The procedure for installing plastic pipes for plumbing with your own hands

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Recon­struc­tion of the old and instal­la­tion of a new water sup­ply sys­tem is one of the tech­no­log­i­cal tasks dur­ing con­struc­tion or over­haul. Do-it-your­self plan­ning for the instal­la­tion of plas­tic pipes for hot and cold water sup­ply should be done after study­ing the prin­ci­ples of design­ing such sys­tems and the tech­nol­o­gy of work process­es.

It is nec­es­sary to under­stand the pipes used for water sup­ply sys­tems, lay­ing rules, know the pur­pose of fit­tings and devices includ­ed in the sys­tem, be able to work with equip­ment for con­nect­ing ele­ments.

Types of plastic pipes for water supply and fittings

The mod­ern con­cept of plas­tic pipes is pre­fab­ri­cat­ed. The num­ber of types of plas­tic pipes with con­stant­ly improv­ing tech­ni­cal char­ac­ter­is­tics is increas­ing as inno­v­a­tive pro­duc­tion tech­nolo­gies and mate­ri­als are cre­at­ed.

The line of plas­tic pipes pro­duced by domes­tic and for­eign man­u­fac­tur­ers includes:

  1. Poly­eth­yl­ene (PE). Such prod­ucts are used for cold water sup­ply net­works with low pres­sure (LPH) 2.5 atm, high pres­sure (HPV) 8 атм и расчётной температурой жидкости 0—40 градусов. Изготавливаются по ГОСТ 18599–2001 из ПЭ-80, ПЭ-100. Рекомендуются для прокладки водопровода в малоэтажных зданиях или при поэтажной зонированной разводке в квартирах. На маркировке обращайте внимание на значение SDR — прочностные характеристики полиэтиленовой трубы. Чем ниже это значение, тем стенки толще, изделия выдерживают большее давление. Сварка при монтаже водопровода производится стыковым методом для изделий диаметром >5 cm, wall thick­ness >5 mm, with the help of spe­cial elec­tric cou­plings for small­er sizes.
  2. Polypropy­lene pipes (PP). Prod­ucts are used for sup­ply­ing cold drink­ing water in the plumb­ing sys­tem. Ther­mo­plas­tic poly­mer is high­ly rigid, assem­bly is car­ried out only with the help of cor­ner fit­tings. Con­nec­tion — sol­der­ing iron (dif­fu­sion weld­ing). Pipes are marked depend­ing on the com­po­si­tion of the raw mate­ri­als from which they are pro­duced — PPH, PPR, PPB. Prod­ucts with­stand pres­sure 10 atm, design oper­at­ing tem­per­a­ture 70–80 degrees. Pipes with a blue stripe are for cold water, a red stripe indi­cates the use of mate­r­i­al for hot water sup­ply, a yel­low stripe indi­cates gas pipes, they are not used in water sup­ply.
  3. Met­al-plas­tic (met­al-poly­mer). Prod­ucts are used for lay­ing cold and hot water sup­ply, heat­ing. The name itself — met­al-plas­tic indi­cates that the struc­ture of the pipe is a lay­ered struc­ture. The out­er and inner lay­er is ordi­nary or cross-linked poly­eth­yl­ene, inside is an alu­minum thin-walled pipe or mesh, the lay­ers are bond­ed on an adhe­sive basis. Mark­ing: PE-AL-PE (two lay­ers of ordi­nary poly­eth­yl­ene + a lay­er of alu­minum), PE-AL-PERT (ther­mo-strength­ened poly­eth­yl­ene inside, nor­mal out­side, alu­minum lay­er in the mid­dle), PEX-AL-PEX (cross-linked poly­eth­yl­ene inside and out­side). Prod­ucts are used for pipelines with a design tem­per­a­ture of +90 degrees at a pres­sure of 10 MPa. They are mount­ed using com­pres­sion fit­tings or on press fit­tings with a spe­cial man­u­al hydraulic wrench.
Con­struc­tion PERT-AL-PERT
  1. Poly­butene (poly­buty­lene). Pipes from mate­ri­als relat­ed to inno­v­a­tive devel­op­ments. They have improved char­ac­ter­is­tics, high elas­tic­i­ty. Marked “PB”. Assem­bly is car­ried out using fit­tings or a sol­der­ing iron.

