An important element on which the operation of the entire heating system in a private house depends is the smoke channel. The main function is the removal of combustion products to the outside. Proper arrangement requires compliance with certain rules.
Feature and structural elements
The operation of all equipment will depend on how the device functions. The main function is to provide traction and remove products formed during combustion.
The minimum distance from the wall to the smoke channel is 38 cm. The thickness of the brick pipe is an important indicator for ensuring fire safety in the house. The thicker it is, the less it will heat up. The recommended thickness is 100 mm.
The chimney consists of the following structural elements:
- internal chimney;
The brick pipe for arranging the chimney must be located strictly vertically. Even a minimal deviation of a couple of degrees is not allowed.
The main calculation criterion is the internal section. It can have a different indicator, taking into account how many bricks form a row. Section 125 * 125 mm — “four”, i.e. a row is formed by 4 blocks, 250 * 125 mm — “five”, 250 * 250 mm — “six”. The first type is used for stoves, the second size is usually used for heating stoves. “Six” can be used to install a fireplace or a European stove.
Pros and cons
Advantages of a brick chimney pipe:
- fire safety;
- long service life;
- resistance to temperature changes;
- suitability for repair.
In addition to the positive properties of the material, there are a number of disadvantages:
- big weight;
- masonry complexity;
- soot accumulation.
For a chimney, it is better to make a round channel, but it is impossible to achieve such a shape with clinker. Therefore, only a rectangular section can be formed.
The brick has a rough surface, against which soot will quickly accumulate. Because of this, it will be necessary to clean more often.
There are three types of chimney channel depending on the heat generating model:
The first type can be installed both on the stove and on the ceiling. It has a lot of weight, and in order to withstand it, the walls of the structure must be two brick blocks thick.
The second type is an independent structure, which is erected on a foundation outside or inside a residential facility.
The intra-wall structure is formed during the laying of the load-bearing wall.
Types of brick
The choice of material for the construction of a pipe device should be approached responsibly. Poor-quality material under the influence of low temperatures, various precipitation, sunlight can collapse. Therefore, saving on high-quality brick blocks is not worth it.
There are 3 types of bricks, each of which has its own differences.
The first grade is characterized by blocks of bright red color with a yellowish tint. The edges are even and smooth, there are no pores and various inclusions. If you tap with a hammer, you will hear a ringing sound.
Blocks of the second grade are pale orange, the color is slightly saturated. There are pores. Flaws can be found on the edges. When tapped, a dull and short sound is heard. Bricks are usually unfinished. They are characterized by low frost resistance, high sensitivity to moisture.
The building material of the third grade is distinguished by a dark brown color. The structure is porous, and there are chips and scuffs on the edges. This variety is moderately overgrown. It is not recommended to use for laying a channel for flue gas removal due to fragility, lack of frost resistance.
Experienced craftsmen recommend choosing clay bricks of the first grade for chimneys.
The clinker should be smooth and even. Experienced craftsmen recommend choosing the first grade with a brand of more than two hundred. For the construction of a chimney channel, the brick size must have the following values u200bu200bof 25 * 12 * 6.5 cm.
Building materials and tools for work
When building a brick chimney, it is necessary to properly prepare the mortar. For internal masonry, a clay-sand mixture is used. The ratio of components can be 1:1, 1:2, 1:3. This takes into account the fat content of clay.
For the construction of a riser inside the attic, a lime-cement mortar is used. Bricklaying above the roof should be done using a cement-sand mixture, where sand and cement will be in a ratio of 3:1 or 4:1.
You can purchase a dry mix ready-made and only dilute it with water until you get a “thick sour cream”.
To build a chimney, you will need the following tools:
- Master OK;
- rubber mallet;
- tree order.
To accurately and efficiently cut a brick, it is better to use a grinder.
The main stages of the construction of a brick pipe
Before starting the laying of the furnace structure, a diagram should be prepared. To avoid errors during installation, you should seek help from specialists. With extensive experience in construction, you can make a chimney yourself.
Main stages of work:
- Installation of a packed pipe. First, the lower part is laid on a special solution, and then all the components are ligated. This method is characterized by the fact that each row is shifted by half a brick in order to obtain maximum adhesion. The pipe is mounted, leaving several rows before overlapping.
- Fluff installation. At this stage, the perimeter is expanded from the outside. The recommended size of the outer expansion is 59 * 45 cm, and the internal — 14 * 27 cm. The expansion is carried out as follows: move the bricks along the edges in each row by 3–4 cm.
- Otter mounting. It is gradually expanding, but unevenly. In this case, it is necessary to take into account the different heights of the opening in the roof.
- Laying the riser and neck of the chimney structure. The neck should be of the same section as the riser in terms of external dimensions. After several rows, it is necessary to install a reinforcing belt to increase the strength of the structure.
- Header device. The formation of this part is carried out from two rows. In the first row, widening is performed in different directions by 30–40 cm. The next row is laid out in the usual way. In place of the protrusion of the lower row, an inclined surface should be laid out. At the final stage, you need to fix the umbrella or deflector. The gap between the top of the head and the bottom of the umbrella should be 15–20 cm. If there are gaps between the chimney and the roof, sealing is performed.
For noise and sound insulation, you can sheathe the structure with mineral wool.
Subject to the above rules and recommendations, you can install the chimney with your own hands.
How to calculate the height of the chimney pipe
When calculating this indicator, pay attention to the following requirements:
- The height between the grate and the top of the head must be at least 5 m.
- If the roof is gable, then the height of the roof element of the chimney must be at least 1 meter.
- If the roofing material has the ability to ignite, then the head should be at least 1.5 m higher from the surface.
- If the roof is made of non-combustible material, then the height can be 0.5 meters.
- If, in relation to the roof ridge, the location of the pipe is 1.5 meters closer, then it should be at least half a meter higher.
- The pipe and the ridge can be of the same height if the distance from these elements is 1.5–3 meters.
If there is a tall building nearby, then the height of the pipe is made half a meter higher than the ridge of this structure.
These recommendations must be taken into account when installing the chimney.
Chimney pipe repair
Dismantling and dismantling of a brick chimney start from the top in blocks.
When the first signs of deformation, cracking appear, it is necessary to repair the chimney channel, otherwise it will have to be completely changed in the future.
With partially destroyed masonry, damaged blocks are replaced. They are carefully pulled out, the place is cleaned and a new mortar is laid, and a new brick is laid on top.
If a wall is destroyed inside, then brickwork is performed, that is, the inner surface is plastered.
If the brick is old and has undergone significant destruction, then a steel or ceramic structure can be installed. Thanks to the installation of the sleeve, heat losses will be minimal. In order not to lay out a new smoke channel, you can connect a brick chimney with a sandwich pipe.
It should be noted that the service life of a brick chimney is about 10 years and depends on the operating conditions, the quality of the material and proper installation.
Possible errors and recommendations
The chimney can be folded with your own hands, subject to all recommendations. However, even experienced builders can make mistakes during installation.
The most common mistakes when installing a brick chimney:
- Small pipe height, which can affect the quality of traction. To avoid this, it is necessary to correctly calculate the height of the pipe.
- Heterogeneity of the cement mixture. In the future, the solution may crumble and the structure will collapse.
- thick layer of solution. Such an error can lead to the destruction of the chimney.
Do not forget to clean the chimney inside. This measure will improve the performance of the device.