We stand on that!

THERMO
“TEPLOLUX“
Lay­out and con­nec­tion dia­gram for a two-core cable
Cor­ru­gat­ed plas­tic tube for floor sen­sor instal­la­tion, TST sen­sor06
Mount­ing tape for fix­ing the heat­ing cable
ATstan­dard Spy­heat floor heat­ing kit includes heat­ing sec­tion, mount­ing tape, floor tem­per­a­ture sen­sor, ther­mo­stat and cor­ru­gat­ed tube (for sen­sor)
Foil ther­mal insu­la­tion thick­ness 3mm
Scheme of the device of the accu­mu­la­tive warm floor
Scheme of the device of the main warm floor:
1. Ground
2. Com­pact­ed grav­el
3. Ther­mal insu­la­tion
4. Plas­tic film
5. Rein­forced con­crete slab
6. Mount­ing plate
7. Heat­ing cable
8. Lev­el­ing con­crete
9. Sur­face mate­r­i­al
10. Ther­mo­stat

Ther­mal insu­la­tion and foil are first placed on the old tiled floor.
Then, using a hand tool, fix the mount­ing tape and lay the cable
The cable is laid in a zigzag man­ner, while the turns must be par­al­lel to each oth­er. ATat the end, a floor tem­per­a­ture sen­sor is installed in the cor­ru­gat­ed tube
Lay­ing the heat­ing mat under the tile
Col­or-cod­ed pro­gram­ma­ble ther­mo­stat from ENSTO
The sim­plest non-pro­gram­ma­ble ther­mo­stat
Ther­mal insu­la­tion for a water floor is per­formed using plates or pan­els made of poly­styrene, basalt fiber or polyurethane foam. These plates can be cov­ered with heat-reflect­ing foil with grid-like mark­ings or pro­vid­ed with boss­es for lay­ing and fix­ing pipes.
Scheme of sup­ply­ing heat car­ri­er to water-heat­ed floors (option):
1. Heat­ing cir­cuit
2. Dis­tri­b­u­tion comb
3. Ball valve
4. Dis­trib­u­tor cab­i­net
5. Air vent
6. Cir­cu­la­tion pump
7. Elec­tric ther­mo­sta­t­ic pump
8. Ther­mo­stat
9. Clip-on tem­per­a­ture sen­sor
10. Cap­il­lary tube
11. Ther­mo­sta­t­ic valve
12. Bypass valve

After lev­el­ing the sur­face, water­proof­ing is laid, after which, start­ing from the cor­ner of the room far­thest from the comb, ther­mal insu­la­tion slabs are mount­ed
The poly­mer pipe is laid out accord­ing to the con­tour para­me­ters, and in the right places it can be bent man­u­al­ly using a pipe ben­der
A tem­per­a­ture sen­sor is fixed on the sup­ply pipe of the cir­cuit by means of a clamp­ing col­lar, after which the pipes of the cir­cuits are filled with a screed

We stand on that!Types of heat­ing cir­cuits:
a — mean­der;
b — spi­ral

The floor heat­ing sys­tem in the bath­room is need­ed, per­haps, as in no oth­er room in the house. Togeth­er with a heat­ed tow­el rail, it main­tains the most com­fort­able micro­cli­mate in the most humid area of ​​u200bu200bthe home. The tem­per­a­ture on the floor sur­face is +26C, and at head lev­el +22…+24C. Accord­ing to experts, such a tem­per­a­ture dis­tri­b­u­tion along the height of the room is opti­mal and very dif­fi­cult to achieve when using oth­er heat­ing devices.

ATa bath­room with a heat­ing sys­tem, even in very cold win­ters, there are no drafts. Splash­es on the floor dry quick­ly, so it always stays dry and warm and dif­fi­cult to slip on. In addi­tion, clean­ing of the premis­es is facil­i­tat­ed and the prob­a­bil­i­ty of the appear­ance of a fun­gus on the sur­faces of walls and floors, which is often found in damp places at home, is prac­ti­cal­ly elim­i­nat­ed.

