The choice of fuel for a solid fuel boiler


Hav­ing made a choice for your­self in favor of one or anoth­er type of sol­id fuel heat­ing boil­er, you need to have an idea of ​​u200bu200bhow to prop­er­ly heat your own home sol­id fuel boil­er. The options in this case may dif­fer if we take into account the type of heat­ing device. Cur­rent­ly used sol­id fuel units are con­di­tion­al­ly divid­ed into two groups, units with man­u­al fuel sup­ply and prod­ucts equipped with auto­mat­ic sup­ply of fuel resources.

Let us dwell on how to heat boil­ers of var­i­ous types and what fuel is best suit­ed for home heat­ing.

The principle of operation of solid fuel boilers

Sol­id fuel boil­ers, which are on sale today, are basi­cal­ly all equipped with con­trol sys­tems and fans that pro­vide air to the com­bus­tion cham­ber. The con­trol unit con­sists of a tem­per­a­ture sen­sor mount­ed on the heat exchang­er. Sig­nals about a decrease and increase in the tem­per­a­ture of the coolant cause the automa­tion to work, which turns the air blow­er on or off. As a result, automa­tion itself exer­cis­es con­trol over the tem­per­a­ture regime, adjust­ing the inten­si­ty of com­bus­tion.

The com­bus­tion of boil­ers with the help of automa­tion reduces human involve­ment to a min­i­mum. After fill­ing the fuel, the entire oper­a­tion of the appa­ra­tus is con­trolled by auto­mat­ic devices and mechan­i­cal devices. The device, hav­ing reached the opti­mal oper­at­ing mode, goes into the smol­der­ing mode. With a decrease in tem­per­a­ture and a decrease in the inten­si­ty of com­bus­tion, the pres­sur­iza­tion sys­tem is turned on again. The process is monot­o­nous and con­stant, thanks to which air is sup­plied to the com­bus­tion cham­ber and the out­put of com­bus­tion prod­ucts through the chim­ney is improved.

If the fuel in the fur­nace is over, the automa­tion will use the coolant col­lect­ed in the heat accu­mu­la­tor. Such a scheme pre­vents the rapid cool­ing of the heat­ing sys­tem and the decrease in the tem­per­a­ture of the coolant to crit­i­cal val­ues. In some cas­es, the autonomous heat­ing sys­tem is sup­ple­ment­ed by an elec­tric boil­er — a heat­ing ele­ment, which is a back­up source of heat when the main heat­ing unit stops.

Impor­tant! Con­trol­ling the num­ber of fuel fill­ings in the boil­er is a task that a per­son still has to con­trol. Know­ing the pow­er of the device and the needs of the heat­ing sys­tem, it is pos­si­ble to cal­cu­late the num­ber of fuel tabs. Automa­tion is only capa­ble of main­tain­ing the entire sys­tem in work­ing con­di­tion for a short time, pro­tect­ing the equip­ment from over­heat­ing and from a com­plete stop.


The prin­ci­ple of oper­a­tion of sol­id fuel boil­ers is sim­ple and straight­for­ward. Com­pe­tent pip­ing allows not only to cre­ate nor­mal con­di­tions for the func­tion­ing of the heat­ing device, but also to ensure the unin­ter­rupt­ed oper­a­tion of the entire heat­ing sys­tem in the house.

Choosing fuel for solid fuel boilers

The type of heater, the require­ments put for­ward to the entire ener­gy sup­ply sys­tem, make it pos­si­ble to deter­mine how to heat a home sol­id fuel boil­er, which fuel is bet­ter. The ques­tion of whether it is pos­si­ble to heat the appa­ra­tus with dif­fer­ent types of fuel can­not be answered unam­bigu­ous­ly. It all depends on the type of heater. The prin­ci­ple of oper­a­tion of the equip­ment deter­mines the choice — coal, fire­wood, coke and pel­lets, to which there is access today.

The effi­cien­cy of the unit depends on what kind of fuel is used in the sys­tem and what qual­i­ty. More­over, the stock of fuel resource is made in large quan­ti­ties, respec­tive­ly, prepa­ra­tion for the heat­ing sea­son is asso­ci­at­ed with high costs.

The most com­mon types of fuel used today in every­day life:

  • fire­wood;
  • coal, stone or brown;
  • pressed peat or wood­en euro bri­quettes;
  • pel­lets.

If it is dif­fi­cult to decide on the choice of what and how to heat the heat­ing unit, the best option is to use peat bri­quettes or fire pel­lets. Such fuel is ready for use, has the nec­es­sary phys­i­cal char­ac­ter­is­tics. The only dis­ad­van­tage of this type of fuel is the high price.


Fire­wood is also dis­tin­guished by high tech­no­log­i­cal char­ac­ter­is­tics. But here it is nec­es­sary to fol­low hard rule:

In order to heat at home, it is bet­ter to use only sol­id woods. They burn longer, have a high heat trans­fer. Try not to use pine wood for igni­tion. They have an increased tar con­tent, which leads to rapid con­t­a­m­i­na­tion of the com­bus­tion cham­ber of the appa­ra­tus and the heat exchang­er. Fire­wood must be dry. Fire­wood with high humid­i­ty burns worse, in the process of burn­ing a large amount of steam is released, which turns into con­den­sate.

