burn logs of high humid­i­ty — up to 25%. Her­cules U26 is dis­tin­guished by high max­i­mum pow­er — 72 kWh.

Among sol­id fuel boil­ers from Viadrus with man­u­al load­ing the VSP IV mod­el stands apart.

The heat gen­er­a­tor has a num­ber of fea­tures:

  1. sec­tions of the unit are arranged in 2 rows;
  2. work as part of a cen­tral­ized low-pres­sure heat­ing net­work is per­mis­si­ble (it is pos­si­ble to con­nect sev­er­al cir­cuits);
  3. poten­tial ver­sa­til­i­ty (it is pos­si­ble to rebuild the unit for burn­ing gas, peat, diesel fuel);
  4. the abil­i­ty to increase the safe­ty of the heat gen­er­a­tor (instal­la­tion of a blast burn­er);
  5. the VSP IV does not burn hard coal.

The pow­er of the VSP IV heat­ing boil­er is an order of mag­ni­tude high­er than oth­er mod­els with man­u­al fuel load­ing — 146–386 kWh.

On a note. Pow­er above 500 kW reduces the effi­cien­cy of the boil­er and its life: the struc­tures will burn through in 3–5 years. And yet, there are pel­let heat gen­er­a­tors more pow­er­ful than 2 MW (and much more expen­sive than con­ven­tion­al ones). Their design is com­pli­cat­ed by a spe­cial device for the pre-treat­ment of wood pel­lets in the com­bus­tion process.

Boiler Viadrus Hercules U22For the auto­mat­ic load­ing of sol­id fuel into the com­bus­tion cham­ber, you will have to “pay” with a rel­a­tive­ly small ther­mal pow­er of the boil­er. Pow­er of Viadrus boil­ers with auto­mat­ic load­ing of sol­id fuel (kW∙h):

  • Wood­pell — 5.8–25 (per­formed by 5- and 7‑section, effi­cien­cy 91%);
  • Her­cules Duo, Fan­da — 6–35;
  • Her­cules Green Eco Therm — 7.5–32;
  • Her­cules Eco — 7–42.

Of the five list­ed Viadrus prod­ucts, only one works not only on pel­lets: Her­cules Duo is also heat­ed with brown coal.

The VSB Eco mod­el stands apart. It is as pro­duc­tive as the VSP IV, ready to go to man­u­al oper­a­tion, able to run on lig­nite, coke, nat­ur­al gas, bio­gas, liq­uid fuels. The unit can heat a store, a pub­lic build­ing.

On a note. A sol­id fuel boil­er for agri­cul­tur­al engi­neer­ing is being devel­oped. The pur­pose of research and test­ing is to cre­ate a heat-gen­er­at­ing device that works effi­cient­ly on a spe­cif­ic fuel — bed­ding manure (more pre­cise­ly, on its sol­id com­bustible com­po­nent). The new tech­nol­o­gy uti­lizes the by-prod­uct of poul­try farms and pro­vides them with ther­mal ener­gy.

Which solid fuel boiler to choose, models and prices

Any mod­el of sol­id fuel boil­er Viadrus finds its buy­er. Small­er heat gen­er­a­tors are pre­ferred by own­ers of small but warm cot­tages. More heat requires heat­ing the cot­tage. Then the choice depends on the pos­si­bil­i­ty of com­bin­ing heat gen­er­a­tors of sev­er­al types, installing a heat-insu­lat­ed water accu­mu­la­tor.

Simple boiler Hercules U22 C3

Her­cules Duo pop­u­lar due to the fuel of two types in the “diet”. The price is about 200 thou­sand rubles. Her­cules U26 is suit­able for con­ver­sion to auto­mat­ic Her­cules Duo, which also affects demand.

The mod­i­fi­ca­tion kit includes a burn­er, pel­let feed­ers, a bunker, pan­els with automa­tion and sen­sors, the inner met­al of the fur­nace and oth­er parts.

It is pos­si­ble to re-equip for auto­mat­ic pel­let Her­cules U22 with 5–7 sec­tions. His price: 60–700 $ — if 5 sec­tions, 60–70 — if 7.

(The cost of a 2‑section mod­el U22 C2 is 45–500 $.9‑section — 80–100).

Not ignored by buy­ers and pel­let Wood­pell (160–180 thou­sand rubles).

More than 500 thou­sand rubles. it will cost to buy a sev­en-sec­tion Viadrus Hefais­tos P1 — the so-called sol­id fuel boil­er for long burn­ing on wood.

Readers’ reviews about long-burning wood-burning boilers

After the vaca­tion, we were able to decide which sol­id fuel boil­er to choose: we saw Hefais­tos P1 T7 (sev­en-sec­tion) in the hol­i­day home. For the dacha, they chose the same, but small­er (the depth is only 1.5 meters, sec­tions — 5). 40 kg of fire­wood is enough for 3 hours of work, if the work is at full capac­i­ty.