Varieties of floor heating systems

Today in EU the sys­tems of elec­tric and water floor heat­ing are the most pop­u­lar. They are installed both in urban high-rise build­ings and in coun­try hous­es.- there would be plen­ty of elec­tric­i­ty and funds to pay for util­i­ties. For a small bath­room of 2–4m2 sep­a­rate wiring is required with its own machine and RCD, with a pow­er of about 0.2–0.5kW. ATres­i­den­tial build­ings that were built more than 10 years ago and where sub­sta­tions and con­nec­tions are designed accord­ing to old stan­dards (approx­i­mate­ly 2.5kW per apart­ment), floor heat­ing can only be con­sid­ered as addi­tion­al heat­ing. And even then it should be used care­ful­ly, since there is a pos­si­bil­i­ty of over­load­ing the sup­ply cable (if all neigh­bors turn on numer­ous house­hold appli­ances at the same time). But even when the pow­er nec­es­sary to con­nect the elec­tric heat­ing is avail­able (in mod­ern apart­ments it is 7kW), it is nec­es­sary to check whether the exist­ing wiring allows the con­nec­tion of a warm floor accord­ing to the cur­rent load. If not, we can rec­om­mend installing a sys­tem with a capac­i­ty of more than 2kW through sep­a­rate wiring and a sep­a­rate machine.

As for the water sys­tem, this type of floor heat­ing requires a source of hot water: a boil­er for gas, diesel fuel, coal, elec­tric­i­ty (in regions with a warm cli­mate, solar col­lec­tors and heat pumps can be added to this list). There­fore, it is more often used in cot­tages with an autonomous water heat­ing sys­tem, where, in addi­tion to the bath­room, floor heat­ing is also pro­vid­ed in oth­er rooms. To install a water-heat­ed floor in a stan­dard city apart­ment, you must obtain per­mis­sion from the DEZ to con­nect to a hot water sup­ply net­work or install a small elec­tric boil­er specif­i­cal­ly to feed the heat­ing sys­tem, which is unnec­es­sar­i­ly expen­sive.

ATin line with GOELRO

The heat source in the elec­tric bath­room heat­ing sys­tem is a heat­ing cable laid in the floor mass, which turns the sur­face into a large heat­ing pan­el that radi­ates heat even­ly. The cable is con­nect­ed to an auto­mat­ic ther­mo­stat, due to which the sys­tem is con­trolled. The ther­mo­stat is fixed on the wall (if it has a water­proof design, then right in the bath­room, if not- some­thing out­side it, for exam­ple on the pan­el of light switch­es) and is the only vis­i­ble part of the sys­tem. Tem­per­a­ture read­ings come to it from a tem­per­a­ture sen­sor installed, as a rule, in a spe­cial cor­ru­gat­ed tube in the cable ter­mi­na­tion plane (so that it can be changed in case of a break­down).

All the nec­es­sary equip­ment for the elec­tric floor heat­ing sys­tem is sold in a kit con­sist­ing of a heat­ing cable, a ther­mo­stat, a tem­per­a­ture sen­sor and a cor­ru­gat­ed pipe. Kits are avail­able for mount­ing in thick or thin screed. When choos­ing equip­ment, one must pro­ceed from the lev­el to which the floor in the bath­room can be raised, how urgent­ly it is nec­es­sary to put the sys­tem into oper­a­tion and how bur­den­some the eco­nom­ic aspect of its use is for the cus­tomer. You can install a warm floor dur­ing the repair of a bath­room on your own or using the ser­vices of spe­cial­ists (whom to con­tact, the sell­ers of the equip­ment will tell you). In this case, it is nec­es­sary to strict­ly fol­low the man­u­fac­tur­er’s tech­no­log­i­cal rec­om­men­da­tions. BUTcon­nect the sys­tem to the mains and ground only with the help of a qual­i­fied elec­tri­cian.

The thick­ness of the con­crete screed depends on the expect­ed mechan­i­cal loads. For uni­form tem­per­a­ture dis­tri­b­u­tion over the floor sur­face Ger­man DIN stan­dards4725 rec­om­mend to per­form a screed with a thick­ness of at least 65mm. Accord­ing to the require­ments of Euro­pean joint ven­tures41–102-98 its thick­ness must be at least 30mm. ATceram­ic tiles, mar­ble or oth­er mate­r­i­al with a ther­mal resis­tance index R should be used as floor­ing in the bath­room=0.02m2K/W.

