Submersible pump for a well with automation — which one is better to choose?



Auto­mat­ed water sup­ply is used to cre­ate autonomous cold and hot water sup­ply sys­tems, as well as sew­er com­mu­ni­ca­tions. This is espe­cial­ly true for sub­ur­ban real estate objects, the con­nec­tion of which to cen­tral­ized engi­neer­ing and tech­ni­cal com­mu­ni­ca­tions is dif­fi­cult, or even impos­si­ble.

The heart of the auto­mat­ic water sup­ply sys­tem is the pump. What is a sub­mersible well pump? How to choose the best option and what could be the design scheme of auto­mat­ed water sup­ply?

Main types

Sub­mersible devices are usu­al­ly divid­ed into the fol­low­ing types:automatic submersible

  • Units with built-in automa­tion. Such pumps are the most effec­tive solu­tion for equip­ping an autonomous water sup­ply sys­tem. Built-in automa­tion allows not only to reg­u­late the pres­sure and pres­sure of the liq­uid in the sys­tem, but also pro­tects the device from pow­er surges in the elec­tri­cal net­work, and also pre­vents “idling” oper­a­tion with insuf­fi­cient depth. As one of the strik­ing exam­ples, one can cite a sub­mersible pump for a well with Grund­fos automa­tion and the like.
  • Devices with a so-called “check valve”. Such mod­i­fi­ca­tions are good in that their design almost com­plete­ly elim­i­nates the return of water from a closed sys­tem back to the tank.
  • Vibrat­ing. This type of units allows them to be used in var­i­ous con­di­tions and at large depth ranges. At the same time, most of these devices are able to work with liq­uids of a rel­a­tive­ly coarse degree of purifi­ca­tion.
  • Drainage and fecal. This type of units is used for pump­ing water with a large amount of impu­ri­ties, sus­pen­sions and rather large for­eign frag­ments.
  • Devices based on the prin­ci­ple of cen­trifu­gal action. They are quite ver­sa­tile, as they can be used both in wells and in wells. But they are quite demand­ing on the pre­lim­i­nary fil­tra­tion of the liq­uid and are rel­a­tive­ly dif­fi­cult to main­tain and repair.

Types of automatic systems

Most sub­mersible well pumps on the mar­ket today are based on on two prin­ci­ples of oper­a­tion of automa­tion:

  • Appli­ca­tion of hydrop­neu­mat­ic sys­tem;
  • Use of elec­tron­ic com­po­nents.

with hydraulic accumulatorMore sim­ple hydraulic accu­mu­la­tor sys­tem is a com­bi­na­tion of a tank (hydraulic accu­mu­la­tor) and one or more relays, which allows you to adjust the pres­sure of the liq­uid in the pipeline or in the hose sys­tem.

Elec­tron­ic auto­mat­ic sys­tem allows to achieve sig­nif­i­cant­ly high­er effi­cien­cy, since dig­i­tal mini-blocks are installed direct­ly in pipelines, or even in the device body (for exam­ple, Grund­fos). How­ev­er, the accu­ra­cy of adjust­ment and high ser­vice capa­bil­i­ties dic­tate a sig­nif­i­cant­ly high­er cost of the entire sys­tem as a whole.

On the one hand, a well pump with pneu­mat­ic type automa­tion is much cheap­er. On the oth­er hand, it has a much low­er per­for­mance and accu­ra­cy in adjust­ing the water sup­ply.

How are pumps selected?

The most pop­u­lar types of sub­mersible pumps used to equip autonomous water sup­ply sys­tems for coun­try hous­es are vibrat­ing and cen­trifu­gal.

