We analyze the scheme of single-circuit heating in a private house


When design­ing a detached real estate for liv­ing, one of the points is its heat­ing. The same ques­tion aris­es when buy­ing a ready-made struc­ture. In a pri­vate house, a sin­gle-cir­cuit or mul­ti-cir­cuit heat­ing sys­tem is installed. Oth­ers choose mul­ti-cir­cuit. It all depends on the size of the house, the type of sys­tem and the needs of the own­er. The first option is more often used, since it is easy to install and requires few­er com­po­nents. A boil­er is used for heat­ing, and water is used as a heat car­ri­er.

The principle of operation of a single-circuit system

The sin­gle-cir­cuit heat­ing scheme installed in a pri­vate house con­sists of the fol­low­ing com­po­nents:

  • boil­er;
  • radi­a­tors;
  • pipes;
  • expan­sion tank.

In fact, the sys­tem is a ser­i­al con­nec­tion of all the above equip­ment. The cen­tral node is the boil­er. It heats the water, which then flows through the pipes to the radi­a­tors. Pass­ing through all the ele­ments, the coolant cools down. The cycle ends when the liq­uid enters the boil­er again.

Dur­ing design, it is impor­tant to remem­ber that the first radi­a­tor will receive max­i­mum heat­ing. In this case, the water, get­ting into the next one, will cool down. On aver­age, in the last bat­tery, the coolant tem­per­a­ture ranges from 40 to 50 degrees, which does not allow one room to be ful­ly heat­ed.

This can be dealt with in two ways:

  • increase the heat trans­fer of the last radi­a­tors by increas­ing the heat capac­i­ty;
  • set a high­er heat­ing tem­per­a­ture on the boil­er itself.

Impor­tant! These meth­ods, although they seem like a sim­ple solu­tion, nev­er­the­less lead to an increase in oper­at­ing costs and costs in gen­er­al.

Also, the desired effect can be achieved by installing a cir­cu­la­tion pump that increas­es the speed of water move­ment. These com­po­nents are pow­ered by elec­tric­i­ty. Although they seem like a great solu­tion, at the same time in places where pow­er out­ages often occur, they are not a good option.

Anoth­er great way out is the accel­er­at­ing man­i­fold, which is a tall straight pipe. The coolant, leav­ing it, accel­er­ates, which allows you to quick­ly over­come the bat­ter­ies. At the same time, the height of this com­po­nent in rela­tion to the top point of the first radi­a­tor must exceed 2.2 meters. Oth­er­wise, its instal­la­tion is mean­ing­less. There­fore, in this way it is bet­ter to equip the heat­ing sys­tem in a two-sto­ry house. The high­er the pipe, the more effi­cient the work will be.

An expan­sion tank is installed on top of the col­lec­tor, with the help of which the coolant is con­trolled. When heat­ed, the liq­uid expands in vol­ume. And the excess just gets into this tank. After the sys­tem cools down, it returns to it.

The speci­fici­ty of the sys­tem is that there is no return line in it — the sec­ond half of the entire struc­ture acts as it. This is pre­cise­ly the main dif­fer­ence between a mul­ti-cir­cuit heat­ing sys­tem and a sin­gle-cir­cuit heat­ing sys­tem in a pri­vate house.

Types of wiring


There are two ways to install a sin­gle-cir­cuit sys­tem indoors:

  • hor­i­zon­tal;
  • ver­ti­cal.

So, hor­i­zon­tal wiring involves the use of a min­i­mum num­ber of pipes. The com­po­nents are con­nect­ed in series. This may cause air pock­ets. In addi­tion, there is no way to reg­u­late the heat flow.

Ver­ti­cal wiring involves lay­ing a cen­tral line through the attic, from which pipes extend to each radi­a­tor. This method allows you to deliv­er water to the bat­ter­ies at the same tem­per­a­ture. The main fea­ture is a com­mon ris­er for radi­a­tors, regard­less of the num­ber of storeys of the build­ing.