Mounting in a thick screed

When there are no sig­nif­i­cant restric­tions on the height of the ceil­ing in the room, you can resort to the tra­di­tion­al scheme, which involves the most effi­cient ener­gy-sav­ing con­ver­sion of elec­tric­i­ty into heat for the bath­room,- instal­la­tion of a heat­ing sys­tem in a thick screed. If the floor in the bath­room is earth­en (in cot­tages it is often locat­ed in the base­ment), then a pil­low of care­ful­ly com­pact­ed grav­el and water­proof­ing are laid on it. Nat­u­ral­ly, grav­el is not used on a ready-made con­crete base; in this case, a well-cleaned and lev­eled floor slab serves as a “lin­ing” for the sys­tem. A lay­er of rigid heat-insu­lat­ing mate­r­i­al with a thick­ness of 50–100mm, on which the first screed is made. On the con­crete sur­face that has not yet com­plete­ly solid­i­fied, pieces of mount­ing tape or a rein­forc­ing wire struc­ture are attached, which great­ly facil­i­tate the lay­ing of the cable (along a pre-planned route). Next comes the sec­ond con­crete screed, its thick­ness with direct heat­ing is from 30 to 50–70mm. Along the perime­ter of the room, in the low­er part of the walls, shock absorbers are arranged- strips of ther­mal insu­la­tion that pre­vent defor­ma­tion of the floor when heat­ed as a result of ther­mal expan­sion of con­crete. A floor built with cement mix­tures dries for at least 28 days, made using self-lev­el­ing mix­tures- 2–3 days. Final­ly, a top­coat, such as ceram­ic tiles, is laid on the screed.

When buy­ing a set of equip­ment for mount­ing an elec­tri­cal heat­ing sys­tem in a thick screed, you need to keep in mind some fea­tures of the base ele­ment- heat­ing cable. There are no restric­tions on the diam­e­ter and lin­ear pow­er of the cable (that is, on its abil­i­ty to give off one or anoth­er amount of heat to the sur­round­ing space, expressed in watts per meter of length). For lay­ing in a thick screed, cables with a diam­e­ter of 5–10 can be used.mm with lin­ear pow­er from 17 to 21W / m, as well as “thin” 2–3 mm cables with a pow­er of 5–12W/m Coils of cable with a low­er pow­er unit are arranged clos­er to each oth­er, in strict accor­dance with the man­u­fac­tur­er’s rec­om­men­da­tions. It is impor­tant that the pow­er of the entire cable is enough for com­fort­able heat­ing of a par­tic­u­lar room (you can rough­ly deter­mine the required pow­er by mul­ti­ply­ing the footage of the room by 100W).

It does­n’t mat­ter which cable is includ­ed.- one- or two-core (the dif­fer­ence between them is that two-core prac­ti­cal­ly do not cre­ate an elec­tro­mag­net­ic back­ground and cost 10–20% more). The pres­ence of an elec­tro­mag­net­ic back­ground in sin­gle-core sys­tems, which in any case is no more than that of a hair dry­er or hid­den elec­tri­cal wiring, is not dan­ger­ous, more­over, a per­son enters the bath­room sev­er­al times a day, and even then not for long.

When choos­ing a heat­ing cable for a “wet” area, it is nec­es­sary to pay atten­tion to the fact that it must have a screen made of steel or cop­per wire, alu­minum foil or lead, which pri­mar­i­ly serves for safe­ty pur­pos­es. ATIf the cable is dam­aged or water gets on it, the screen plays the role of a “light­ning rod”, in addi­tion, it sig­nif­i­cant­ly reduces the elec­tro­mag­net­ic radi­a­tion gen­er­at­ed by the cable. ATIn some sys­tems with a shield­ed sin­gle-core cable, the shield is also used as a sup­ply (return) wire, but only locat­ed coax­i­al­ly with the heat­ing core, due to which the result­ing elec­tro­mag­net­ic radi­a­tion is sig­nif­i­cant­ly reduced.

It is char­ac­ter­is­tic that the cable in the floor heat­ing sys­tem kit is pre­sent­ed not as a piece of wire, but as a fin­ished prod­uct.- sec­tions with a cer­tain length of the heat­ing core and heat out­put. For ease of instal­la­tion and increase in the ser­vice life of the entire struc­ture, the so-called cold ends are attached to the sec­tion of the heat­ing cable at the fac­to­ry.- cop­per pow­er con­duc­tors, which, unlike the cable itself, can be length­ened or short­ened if nec­es­sary. A sec­tion of a sol­id cable con­tains two sleeves and two cold ends, while a sec­tion of a two-core cable is rein­forced with an end cap at one end, and at the oth­er- a cou­pling and two cold ends for con­nect­ing to the net­work (thanks to such a device, lay­ing sec­tions of a two-core cable is eas­i­er).