Criteria for choosing plastic pipes for plumbing

The right choice of plas­tic pipes for plumb­ing is based on char­ac­ter­is­tics such as:

  • design pres­sure in the net­work;
  • required inner diam­e­ter based on flu­id flow, head;
  • cal­cu­lat­ed liq­uid tem­per­a­ture;
  • phys­i­cal-mechan­i­cal and eco­log­i­cal prop­er­ties;
  • avail­abil­i­ty of mount­ing tools (sol­der­ing iron, wrench­es or man­u­al press wrench­es);
  • the total cost of the plumb­ing project.

Advantages and disadvantages of plastic pipes

With the advent of plas­tic pipes, which have a num­ber of unde­ni­able advan­tages over met­al ones, it caus­es their wide­spread use in plumb­ing, heat­ing and sew­er sys­tems.

An end­less range of plas­tic prod­ucts are pro­duced by enter­pris­es for plumb­ing

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Gen­er­al advan­tages of any plas­tic prod­ucts over met­al ones:

  1. Chem­i­cal resis­tance to alka­lis, sur­fac­tants, lack of reac­tion with oxy­gen dis­solved in water allows the inner sur­face of prod­ucts to remain unchanged, rust does not form.
  2. Lay­ers of insol­u­ble salts are not deposit­ed inside the pipes, so the cross sec­tion of the pas­sage hole remains con­stant, and clean­ing is not required for the entire peri­od of oper­a­tion.
  3. Plas­tic pipes do not burst when the car­ri­er freezes.
  4. Bac­te­ria colonies do not form inside, drink­ing water remains clean.
  5. Light weight of the mate­r­i­al, ease of instal­la­tion of water sup­ply sys­tems.
  6. Guar­an­teed ser­vice life up to 50 years.
  7. Bud­getary cost of prod­ucts, com­po­nents.
  8. The dis­ad­van­tage is the lim­i­ta­tion of appli­ca­tion accord­ing to the cal­cu­lat­ed oper­at­ing tem­per­a­tures, pres­sure.
  9. Plas­tic is a com­bustible mate­r­i­al and should not be used in fire pro­tec­tion sys­tems.

Fittings and their application

Fit­tings — spe­cial parts of the water sup­ply sys­tem, nec­es­sary for lay­ing, con­nect­ing prod­ucts, con­nect­ing to dis­tri­b­u­tion plumb­ing fix­tures, installing shut­off valves. The use of fit­tings allows you to con­nect plas­tic ele­ments with met­al ones, make any trace regard­less of the con­fig­u­ra­tion of the room, assem­ble a sys­tem of any com­plex­i­ty.

For each type, size of pipes, type of con­nec­tion with plumb­ing fix­tures from anoth­er mate­r­i­al, the indus­try pro­duces a com­plete set of required fit­tings. The table does not pro­vide a com­plete list of fit­tings used in the instal­la­tion of a water sup­ply sys­tem, their pur­pose. A more com­plete list is avail­able on the market.yandex web­site.

Indus­tri­al fit­tings for plas­tic plumb­ing
Name

prod­ucts

Image Pur­pose

fit­ting

Price
Cou­pling PP…

#1

Uni­ver­sal

cou­plings for

con­nec­tions

all kinds

plas­tic

prod­ucts of one

diam­e­ter,

dif­fer­ent diam­e­ters.

From 5.4 rub.
Elbows

#2

With­draw­al

polypropy­lene

uni­ver­sal.

Rotate 90 degrees.

There are taps

under 45 degrees.

From 7.00 rub.
Tees

Num­ber 3

Tees for

branch­es

uni­ver­sal.

avail­able for pipes

one diam­e­ter

tran­si­tion­al,

with direc­tion

under 90 and 45

degrees,

two-plane.

From 13.0 rub.
Cou­pling

Amer­i­can

#4

Serve for

devices

detach­able

con­nec­tions with

met­al

appli­ances.