The choice in favor of one or anoth­er prin­ci­ple of action is deter­mined by the fol­low­ing aspects:Italian electronic automatic Pedrollo NKm 2/3

  • Dis­tance of the well/source of water from the build­ing. If the tank is locat­ed no fur­ther than 10–20 meters from the house, then any unit will cope with the water sup­ply. If the well is locat­ed at a more dis­tant dis­tance, then the char­ac­ter­is­tics of the water rise height declared by the man­u­fac­tur­er become deci­sive here. A dis­tance of 20 to 50 meters requires a lift­ing pow­er of 20 meters, and a fur­ther loca­tion is already 40 meters. In this case, it is nec­es­sary to add the height of the water rise to the tap in the house.
  • Char­ac­ter­is­tics of the water in the well. For water that does not include many for­eign par­ti­cles, sus­pen­sions and sus­pen­sions, any type will do. For dirt­i­er and low­er qual­i­ty water, vibra­tion pumps must be used.
  • Water intake method. For the arrange­ment of autonomous water sup­ply and sew­er­age sys­tems of a coun­try house, units with an upper water intake look much more prefer­able. First­ly, engine cool­ing in such devices occurs nat­u­ral­ly. And sec­ond­ly, automa­tion does not allow such devices to over­heat at idle in the event of a drop in the liq­uid lev­el in the tank. True, the per­for­mance of devices with an upper intake, as a rule, is infe­ri­or to sam­ples with bot­tom water sup­ply.

How does automation work?

The main pur­pose of automa­tion is to unin­ter­rupt­ed sup­ply of water (or pump­ing out liq­uid), as well as to pre­vent the fail­ure of the engine of the unit as a result of over­heat­ing due to lack of cool­ing.

Over­heat­ing occurs main­ly due to a drop in the water lev­el in the tank, in oth­er words, the shal­low­ing of the well.

Körcher BP 2 classical apparatus with mechanical protectionTo avoid such prob­lems, mod­ern sub­mersible well pumps can have the fol­low­ing types of auto­mat­ic pro­tec­tion:

  • Mechan­i­cal;
  • dynam­ic;
  • Elec­tric.

mechan­i­cal sys­tem auto­mat­ic pro­tec­tion is based on a fair­ly sim­ple prin­ci­ple. A sub­mersible pump, freely drift­ing in the tank, is con­nect­ed with a thin fish­ing line (or nylon thread) with a spe­cial float.

As soon as the water lev­el falls below a cer­tain val­ue, lim­it­ed by the length of the fish­ing line, a sen­sor is acti­vat­ed that turns off the pow­er.

It’s like fish­ing with a fish­ing rod, only turned upside down.

The use of pres­sure indi­ca­tors involves a more com­plex scheme. It uses a spe­cial sen­sor that con­trols the water pres­sure in the pipeline or in the hose sys­tem. As soon as the unit stops suck­ing water and starts sup­ply­ing air to the sys­tem, the sen­sor sends a sig­nal to the con­troller, which instant­ly turns off the device. In mod­ern devices, such a sen­sor often has the abil­i­ty to adjust set­tings. This prin­ci­ple is wide­ly used, for exam­ple, in devices for a well with auto­mat­ic brands “Aquar­ius” and oth­er pop­u­lar brands.

Elec­tri­cal pro­tec­tion uses a com­plete­ly dif­fer­ent prin­ci­ple to pre­vent “dry run­ning” of the engine. The fact is that when pump­ing water mass­es, the motor con­sumes a much larg­er amount of elec­tri­cal ener­gy than when pump­ing air. The built-in sen­sor is sen­si­tive to changes in the “needs” of the engine for elec­tric­i­ty and blocks the oper­a­tion of the pow­er unit.

The fol­low­ing video clear­ly demon­strates how the elec­tron­ic pro­tec­tion sys­tem of an auto­mat­ic sub­mersible pump works:

Comparison with other types of water pumps

In addi­tion to sub­mersible pumps, oth­er types of water pump­ing units are also used to cre­ate autonomous sys­tems of cold and hot water sup­ply or sew­er­age:

  • pump­ing sta­tions;
  • Semi-sub­mersible (float­ing) pumps.