The qual­i­ty of the cou­pling is one of the most impor­tant cri­te­ria for suc­cess­ful sys­tem selec­tion. The cou­pling must pro­vide reli­able elec­tri­cal con­tact for many years of cable oper­a­tion and the tight­ness of the con­nect­ing node. Dif­fer­ent com­pa­nies use dif­fer­ent options for con­nec­tions (sol­der­ing, weld­ing, crimp­ing) and seal­ing (using heat-shrink­able plas­tic, pour­ing with poly­mer­iz­ing com­pounds). Reli­a­bil­i­ty and dura­bil­i­ty are deter­mined by both the per­fec­tion of tech­nol­o­gy and the qual­i­ty of the assem­bly, so the best indi­ca­tor here- a long expe­ri­ence of the man­u­fac­tur­er in the mar­ket of warm floors and a peri­od of free war­ran­ty ser­vice.

Dozens of com­pa­nies are engaged in the pro­duc­tion of heat­ing sec­tions based on one- and two-core cables, includ­ing CEILHIT (Spain), ALCATEL (Nor­way), KIMA (Swe­den), DEVI (Den­mark), SIEMENS (Ger­many), ENSTO (Fin­land), as well as Euro­pean com­pa­nies “SST”, “CHUVASHKABEL”, “TERMA” and “ELTEC ELECTRONICS”.

Thin screed

Recent­ly, for floor heat­ing in the bath­room, it has been prac­ticed to install a cable in a thin screed (0.5–1.5cm)- direct­ly over the old tile or con­crete floor. In this case, as a rule, they refuse to use ther­mal insu­la­tion. With­out it, heat­ing the bath­room will not be as eco­nom­i­cal as with a thick screed, but you won’t need to sac­ri­fice 5–10cm of the height of the room, which is espe­cial­ly true for a larg­er num­ber of city apart­ments. Yes, and the launch time of the sys­tem is reduced sev­er­al times. The cable is laid out in a snake or spi­ral and fixed on the pre­vi­ous tiled lin­ing. On top, instead of a screed, a lay­er of glue is applied, which (depend­ing on the tech­nol­o­gy offered by the cable man­u­fac­tur­er) is allowed to dry for 1–2 days, and then the fin­ish coat­ing is already mount­ed. Or they lay a new tile imme­di­ate­ly, on the new­ly applied glue.

Thin one- and two-wire heat­ing sec­tions can be sup­plied to the cus­tomer in coils or in the form of mats, which are a ser­pen­tine cable attached to load-bear­ing fiber­glass mesh­es 50 or 90 wide.cm and length from 1 to 10m (length is pro­por­tion­al to pow­er). If a thin cable, as already not­ed above, is quite suit­able for instal­la­tion in both thick and thin screeds, then heat­ing mats are pro­duced specif­i­cal­ly for rooms where it is impos­si­ble to raise the floor lev­el by more than 0.6–1cm with­out tak­ing into account the fin­ish coat­ing (that is, they are intend­ed only for a thin screed). The mesh can be eas­i­ly cut into frag­ments with­out vio­lat­ing the integri­ty of the cable, which allows you to lay out the mats on an area of ​​any con­fig­u­ra­tion (includ­ing bypass­ing an obsta­cle).

Heat­ing mats and sec­tions based on pinch-pro­tect­ed thin sin­gle-core and two-core cables are pro­duced by CEILHIT (Spain), DEVI (Den­mark), CST (Europe), ALCATEL (Nor­way), ENSTO (Fin­land), SIEMENS, ARNOLD RAK and STIEBEL ELTRON (Ger­many), KIMA (Swe­den).

Electronic thermostats

The ther­mo­stat with floor sen­sor, along with the heat­ing cable, is the most impor­tant ele­ment of the elec­tric heat­ing sys­tem. Such devices are man­u­fac­tured by OJ MICROLINE (Den­mark), EBERLE (Ger­many), DEVI (Den­mark), ENSTO (Fin­land), SST and ELTEK ELECTRONICS (Europe) and oth­ers.