Under dif­fer­ent

diam­e­ters

col­lec­tors,

out­door or

inter­nal thread.

From 240 rub.
Crane PP

#5

Par­tial or

com­plete

over­lap

flu­id flow.

Under the cold

hot water.

From 90 rub.
With­draw­al

#6

Applied in places

inter­sec­tions

net­work ele­ments

for round­ing

From 56 rub.
Fas­ten­ing

#7

sin­gle sup­ports,

dou­ble for wall mount­ing.

01.02.00

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Drawing up a water supply scheme

The design of the recon­struc­tion of an old or new­ly built cold and hot water pipeline should be based on the norms, require­ments of SNiP 2.04.01–85 *.

Con­struc­tion draw­ings, water sup­ply schemes are axono­met­ric pro­jec­tions of the route indi­cat­ing the loca­tions of san­i­tary appli­ances, shut-off and tech­no­log­i­cal valves. The dia­gram indi­cates the dimen­sions of each sec­tion of the wiring, the nec­es­sary fit­tings for rout­ing, the inter­sec­tion of walls, ceil­ings.

Draw­ing up axono­met­ric dia­grams is car­ried out at the design stage of a build­ing under con­struc­tion. Cor­rect­ly draw­ing up a project for hot and cold water sup­ply is not an easy task. The best option is to con­tact the design orga­ni­za­tion.

The sim­plest scheme of plumb­ing in an apart­ment

When draw­ing up a dia­gram on your own, care­ful­ly study the reg­u­la­to­ry doc­u­ments, decide on the method of water sup­ply, the num­ber of con­sump­tion points, and the lay­ing method.

Tee method

This method pro­vides for the sequen­tial dis­tri­b­u­tion of cold, hot water from cen­tral water sup­ply ris­ers if a water pipe is being installed in an apart­ment or from a boil­er, pump in a pri­vate house.

With the tee method, the water pres­sure in the sys­tem drops, the pres­sure at each sub­se­quent point of con­sump­tion decreas­es. Such a sys­tem requires cal­cu­la­tion, it is used when there are not many water flow points (faucets, toi­let bowl, bath­room, wash­ing machine), the prob­a­bil­i­ty of simul­ta­ne­ous open­ing is not sig­nif­i­cant.

collector method

This method involves the instal­la­tion of a dis­tri­b­u­tion man­i­fold at the sys­tem inlet. Each con­sump­tion point is con­nect­ed to the col­lec­tor indi­vid­u­al­ly.

Col­lec­tor con­nec­tion of hot and cold water

With this par­al­lel method of dis­trib­ut­ing pres­sure, the pres­sure of the liq­uid in the sys­tem remains con­stant, the num­ber of con­nec­tion of con­sumers is not lim­it­ed. Even when the devices at the flow points are ful­ly switched on.

Rules for laying water pipes

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When draw­ing up a water sup­ply scheme with plas­tic pipes, one should be guid­ed by the pro­vi­sions of SNiP 2.04.01–85 *:

  • when lay­ing a water pipe, hid­den wiring should be pro­vid­ed;
  • trac­ing along the bot­tom of the walls is allowed, while it should be car­ried out in closed box­es that pro­tect pipes from acci­den­tal dam­age;
  • with the col­lec­tor method of sup­ply, a beam dis­tri­b­u­tion under the floor screed should be pro­vid­ed, while the thick­ness of the screed and coat­ing should be suf­fi­cient for safe oper­a­tion;
An exam­ple of beam wiring of com­mu­ni­ca­tions in the floor
  • in san­i­tary facil­i­ties (toi­let, bath­room, show­er room, tiled kitchen) con­cealed wiring is not allowed. It is pos­si­ble to lay in box­es with access to the places of instal­la­tion of shut-off valves, con­trol devices;
  • hid­den wiring on columns, truss­es is not allowed;
  • seal the fur­rows in the walls with plas­ter on the grid or tiles;
  • lay pipelines with a slope of 0.002;
  • at the sys­tem inlets, pro­vide for the instal­la­tion of a check and shut-off valve, pres­sure reg­u­la­tors with a pres­sure gauge, a water meter assem­bly, and a meter;
  • at the upper points of the sys­tem, pro­vide devices for bleed­ing air, at the low­er points — flu­id drain devices;
  • Install com­pen­sators (fit­tings) to com­pen­sate for lin­ear expan­sion of the pipe when the tem­per­a­ture of the medi­um changes in long runs or where walls are lim­it­ed. When lay­ing through inter­floor ceil­ings, design the instal­la­tion of expan­sion joints from cor­ners, which will allow you to main­tain the lin­ear­i­ty of the ris­ers;
  • with open wiring, com­mu­ni­ca­tion ele­ments are attached to the wall with clips or clamps in long sec­tions, at cor­ners of rota­tion, at the points of con­nec­tion of devices;
  • lay pipes with hot water high­er than with cold water. For the lat­ter, pro­vide ther­mal insu­la­tion;
  • in places where con­sum­able plumb­ing fix­tures or oth­er devices are con­nect­ed, install shut-off ball valves on Amer­i­can or spurs;
  • accord­ing to the norms for the instal­la­tion of gal­va­nized pipes, it is allowed to replace them with non-gal­va­nized pipes with appro­pri­ate jus­ti­fi­ca­tion;
  • In order to restore the coat­ing, paint the weld­ing seams of gal­va­nized pipes with a paint con­tain­ing >94% zinc dust.

Tools and accessories

For the instal­la­tion of a hot and cold water sup­ply sys­tem, the required num­ber of pipes, fit­tings, con­trol and shut-off valves, plumb­ing fix­tures, and oth­er ele­ments includ­ed in the plumb­ing sys­tem will be required for this. These data are tak­en from the scheme that was drawn up before the start of work.

Cal­cu­late how many pipes you need, what diam­e­ter, sum­ming up the dimen­sions of indi­vid­ual sec­tions of the wiring. See where the bends, tees and oth­er fit­tings need­ed for rout­ing are installed, count the num­ber. The num­ber of oth­er ele­ments of the sys­tem is also deter­mined based on the drawn up scheme.

Buy mate­ri­als with a safe­ty fac­tor of 1.15.

If there are dif­fi­cul­ties with the cal­cu­la­tions, con­tact the sell­er of the store where you are going to buy mate­ri­als with your scheme. He will select the nec­es­sary com­po­nents for the plumb­ing, answer ques­tions about the appli­ca­tion and instal­la­tion pro­ce­dure for each ele­ment.

In addi­tion, you will need:

  • roulette;
  • square;
  • build­ing or laser lev­el;
  • pen­cil, ruler;
  • rag with sol­vent;
  • scis­sors for cut­ting pipes;
  • per­fo­ra­tor, screw­driv­er for mount­ing fas­ten­ers;
  • a sol­der­ing iron or a wrench for con­nect­ing pipes, depend­ing on the instal­la­tion method (glue is need­ed for poly­eth­yl­ene and PVC pipes);
  • grinder to dis­con­nect from the ris­er and tap for thread­ing when con­nect­ed;
  • gloves and work clothes.

Working with a soldering iron

When buy­ing a sol­der­ing iron, choose a device from the mid­dle price cat­e­go­ry. They have a high-qual­i­ty Teflon coat­ing of the heads, this guar­an­tees a long-term preser­va­tion of the sur­face of the head when sol­der­ing plas­tic pipes (it will not stick when heat­ed).