Injec­tion sta­tions are a rather com­plex and rather expen­sive struc­ture. In addi­tion, they have rather large dimen­sions, con­sume incom­pa­ra­bly more ener­gy and are char­ac­ter­ized by a rather high lev­el of noise dur­ing oper­a­tion.Wilo pumping station

The sta­tions are main­ly used in the con­struc­tion of autonomous water sup­ply sys­tems for large cot­tages, vil­las or even col­lec­tive house­holds.. In addi­tion, the pump­ing sta­tion is used at a sig­nif­i­cant depth of ground­wa­ter and in oth­er spe­cial cas­es asso­ci­at­ed with cer­tain hydro­ge­o­log­i­cal char­ac­ter­is­tics of a par­tic­u­lar land plot.

In most sim­ple sit­u­a­tions, the use of a sta­tion to sup­ply water from a well is not con­sid­ered appro­pri­ate, both in terms of effi­cien­cy and from an eco­nom­ic point of view.

As for the sur­face, then they, on the con­trary, have a rather low pow­er and pro­duc­tiv­i­ty and are quite vul­ner­a­ble to weath­er or atmos­pher­ic phe­nom­e­na. Although they are rel­a­tive­ly inex­pen­sive and easy to main­tain, they are nonethe­less are not able to ensure the unin­ter­rupt­ed func­tion­ing of a full-fledged water sup­ply or sew­er­age sys­tem for house­holds. In addi­tion, due to design fea­tures, float­ing sys­tems can only be used in the warm sea­son.

Video — How to choose and connect a hydraulic accumulator and automation?

In order not to force the unit to work every time the cranes are turned on, a hydraulic accu­mu­la­tor or dri­ve is used.

hydraulic accumulator internals

It is a mem­brane tank (alu­minum, steel or plas­tic), about half filled with water. With a decrease in the water lev­el in the accu­mu­la­tor, the air pres­sure also drops, as a result of which the relay is acti­vat­ed, turn­ing on the pump, which, in turn, refills the tank with water to the set val­ue.

The choice of the capac­i­ty of the accu­mu­la­tor depends on the vol­ume of water con­sumed and on the con­di­tions of use of the premis­es.

  • For a large cot­tagein which peo­ple live year-round, it is more expe­di­ent to choose dri­ves with a vol­ume 50 liters or more.
  • BUT for a small sum­mer cot­tage a com­pact hydraulic accu­mu­la­tor with a capac­i­ty of 5–10 liters.

Typ­i­cal instal­la­tion dia­gram of a water sup­ply sys­tem from a well with a hydraulic accu­mu­la­tor as fol­lows:

installation diagram with hydraulic accumulator

  • The dri­ve is installed indoors;
  • On top of the tank in a ver­ti­cal posi­tion is installed pres­sure switch;
  • The hydraulic accu­mu­la­tor is con­nect­ed by means of hoses or pipelines to the sub­mersible pump on the one hand, and to the water sup­ply taps on the oth­er.

The fol­low­ing two videos detail the assem­bly of the pump group and the con­nec­tion to the accu­mu­la­tor:

Prices for well pumps with automatic

Vibra­tion-type devices are tra­di­tion­al­ly the most afford­able. So, for exam­ple, a domes­tic-made unit can be pur­chased for 20–30$, if the height of the water rise is up to 40 meters. The same devices with a greater lift­ing depth are in the range of 4–70$.

Aquarius set

Cen­trifu­gal devices are more expen­sive. Depend­ing on the pow­er, pro­duc­tiv­i­ty and method of water intake, their cost can be from 8 0 to 150$. A typ­i­cal exam­ple is the pop­u­lar fam­i­ly of devices man­u­fac­tured under the brand “Aquar­ius”. And espe­cial­ly pro­duc­tive units — the so-called water can­nons — are even more expen­sive.

How­ev­er, the price of a very pop­u­lar on the mar­ket sub­mersible pump for a well with auto­mat­ic equip­ment “Dzhileks“fea­tur­ing high per­for­mance and ver­sa­til­i­ty, is near the mark in 200 dol­lars. Which, of course, is one of the most opti­mal com­bi­na­tions of “price / qual­i­ty” para­me­ters.

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