It is hard­ly jus­ti­fied to buy a set of equip­ment with a pro­gram­ma­ble ther­mo­stat for heat­ing the floor of a small bath­room in a city apart­ment. Here, a tra­di­tion­al non-pro­gram­ma­ble mod­el cost­ing from $40 to $120. Such a ther­mo­stat can eas­i­ly cope with main­tain­ing a fixed tem­per­a­ture for a long time- until the next adjust­ment of the para­me­ters by the user. FROMlow­er­ing the floor tem­per­a­ture to a mark that is low­er than the set val­ue by 0.1–2C (depend­ing on the mod­el), the device switch­es the sys­tem, with an increase of the same amount- turns off. Set­ting the tem­per­a­ture on non-pro­gram­ma­ble ther­mostats is done in steps, using a mul­ti-posi­tion switch, or smooth­ly, using a vari­able resis­tor. Col­or indi­ca­tion informs the user that the heat­ing sys­tem is ener­gized.

Of course, if the bath­room is sim­i­lar in size to the throne room of the roy­al palace, then you can buy a more expen­sive (2–3 times), but at the same time more eco­nom­i­cal pro­gram­ma­ble ther­mo­stat. He is able not only to main­tain the set tem­per­a­ture, but also to change it accord­ing to the algo­rithm set by the user: for exam­ple, heat the floor to a cer­tain tem­per­a­ture only in the morn­ing from 7 to 9 o’clock and in the evening from 18 to 23 o’clock. ATthe rest of the time the sys­tem will be in a dis­abled state. Such devices allow you to get the most out of the two-tar­iff elec­tric­i­ty pay­ment scheme by auto­mat­i­cal­ly turn­ing on heat­ing and accu­mu­lat­ing heat dur­ing the cheap tar­iff.

Permissible electrical wiring loads (according to PES)

Con­duc­tor mate­r­i­al Num­ber of coressec­tion,mm2 Max­i­mum load cur­rent, A Max­i­mum total pow­er, kW
Cop­per 2one 19 4.1
21.5 27 5.9
22.5 38 8.3
Alu­minum 22.5 twen­ty 4.4
2four 28 6.1

It’s all about warmth

Accord­ing to most experts, the right choice of ther­mal insu­la­tion leads to sig­nif­i­cant ener­gy sav­ings in the oper­a­tion of the floor heat­ing sys­tem, while its ini­tial cost increas­es slight­ly. Ther­mal insu­la­tion reduces the waste of heat for heat­ing floors, ground and oth­er struc­tures lying below the heat­ed room. When the floor is arranged in the base­ment floors and on the ground, it is rec­om­mend­ed to use sol­id types of expand­ed poly­styrene with a thick­ness of 50–100mm. Often used heat-insu­lat­ing boards with a lay­er of foil with a poly­mer coat­ing. The foil, if it comes into con­tact with a con­crete screed, redis­trib­utes heat from the cable over the entire floor sur­face due to ther­mal con­duc­tiv­i­ty, and also reflects part of the heat radi­a­tion back into the heat­ed room. In addi­tion, foil- a good vapor bar­ri­er. The poly­mer film pro­tects it from alka­line destruc­tion as a result of inter­ac­tion with the con­crete screed.

A very effec­tive heat insu­la­tor for a floor heat­ing device in a thick screed is cork slabs with a thick­ness of 2 to 10mm.

The choice of heat-insu­lat­ing mate­ri­als is quite wide. Among the man­u­fac­tur­ers it should be not­ed LLC PKP “STROY-PLAST”, DOW CHEMICAL BASF, (poly­styrene foam boards of high hard­ness Floor­mate), HANALON (South Korea), BUBBLE FOAM INDUSTRIES N.V (Bel­gium, foil and lam­i­nat­ed foam). Domes­tic foil foamed poly­eth­yl­ene is pro­duced at the LIT-IZOLYATSIA plant. Aver­age price 1m2- from $2 to $four.

How much does comfort cost?

The min­i­mum cost of a set of equip­ment and mate­ri­als (for a device in a thick screed) for under­floor heat­ing in a bath­room with an area of ​​3m2- order 100 when the sys­tem is equipped with domes­tic prod­ucts and 120–140 when using import­ed prod­ucts. The choice of tech­nol­o­gy is quite large.

The price of the set (mat or sec­tion, ther­mo­stat with floor sen­sor, cor­ru­gat­ed tube for the sen­sor) for a bath­room of 3m2 is about 90–130.