Coal is con­ve­nient, prac­ti­cal and ben­e­fi­cial in many ways. In addi­tion to an afford­able price, coal has high tech­no­log­i­cal char­ac­ter­is­tics. This includes a long dura­tion of com­bus­tion, and high heat trans­fer. Dur­ing com­bus­tion, coal emits a min­i­mum of harm­ful sub­stances.

How to properly heat equipment of different types

Often the ques­tion aris­es of how to heat a par­tic­u­lar heat­ing appa­ra­tus. Pel­let sol­id fuel boil­ers are becom­ing pop­u­lar today due to their high effi­cien­cy. Despite the high cost of the fuel resource, such a device has an auto­mat­ed fuel sup­ply. Due to its design, such equip­ment requires the least amount of main­te­nance.

For heaters of oth­er types: pyrol­y­sis, long-burn­ing units and boil­ers in the clas­sic ver­sion, a dif­fer­ent approach is required in the orga­ni­za­tion of work. Heat­ing appli­ances of each type have their own char­ac­ter­is­tics and specifics.

Let’s start with the fact that sol­id fuel boil­ers in the tra­di­tion­al, clas­sic ver­sion are prac­ti­cal­ly out of use today. In some house­holds, you can still find wood-fired or coal-fired devices with min­i­mal fea­tures and poor per­for­mance.

The most com­mon today are pyrol­y­sis boil­ers and long-burn­ing units — high-tech devices that meet all the nec­es­sary require­ments and safe­ty stan­dards. For heat­ing devices of these types is char­ac­ter­ized by high per­for­mance and effi­cien­cy. Long-burn­ing heat­ing devices have a high effi­cien­cy — 80%. Among sol­id fuel units, pyrol­y­sis-type boil­ers have the high­est effi­cien­cy — 85%.

This is inter­est­ing: How to heat the stove with coal?

Long-burning boiler furnace


It is pos­si­ble to melt sol­id fuel equip­ment in two dif­fer­ent ways, by burn­ing through and in lay­ers. Each option allows you to increase the burn­ing time of one load. Fire­wood is laid in the fire­box. For faster igni­tion, you need to add paper or wood chips. After the flame appears, the load­ing door is closed and the heater con­trol unit is switched on.

Fur­ther, the process pro­ceeds as fol­lows. Fire­wood, coal or bri­quettes burn from top to bot­tom, giv­ing off the max­i­mum pos­si­ble amount of heat. Burn­ing in the fur­nace in this way can take a long time.

For ref­er­ence: For some mod­els, one down­load is enough for 24 hours (in stand­by mode up to 48 hours).

After turn­ing on the unit, it is nec­es­sary to bring it to the opti­mal oper­at­ing mode by set­ting a delib­er­ate­ly high heat­ing tem­per­a­ture. After the equip­ment has reached the opti­mum tem­per­a­ture regime, it is pos­si­ble to reduce the boil­er pow­er by set­ting the nec­es­sary tem­per­a­ture para­me­ters.

Features of kindling a pyrolysis solid fuel boiler

Heat­ing equip­ment based on pyrol­y­sis is dis­tin­guished by the fact that it allows the use of almost any organ­ic raw mate­r­i­al with low humid­i­ty (no more than 20%) as fuel. Burn­ing is car­ried out in stages. First, due to the high tem­per­a­ture, the decom­po­si­tion of organ­ic com­pounds in the fuel com­po­nents, fol­lowed by the release of wood gas. This process is called pyrol­y­sis. Fur­ther, already in the sec­ond com­bus­tion cham­ber, high-tem­per­a­ture com­bus­tion of a com­bustible gaseous sub­stance occurs. This requires a con­stant sup­ply of oxy­gen.

The process of oper­a­tion of the pyrol­y­sis type unit is easy to con­trol by increas­ing or decreas­ing the air sup­ply. The main advan­tage of such boil­ers is high effi­cien­cy and heat trans­fer with min­i­mal loads. After com­bus­tion, there are prac­ti­cal­ly no com­bus­tion prod­ucts left in the fur­nace. Clean­ing such a com­bus­tion cham­ber with such a heat­ing device is much eas­i­er and more con­ve­nient than with oth­er types of units.

What to pay attention to

The oper­a­tion of any heat­ing device on coal, wood and oth­er semi-fin­ished fuel prod­ucts is inex­tri­ca­bly linked with the ven­ti­la­tion sys­tem. The per­for­mance of the heat­ing equip­ment, the tech­no­log­i­cal para­me­ters of the entire heat­ing sys­tem in the house depend on the qual­i­ty of ven­ti­la­tion and the con­di­tion of the chim­ney.

The hood must oper­ate in accor­dance with estab­lished fire safe­ty reg­u­la­tions.

Impor­tant! An improp­er­ly made hood will cre­ate a risk of harm­ful com­bus­tion prod­ucts enter­ing the liv­ing quar­ters. Insuf­fi­cient trac­tion will reduce the pow­er of the device. Reg­u­lar clean­ing of the chim­ney will help to avoid the igni­tion of soot, which can cause a fire in house struc­tures, cre­ate a fire haz­ard.

Prop­er­ly made chim­ney, clean­ing the heat­ing device will ensure long-term oper­a­tion of the sol­id fuel boil­er at opti­mal oper­at­ing con­di­tions. Fre­quent change of one type of fuel to anoth­er can cause unsta­ble oper­a­tion of the heat­ing unit, fail­ures in the DHW sys­tem and heat sup­ply. Each unit should have one, the main fuel, while oth­er types can be used for a short time, if nec­es­sary.


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