Heat­ing with a sol­der­ing iron of the con­nec­tion ele­ments
  1. Read the instruc­tions. Pay spe­cial atten­tion to the table with the rec­om­mend­ed heat­ing tem­per­a­ture of the head for the type of pipes select­ed and the heat­ing time of the sol­dered ele­ments depend­ing on the wall thick­ness and diam­e­ter. Check that the head match­es the diam­e­ter of the pipes to be sol­dered. Set the required oper­at­ing tem­per­a­ture for heat­ing the head with the reg­u­la­tor. Con­duct an exper­i­men­tal con­nec­tion of the pipe with the cou­pling.
  2. Turn on the sol­der­ing iron. The lights will turn red, which means the sol­der­ing iron is heat­ing up. Take the cou­pling, mea­sure the work­ing depth of the entry. Set aside this dis­tance from the end of the pipe to be weld­ed, mark with a pen­cil, draw a line from above, and also make a mark on the cou­pling. Degrease the sur­face of the end of the pipe and inside the cou­pling with ace­tone.
  3. After the lights go out or turn green, con­nect the parts to be weld­ed even­ly and with­out much effort, hold the time rec­om­mend­ed by the instruc­tions. Remove the parts smooth­ly from the head, con­nect to each oth­er to the depth mark and align the marks from above. This must be done quick­ly, but with­out much effort, to the entry depth mark. In this case, ele­ments must not be rotat­ed (rota­tion 5 degrees is allowed) or insert­ed at an angle. A uni­form annu­lar bead should form at the sol­der­ing site.
  4. Hold the ele­ments in this posi­tion for 5–6 sec­onds. Inspect the con­nec­tion — the cor­rect align­ment of the marks, main­tain­ing the diam­e­ter of the inter­nal through hole. If the result is sat­is­fac­to­ry — good, if there are defects, repeat the sol­der­ing. Work­ing with a sol­der­ing iron must be mas­tered well, the qual­i­ty of the assem­bly of the sys­tem depends on it.

Stages of plumbing installation

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Before start­ing work, agree on a tem­po­rary shut­down of the water sup­ply, call a plumber for this time. Dis­con­nect from the ris­er, cut the thread, put the plug.

Do not turn off the water sup­ply your­self, the ris­er is the respon­si­bil­i­ty of the com­pa­ny ser­vic­ing the house.

Drain the remain­ing water from the pipes, dis­man­tle the com­po­nents of the old plumb­ing. Dis­con­nect the sew­er, inspect. If nec­es­sary — dis­man­tle the sew­er, replace with a new one.

Clean the walls and floor of the room, pre­pare for instal­la­tion work, noth­ing should inter­fere. Remem­ber the sequence of pipes from bot­tom to top when trac­ing togeth­er: sew­er­age, cold water, hot.

Con­cealed wall lin­ing

Draw lines for lay­ing pipes accord­ing to the dia­gram, install mount­ing clips. Do not for­get about the slope of 0.002 cm per meter of the track. Pre­pare the nec­es­sary holes with sleeves in the walls.

Start the instal­la­tion work with the nodes com­ing from the con­nec­tion points of the plumb­ing equip­ment. Col­lect knots, strength­en to the walls.

Work on sol­der­ing polypropy­lene pipelines is allowed to be car­ried out at a tem­per­a­ture not low­er than +2 degrees in the absence of wind. Plas­tic prod­ucts should be heat­ed or stored in a warm room. In the wind, at low tem­per­a­tures, it is not rec­om­mend­ed to work with a sol­der­ing iron, it is good to warm up the work­pieces, it is impos­si­ble to obtain a high-qual­i­ty con­nec­tion.

Assem­ble the com­mu­ni­ca­tions com­plete­ly to the con­nec­tion points to the ris­ers. If pos­si­ble, reduce the num­ber of adhe­sions, do not get car­ried away with the use of unnec­es­sary bends, tees. This will reduce the hydraulic resis­tance, increase the qual­i­ty of the polypropy­lene pipeline as a whole.

An exam­ple of a qual­i­ty man­i­fold assem­bly

If you have prob­lems with sol­der­ing at the joints, use a sec­ond sol­der­ing iron, install a com­pen­sator, or move the joint to anoth­er place, mak­ing this sec­tion sep­a­rate­ly.

After the com­mu­ni­ca­tions are assem­bled, the entire sys­tem is pres­sure test­ed by 1.2 of the cal­cu­lat­ed val­ue, but not high­er than the allow­able for the prod­ucts used. No pres­sure drop allowed. Floor screed­ing or grout­ing of con­cealed wiring chan­nels is allowed only after a pos­i­tive pres­sure test result.

Coor­di­nate the con­nec­tion of com­mu­ni­ca­tions to the ris­ers with the dis­patch­er of the man­age­ment com­pa­ny.

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