Underground “rivers”

The sys­tem of water floor heat­ing in the bath­room is envi­ron­men­tal­ly friend­ly (no radi­a­tion at all) and eco­nom­i­cal (heat­ing the floor with hot water is usu­al­ly cheap­er than elec­tric­i­ty, except when an elec­tric boil­er is used as a heat gen­er­a­tor). The main heat trans­fer ele­ments in the water sys­tem are durable and easy-to-install poly­mer pipes (from cross-linked poly­eth­yl­ene, met­al-poly­mer andetc.). Sec­tions of pipes (they are also called con­tours) do not have joints (whole pieces cut off from the bay). They are locat­ed in the form of coils in the body of the cement floor screed and are con­nect­ed to the sup­ply and return man­i­folds of the heat­ing sys­tem. ATIn the gen­er­al case, there may be sev­er­al cir­cuits (one, two or three per room) con­nect­ed to one col­lec­tor. The col­lec­tors, in turn, are mount­ed in a col­lec­tor cab­i­net mount­ed on the wall or flush with the wall in the bath­room or out­side it (if water heat­ing is arranged in sev­er­al rooms).

When hot water cir­cu­lates through pipes laid in the floor, the sur­face of the floor radi­ates heat. Since, as not­ed above, in city hous­es with cen­tral heat­ing, water can­not be direct­ly tak­en from either the heat­ing sys­tem or the DHW sys­tem, this instal­la­tion is rec­om­mend­ed to be installed in sub­ur­ban hous­ing. There, in addi­tion to the equip­ment for under­floor heat­ing (a cut of a poly­mer pipe, a man­i­fold kit, ther­mal insu­la­tion, fas­ten­ers and oth­er ele­ments), a boil­er, cir­cu­la­tion pumps and an expan­sion tank, as well as a con­trol device are used.

The main con­trol unit of the water sys­tem is a mul­ti-way valve with a ther­mo­stat. It reg­u­lates the heat­ing of the floor, mix­ing in the required pro­por­tions the water com­ing from the boil­er or oth­er source of heat­ing and return­ing from the under­floor heat­ing sys­tem with a water tem­per­a­ture in the cir­cuit of 35–50C. It is con­ve­nient to use a ready-made ther­mo­stat assem­bly with an already assem­bled tap, mix­ing and bypass valves and a cir­cu­la­tion pump. Addi­tion­al con­ve­nience for the user is pro­vid­ed by the com­bi­na­tion of a ther­mo­stat with a timer that pro­vides work accord­ing to the pro­gram set for the day or for the week in advance.

It is hard­ly advis­able to car­ry out the selec­tion and instal­la­tion of equip­ment for water floor heat­ing in the bath­room on your own.- this requires com­put­er cal­cu­la­tions, spe­cif­ic knowl­edge and tools. It is bet­ter to resort to the ser­vices of com­pa­nies that offi­cial­ly rep­re­sent the prod­ucts and tech­nolo­gies of lead­ing man­u­fac­tur­ers of under­floor heat­ing water sys­tems on the Euro­pean mar­ket.- com­pa­nies OVENTROP, REHAU, UNICOR, AQUATHERM (Ger­many), HENCO (Bel­gium), PURMO, PEXEP (Fin­land), WIRSBO (Swe­den), GENTA (Europe) and oth­ers. The cost of arrang­ing water heat­ing in a bath­room with an area of ​​3–4m2 can eas­i­ly exceed the amount 1000. How­ev­er, if in a coun­try house water floor heat­ing is pro­vid­ed in sev­er­al rooms, then this will cost the user 40–60 for each meter of heat­ed area.

Accord­ing to many experts, the envi­ron­men­tal safe­ty of elec­tric heat­ing is beyond doubt. Accord­ing to the san­i­tary norms and rules of Europe (SAN­PiN2971–84), the elec­tric field strength in res­i­den­tial premis­es can­not exceed 500V / m, and the lev­el of induc­tion of the mag­net­ic field of indus­tri­al fre­quen­cy (accord­ing to SAN­PiN2.1.2.1002–00) should not reach 10 µT. The actu­al val­ues ​​of these para­me­ters of elec­tro­mag­net­ic fields above the floors with shield­ed cables are sev­er­al times low­er than those giv­en. Man­u­fac­tur­ers indi­cate the elec­tric field strength from 10 to 300V/m. BUTAccord­ing to the employ­ees of the Cen­ter for Elec­tro­mag­net­ic Safe­ty of the Min­istry of Health of the EU, mea­sure­ments made by them in res­i­den­tial premis­es showed that the val­ues ​​of ten­sion and induc­tion cre­at­ed by the floors do not exceed the back­ground val­ues. It is also impor­tant that the mate­ri­als used in the con­struc­tion of the heat­ing sys­tem are less sus­cep­ti­ble to fire than con­ven­tion­al elec­tri­cal wiring.