Sin­gle-cir­cuit heat­ing has a lot of advan­tages over mul­ti-cir­cuit heat­ing:

  1. A sin­gle pipe runs through­out the entire room.
  2. This sys­tem makes it pos­si­ble to lay pipes under the door­way, which reduces the cost.
  3. It is pos­si­ble to install sev­er­al boil­ers at once in case of prob­lems with one of them.
  4. The abil­i­ty to indi­cate the direc­tion of the coolant flow, which will be more ben­e­fi­cial to the own­er of the house.


How­ev­er, some dis­ad­van­tages can be iden­ti­fied:

  1. If the sys­tem is idle for a long time, it will take a long time to start up.
  2. Dur­ing the heat­ing of a two-sto­ry pri­vate house, hot water is first sup­plied upward. Get­ting down, it already has a tem­per­a­ture much low­er. To increase heat trans­fer, you can install more radi­a­tors — the cost of the sys­tem will increase, and at the same time it will not have an aes­thet­ic appear­ance.
  3. It is not pos­si­ble to dis­con­nect one floor from the sys­tem, and there­fore, dur­ing the repair, heat­ing must be com­plete­ly aban­doned.
  4. High heat loss.

Installation Features


Instal­la­tion of a sin­gle-cir­cuit heat­ing sys­tem has its own char­ac­ter­is­tics. So, for exam­ple, the boil­er is installed first. It can be locat­ed both in the base­ment and on the first floor. It is con­sid­ered opti­mal to place it on the floor. In addi­tion, it is desir­able to tile the equip­ment. This option is reli­able and aes­thet­ic.

Then the chim­ney is dis­charged, con­nect­ed by a cor­ru­gat­ed pipe. Here it is nec­es­sary to choose the ide­al diam­e­ters. Oth­er­wise, sub­stances formed dur­ing com­bus­tion may enter the room, which will be harm­ful to health.

Then radi­a­tors are installed at the select­ed places. Most often these are spans under the win­dows. Bat­ter­ies are mount­ed either on brack­ets or on met­al stands.

Only after that all the pipes are thrown and the con­nec­tion takes place. In this case, it is imper­a­tive to install a Mayevsky crane to vent air and a shut-off valve. Pipes are attached to the rest of the heat­ing sys­tem using thread­ed adapters.

Also, do not for­get about the expan­sion tank. It should be locat­ed at the high­est point of the sys­tem. The opti­mal height is 3 meters.

Impor­tant! It is nec­es­sary to make the project so that the branch­es of addi­tion­al high­ways are only straight lines. Oth­er­wise, it will great­ly affect the heat­ing effi­cien­cy.

Only after that the boil­er is con­nect­ed to the water sup­ply and the drain pipe is con­nect­ed.

Many experts also rec­om­mend putting fil­ters in front of the place where water enters the heat­ing cir­cuit installed in a pri­vate house from the com­mon sys­tem. It will be eas­i­er to change this com­po­nent than to restore the sys­tem as a whole lat­er.

The entire high­way should have a slight slope — not less than 5 mm per 1 lin­ear meter. If this is not done, air will col­lect in an ele­vat­ed place, which will inter­fere with the nor­mal flow of the coolant.

Before each device, it is desir­able to install a shut-off valve. If repairs are need­ed, it will not be nec­es­sary to drain the water from the entire sys­tem. In addi­tion, this ele­ment allows you to adjust the tem­per­a­ture of the sys­tem.

The drain valve is locat­ed at the low­est point of the struc­ture.

Anoth­er impor­tant ele­ment is the syn­chro­niza­tion of the elec­tric boil­er and pump. If one does not work, the sec­ond should also turn off.

Well, you can under­stand that the instal­la­tion of a sin­gle-cir­cuit heat­ing sys­tem in a house has many nuances. If all of them are tak­en into account and each ele­ment is cor­rect­ly con­nect­ed, you will enjoy every heat­ing sea­son. If some points are not tak­en into account, seri­ous prob­lems may arise.


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