The device of a brick pipe for a chimney

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An impor­tant ele­ment on which the oper­a­tion of the entire heat­ing sys­tem in a pri­vate house depends is the smoke chan­nel. The main func­tion is the removal of com­bus­tion prod­ucts to the out­side. Prop­er arrange­ment requires com­pli­ance with cer­tain rules.

Feature and structural elements

The oper­a­tion of all equip­ment will depend on how the device func­tions. The main func­tion is to pro­vide trac­tion and remove prod­ucts formed dur­ing com­bus­tion.

Brick flue pipe

The min­i­mum dis­tance from the wall to the smoke chan­nel is 38 cm. The thick­ness of the brick pipe is an impor­tant indi­ca­tor for ensur­ing fire safe­ty in the house. The thick­er it is, the less it will heat up. The rec­om­mend­ed thick­ness is 100 mm.

The chim­ney con­sists of the fol­low­ing struc­tur­al ele­ments:

  • inter­nal chim­ney;
  • fluff;
  • otter;
  • neck;
  • cap.
The main ele­ments of the smoke chan­nel

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The brick pipe for arrang­ing the chim­ney must be locat­ed strict­ly ver­ti­cal­ly. Even a min­i­mal devi­a­tion of a cou­ple of degrees is not allowed.

The main cal­cu­la­tion cri­te­ri­on is the inter­nal sec­tion. It can have a dif­fer­ent indi­ca­tor, tak­ing into account how many bricks form a row. Sec­tion 125 * 125 mm — “four”, i.e. a row is formed by 4 blocks, 250 * 125 mm — “five”, 250 * 250 mm — “six”. The first type is used for stoves, the sec­ond size is usu­al­ly used for heat­ing stoves. “Six” can be used to install a fire­place or a Euro­pean stove.

Pros and cons

Advan­tages of a brick chim­ney pipe:

  • fire safe­ty;
  • long ser­vice life;
  • aes­thet­ics;
  • reli­a­bil­i­ty;
  • resis­tance to tem­per­a­ture changes;
  • suit­abil­i­ty for repair.

In addi­tion to the pos­i­tive prop­er­ties of the mate­r­i­al, there are a num­ber of dis­ad­van­tages:

  • big weight;
  • mason­ry com­plex­i­ty;
  • soot accu­mu­la­tion.

For a chim­ney, it is bet­ter to make a round chan­nel, but it is impos­si­ble to achieve such a shape with clink­er. There­fore, only a rec­tan­gu­lar sec­tion can be formed.

The brick has a rough sur­face, against which soot will quick­ly accu­mu­late. Because of this, it will be nec­es­sary to clean more often.

Chimney types

There are three types of chim­ney chan­nel depend­ing on the heat gen­er­at­ing mod­el:

  1. Nasad­naya;
  2. Indige­nous;
  3. Intra-wall.

The first type can be installed both on the stove and on the ceil­ing. It has a lot of weight, and in order to with­stand it, the walls of the struc­ture must be two brick blocks thick.

The sec­ond type is an inde­pen­dent struc­ture, which is erect­ed on a foun­da­tion out­side or inside a res­i­den­tial facil­i­ty.

The intra-wall struc­ture is formed dur­ing the lay­ing of the load-bear­ing wall.

Types of brick

The choice of mate­r­i­al for the con­struc­tion of a pipe device should be approached respon­si­bly. Poor-qual­i­ty mate­r­i­al under the influ­ence of low tem­per­a­tures, var­i­ous pre­cip­i­ta­tion, sun­light can col­lapse. There­fore, sav­ing on high-qual­i­ty brick blocks is not worth it.

Qual­i­ty is deter­mined accord­ing to GOST 8426–75.

There are 3 types of bricks, each of which has its own dif­fer­ences.

The first grade is char­ac­ter­ized by blocks of bright red col­or with a yel­low­ish tint. The edges are even and smooth, there are no pores and var­i­ous inclu­sions. If you tap with a ham­mer, you will hear a ring­ing sound.

Blocks of the sec­ond grade are pale orange, the col­or is slight­ly sat­u­rat­ed. There are pores. Flaws can be found on the edges. When tapped, a dull and short sound is heard. Bricks are usu­al­ly unfin­ished. They are char­ac­ter­ized by low frost resis­tance, high sen­si­tiv­i­ty to mois­ture.

The build­ing mate­r­i­al of the third grade is dis­tin­guished by a dark brown col­or. The struc­ture is porous, and there are chips and scuffs on the edges. This vari­ety is mod­er­ate­ly over­grown. It is not rec­om­mend­ed to use for lay­ing a chan­nel for flue gas removal due to fragili­ty, lack of frost resis­tance.

Expe­ri­enced crafts­men rec­om­mend choos­ing clay bricks of the first grade for chim­neys.

The clink­er should be smooth and even. Expe­ri­enced crafts­men rec­om­mend choos­ing the first grade with a brand of more than two hun­dred. For the con­struc­tion of a chim­ney chan­nel, the brick size must have the fol­low­ing val­ues ​​u200bu200bof 25 * 12 * 6.5 cm.

Building materials and tools for work

When build­ing a brick chim­ney, it is nec­es­sary to prop­er­ly pre­pare the mor­tar. For inter­nal mason­ry, a clay-sand mix­ture is used. The ratio of com­po­nents can be 1:1, 1:2, 1:3. This takes into account the fat con­tent of clay.

Pre­pared clay-sand mix­ture

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For the con­struc­tion of a ris­er inside the attic, a lime-cement mor­tar is used. Brick­lay­ing above the roof should be done using a cement-sand mix­ture, where sand and cement will be in a ratio of 3:1 or 4:1.

Cement mor­tar with sand

You can pur­chase a dry mix ready-made and only dilute it with water until you get a “thick sour cream”.