Veron­i­ca Z., Pod­porozhye, Ladeynopol­sky dis­trict.

Why not all fur­naces can be loaded with fuel bri­quettes? Bri­quet­ted raw mate­ri­als have a high­er den­si­ty and low­er mois­ture con­tent. The com­bus­tion process pro­ceeds dif­fer­ent­ly and gives dif­fer­ent results, which not every fur­nace is designed for.

A 5‑section Leg­na­tor was enough for heat­ing a small cot­tage with low heat loss. It weighs less than 400 kg, com­pact — the depth is not more than a meter. We heat the water to 70 degrees (com­fort­able, espe­cial­ly with low ceil­ings).

Vyach­eslav D., Ory­ol

I chose Her­cules U22D 5 for a 155 m round house2. Cast iron is suit­able for both fire­wood and coal. I drown in the evening, by the mid­dle of the night it burns out. It is already cold to get up in the morn­ing — I will com­bine it with an elec­tric boil­er.

Vasi­ly, Yaroslavl.

Installation and adjustment

Before instal­la­tion, read the basic rules:

  • Heat­ing boil­ers are not allowed to be installed in a res­i­den­tial build­ing, includ­ing util­i­ty rooms. A room with a con­tin­u­ous flow of air is allo­cat­ed under the boil­er room (the inten­si­ty depends on the char­ac­ter­is­tics of the boil­er).
  • The basis for a heavy unit, with a flame and hot water inside, is a plinth made of non-com­bustible mate­r­i­al. The con­tour of this sta­ble fire pro­tec­tion is left pro­trud­ing beyond the bound­aries of the boil­er by 2 cm in all direc­tions.
  • Any sur­faces in the boil­er room should not be clos­er than 20 cm from the boil­er cas­ing. Con­crete, brick, ceram­ics, fiber­glass and, more­over, wood and rub­ber are no excep­tion.
  • Mate­ri­als that ignite eas­i­ly and are capa­ble of self-sus­tain­ing com­bus­tion can­not be locat­ed clos­er than half a meter from the boil­er. These are card­board, polyurethane, wood fiber mate­ri­als, PVC, etc.

More infor­ma­tion about the com­bustibil­i­ty of mate­ri­als — in the instruc­tions for the prod­uct. In any case, when deter­min­ing the instal­la­tion loca­tion of the boil­er, it is nec­es­sary to retreat at least half a meter from the walls of the boil­er room.

The min­i­mum height of the boil­er room is also stan­dard­ized (for exam­ple, for Wood­pell it is 2.1 m).

  • Leave at least a meter of free space in front of the heat­ing boil­er.

The instal­la­tion of a sol­id fuel boil­er for heat­ing a pri­vate house and the adjust­ment of its work are car­ried out by qual­i­fied spe­cial­ists autho­rized by a cer­ti­fied com­pa­ny. The exist­ing heat­ing sys­tem is pre-washed and cleaned.

The qual­i­ty of the water in the cir­cuit — hard­ness, the con­tent of iron, man­ganese, cal­ci­um — are nor­mal­ized. If nec­es­sary, the coolant is soft­ened and cleaned. After instal­la­tion, the sys­tem is checked for tight­ness, the first heat­ing is car­ried out.

Heat­ing boil­ers designed for heat­ing res­i­den­tial premis­es heat a liq­uid heat car­ri­er — water, water-based antifreeze. (This way of trans­fer­ring the gen­er­at­ed ener­gy reduces the dan­ger of the sys­tem: the steam is hot­ter). Viadrus boil­ers are not designed to heat antifreeze.

Main­te­nance of the heat­ing boil­er requires strict adher­ence to the man­u­fac­tur­er’s instruc­tions.

  • Do not leave fuel near the boil­er: the min­i­mum dis­tance is 1000 cm.
  • The best place for fuel wait­ing to be loaded is anoth­er room.

Viadrus boil­ers, designed for sol­id fuels, are cast iron. Cast iron prod­ucts are more reli­able, more durable than steel ones, as a heat exchang­er they are more iner­tial (heat­ing up longer, cool­ing down longer).

  • The role of ther­mal insu­la­tion of boil­ers is played by non-asbestos min­er­al mate­r­i­al.
  • The shell of the boil­er is var­nished, its remov­able parts are attached to the bolt­ed con­nec­tions.

The heat­ing boil­er is the most com­mon heat gen­er­a­tor in the home heat­ing sys­tem. Auton­o­my com­bined with mod­ern devel­op­ments and Euro­pean work­man­ship expands the use of units for coal, wood, bri­quettes and pel­lets.


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