Wet business

Leav­ing out­side the scope of this arti­cle the con­ver­sa­tion about the arrange­ment of the heat sup­ply sys­tem and the pair­ing of the heat source with the floor heat­ing sys­tem in the bath­room, let’s con­sid­er the actu­al instal­la­tion of pipes in the floor struc­ture. At this stage of the work, the mas­ters often make mis­takes, but the cus­tomer may well con­trol the process and express their com­ments.

The most com­mon tech­nol­o­gy used today involves the so-called wet instal­la­tion, when heat­ing pipes are laid in the body of a con­crete screed. A sim­i­lar sys­tem can be arranged in a bath­room, the floors of which can with­stand an addi­tion­al load of 250–300kg per 1m2 premis­es. Ateach man­u­fac­tur­er of equip­ment for water floor heat­ing has its own devel­op­ments in the wet instal­la­tion pro­ce­dure, but there are prob­a­bly no fun­da­men­tal tech­no­log­i­cal dif­fer­ences.

The actu­al instal­la­tion of the sys­tem is often pre­ced­ed by a rather long prepara­to­ry peri­od, dur­ing which the base sur­face for the water heat­ing device is made strict­ly hor­i­zon­tal and even. If nec­es­sary, it is cov­ered with a thin con­crete screed, minor pot­holes (no more than 0.5cm) in some cas­es can be sealed with dry sand.

If the lev­eled base slab is in con­tact with the ground, a water­proof­ing lay­er of water­proof­ing or oth­er mate­r­i­al is laid on it. Next comes a lay­er of ther­mal insu­la­tion, the thick­ness of which is cal­cu­lat­ed when design­ing the sys­tem. When installing water heat­ing, ther­mal insu­la­tion is used not only in bath­rooms bor­der­ing the ground and cold under­grounds, but also in the rooms of the upper floors. ATsys­tem kits sup­pli­ers include ready-made sheet and roll ther­mal insu­la­tion mate­ri­als. Sheet ther­mal insu­la­tion is a slab or pan­el made of poly­styrene, basalt fiber or foamed polyurethane with a thick­ness of 30 to 70mm. They can be cov­ered with heat-reflect­ing foil with grid-like mark­ings or pro­vid­ed with boss­es for lay­ing and fix­ing pipes. It is rec­om­mend­ed to lay a poly­eth­yl­ene film on top of the ther­mal insu­la­tion lay­er so that the cement mor­tar does not pen­e­trate between the slabs and does not cre­ate ther­mal and acoustic bridges.

In order to pre­vent defor­ma­tion, cracks and swelling of the floor cov­er­ing as a result of the ther­mal expan­sion of con­crete, as well as to pro­tect against the appear­ance of ther­mal and sound bridges, after installing the ther­mal insu­la­tion, it is nec­es­sary to make an edg­ing for the future heat­ed screed. It is per­formed with an edge tape made of expand­ed poly­styrene foam or oth­er mate­r­i­al, which is laid along walls and oth­er build­ing ele­ments. It is nec­es­sary to arrange expan­sion joints in rooms of com­plex shape and in the case when one of the dimen­sions of the floor slab exceeds 8m.

After lay­ing aux­il­iary mate­ri­als (ther­mal insu­la­tion, vapor bar­ri­er, edg­ing, expan­sion joints andt.e) you can pro­ceed to the main phase of work. The first step is to install the sup­ply and return man­i­folds. The pipe is con­nect­ed to the sup­ply man­i­fold, after which they begin to unwind the coil and form a heat­ing cir­cuit on the pre­pared sur­face. When installing water floor heat­ing, one of the three main pipe lay­ing options is used. The “sin­gle coil” scheme pro­vides easy instal­la­tion and the most uni­form tem­per­a­ture dis­tri­b­u­tion over the sur­face. This tech­nol­o­gy can be applied to heat­ing inclined areas. The par­al­lel arrange­ment of the sup­ply and return pipes guar­an­tees a uni­form aver­age tem­per­a­ture. Well, a par­al­lel spi­ral is rec­om­mend­ed for bath­rooms with large heat loss­es.