To build a chim­ney, you will need the fol­low­ing tools:

  • trow­el;
  • Mas­ter OK;
  • rub­ber mal­let;
  • rule;
  • mop;
  • stitch­ing;
  • lev­el;
  • roulette;
  • square;
  • tree order.

To accu­rate­ly and effi­cient­ly cut a brick, it is bet­ter to use a grinder.

The main stages of the construction of a brick pipe

Before start­ing the lay­ing of the fur­nace struc­ture, a dia­gram should be pre­pared. To avoid errors dur­ing instal­la­tion, you should seek help from spe­cial­ists. With exten­sive expe­ri­ence in con­struc­tion, you can make a chim­ney your­self.

Main stages of work:

  1. Instal­la­tion of a packed pipe. First, the low­er part is laid on a spe­cial solu­tion, and then all the com­po­nents are lig­at­ed. This method is char­ac­ter­ized by the fact that each row is shift­ed by half a brick in order to obtain max­i­mum adhe­sion. The pipe is mount­ed, leav­ing sev­er­al rows before over­lap­ping.
  2. Fluff instal­la­tion. At this stage, the perime­ter is expand­ed from the out­side. The rec­om­mend­ed size of the out­er expan­sion is 59 * 45 cm, and the inter­nal — 14 * 27 cm. The expan­sion is car­ried out as fol­lows: move the bricks along the edges in each row by 3–4 cm.
  3. Otter mount­ing. It is grad­u­al­ly expand­ing, but uneven­ly. In this case, it is nec­es­sary to take into account the dif­fer­ent heights of the open­ing in the roof.
  4. Lay­ing the ris­er and neck of the chim­ney struc­ture. The neck should be of the same sec­tion as the ris­er in terms of exter­nal dimen­sions. After sev­er­al rows, it is nec­es­sary to install a rein­forc­ing belt to increase the strength of the struc­ture.
  5. Head­er device. The for­ma­tion of this part is car­ried out from two rows. In the first row, widen­ing is per­formed in dif­fer­ent direc­tions by 30–40 cm. The next row is laid out in the usu­al way. In place of the pro­tru­sion of the low­er row, an inclined sur­face should be laid out. At the final stage, you need to fix the umbrel­la or deflec­tor. The gap between the top of the head and the bot­tom of the umbrel­la should be 15–20 cm. If there are gaps between the chim­ney and the roof, seal­ing is per­formed.
Build­ing mate­r­i­al lay­ing tech­nol­o­gy

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For noise and sound insu­la­tion, you can sheathe the struc­ture with min­er­al wool.

Sub­ject to the above rules and rec­om­men­da­tions, you can install the chim­ney with your own hands.

How to calculate the height of the chimney pipe

When cal­cu­lat­ing this indi­ca­tor, pay atten­tion to the fol­low­ing require­ments:

  1. The height between the grate and the top of the head must be at least 5 m.
  2. If the roof is gable, then the height of the roof ele­ment of the chim­ney must be at least 1 meter.
  3. If the roof­ing mate­r­i­al has the abil­i­ty to ignite, then the head should be at least 1.5 m high­er from the sur­face.
  4. If the roof is made of non-com­bustible mate­r­i­al, then the height can be 0.5 meters.
Deter­min­ing the height rel­a­tive to the roof ridge
  1. If, in rela­tion to the roof ridge, the loca­tion of the pipe is 1.5 meters clos­er, then it should be at least half a meter high­er.
  2. The pipe and the ridge can be of the same height if the dis­tance from these ele­ments is 1.5–3 meters.

If there is a tall build­ing near­by, then the height of the pipe is made half a meter high­er than the ridge of this struc­ture.

These rec­om­men­da­tions must be tak­en into account when installing the chim­ney.

Chimney pipe repair

Dis­man­tling and dis­man­tling of a brick chim­ney start from the top in blocks.

When the first signs of defor­ma­tion, crack­ing appear, it is nec­es­sary to repair the chim­ney chan­nel, oth­er­wise it will have to be com­plete­ly changed in the future.

With par­tial­ly destroyed mason­ry, dam­aged blocks are replaced. They are care­ful­ly pulled out, the place is cleaned and a new mor­tar is laid, and a new brick is laid on top.

Pipe in need of repair

If a wall is destroyed inside, then brick­work is per­formed, that is, the inner sur­face is plas­tered.

If the brick is old and has under­gone sig­nif­i­cant destruc­tion, then a steel or ceram­ic struc­ture can be installed. Thanks to the instal­la­tion of the sleeve, heat loss­es will be min­i­mal. In order not to lay out a new smoke chan­nel, you can con­nect a brick chim­ney with a sand­wich pipe.

Gilzo­vanie

It should be not­ed that the ser­vice life of a brick chim­ney is about 10 years and depends on the oper­at­ing con­di­tions, the qual­i­ty of the mate­r­i­al and prop­er instal­la­tion.

Possible errors and recommendations

The chim­ney can be fold­ed with your own hands, sub­ject to all rec­om­men­da­tions. How­ev­er, even expe­ri­enced builders can make mis­takes dur­ing instal­la­tion.

The most com­mon mis­takes when installing a brick chim­ney:

  1. Small pipe height, which can affect the qual­i­ty of trac­tion. To avoid this, it is nec­es­sary to cor­rect­ly cal­cu­late the height of the pipe.
  2. Het­ero­gene­ity of the cement mix­ture. In the future, the solu­tion may crum­ble and the struc­ture will col­lapse.
  3. thick lay­er of solu­tion. Such an error can lead to the destruc­tion of the chim­ney.

Do not for­get to clean the chim­ney inside. This mea­sure will improve the per­for­mance of the device.

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