When choos­ing a pipe lay­ing method, it should be remem­bered that heat loss­es are dis­trib­uted uneven­ly over the area of ​​u200bu200bthe room. For exam­ple, they are high­er at the out­er walls. ATthese places should arrange pipes clos­er to each oth­er than in oth­er areas.

Fix­a­tion of pipes on the pre­pared base is car­ried out using rein­forc­ing mesh and wire, using mount­ing brack­ets, rails, between the ele­ments of pro­filed ther­mal insu­la­tion (lugs) andt.The first option is sim­ple, since the rein­forc­ing mesh is also graph­ic, which means that you do not have to spend time mark­ing the floor, and the con­crete screed is more durable due to rein­force­ment. In addi­tion, thanks to the grid, the heat­ing pipe is com­plete­ly (with its entire sur­face) in con­tact with the floor screed mate­r­i­al, guar­an­tee­ing max­i­mum heat trans­fer. The grid is made of a met­al bar with a diam­e­ter of 3 to 6mm. The cell size is typ­i­cal­ly 150150mm, less often 225225 or 300300mm. Pipes are con­nect­ed to the grid at least after 0.5–1m using plas­tic clips, a fas­ten­ing wire twist­ed with a spe­cial hook, or a plas­tic fas­ten­ing tape.

Instal­la­tion must be car­ried out at an air tem­per­a­ture of at least +10C. Each heat­ing cir­cuit must con­sist of one sin­gle piece of pipe, free from cross­es, twists and over­laps, as well as squeez­ing or oth­er dam­age. It is impor­tant to use only fit­tings and tools cer­ti­fied by pipe man­u­fac­tur­ers. Cut off the pipe from the bay only after lay­ing the loop and bring­ing it to the return man­i­fold. With a large num­ber of pipes locat­ed close to each oth­er, for exam­ple, near the col­lec­tor, it is nec­es­sary to insu­late some of them, prefer­ably sup­ply pipes, in order to pre­vent local over­heat­ing.

Next stage- pour­ing heat­ing cir­cuits with con­crete, which aims to ensure uni­form heat­ing of the floor sur­face. How­ev­er, before for­ev­er hid­ing poly­mer pipes under a lay­er of con­crete, it is nec­es­sary to con­duct hydraulic tests of the sys­tem. Accord­ing to build­ing reg­u­la­tions, under­floor heat­ing is test­ed for leaks at a pres­sure 1.5 times high­er than the work­ing one (but not less than 0.6 MPa) and at a con­stant water tem­per­a­ture. The pipe must be under work­ing pres­sure even at the time of fill­ing.- this will reduce the like­li­hood of unwant­ed mechan­i­cal stress­es in the sys­tem.

Typ­i­cal­ly, com­pa­nies that sup­ply pro­fes­sion­al equip­ment and mate­ri­als for the instal­la­tion of water-heat­ed floors give the exact pro­por­tions for the prepa­ra­tion of a screed mor­tar, on com­pli­ance with which the ful­fill­ment of war­ran­ty oblig­a­tions by sup­pli­ers depends. Sum­ma­riz­ing the data of var­i­ous man­u­fac­tur­ers, we can say that a cement-sand mix­ture of a grade of at least 400 should be used for the screed device.the solu­tion is often added with a so-called plas­ti­ciz­er that improves flu­id­i­ty. Due to this, the pipes are cov­ered with con­crete more dense­ly, the ther­mal con­duc­tiv­i­ty and strength of the screed increase. To pre­vent air pock­ets from remain­ing in the floor, the con­crete around the pipes must be care­ful­ly com­pact­ed. When con­cret­ing, it is impor­tant to avoid dis­place­ment and ver­ti­cal bend­ing of the pipes.

Hot water should be sup­plied to the sys­tem no ear­li­er than 3 weeks lat­er. Dur­ing this time, the con­crete screed will gain the nec­es­sary strength. In no case should hot water with a design tem­per­a­ture be allowed into the under­floor heat­ing sys­tem until the screed has hard­ened, because its heat­ing will lead to the for­ma­tion of cracks. After the spec­i­fied peri­od, you can sup­ply a coolant with a tem­per­a­ture of +25C, and in the next 4 days it should be grad­u­al­ly raised to the cal­cu­lat­ed one.

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