Layout and connection diagram for a two-core cable
Corrugated plastic tube for floor sensor installation, TST sensor06
Mounting tape for fixing the heating cable
ATstandard Spyheat floor heating kit includes heating section, mounting tape, floor temperature sensor, thermostat and corrugated tube (for sensor)
Foil thermal insulation thickness 3mm
Scheme of the device of the accumulative warm floor
Scheme of the device of the main warm floor:
2. Compacted gravel
3. Thermal insulation
4. Plastic film
5. Reinforced concrete slab
6. Mounting plate
7. Heating cable
8. Leveling concrete
9. Surface material
Thermal insulation and foil are first placed on the old tiled floor.
Then, using a hand tool, fix the mounting tape and lay the cable
The cable is laid in a zigzag manner, while the turns must be parallel to each other. ATat the end, a floor temperature sensor is installed in the corrugated tube
Laying the heating mat under the tile
Color-coded programmable thermostat from ENSTO
The simplest non-programmable thermostat
Thermal insulation for a water floor is performed using plates or panels made of polystyrene, basalt fiber or polyurethane foam. These plates can be covered with heat-reflecting foil with grid-like markings or provided with bosses for laying and fixing pipes.
Scheme of supplying heat carrier to water-heated floors (option):
1. Heating circuit
2. Distribution comb
3. Ball valve
4. Distributor cabinet
5. Air vent
6. Circulation pump
7. Electric thermostatic pump
9. Clip-on temperature sensor
10. Capillary tube
11. Thermostatic valve
12. Bypass valve
After leveling the surface, waterproofing is laid, after which, starting from the corner of the room farthest from the comb, thermal insulation slabs are mounted
The polymer pipe is laid out according to the contour parameters, and in the right places it can be bent manually using a pipe bender
A temperature sensor is fixed on the supply pipe of the circuit by means of a clamping collar, after which the pipes of the circuits are filled with a screed
Types of heating circuits:
a — meander;
b — spiral
The floor heating system in the bathroom is needed, perhaps, as in no other room in the house. Together with a heated towel rail, it maintains the most comfortable microclimate in the most humid area of u200bu200bthe home. The temperature on the floor surface is +26
ATa bathroom with a heating system, even in very cold winters, there are no drafts. Splashes on the floor dry quickly, so it always stays dry and warm and difficult to slip on. In addition, cleaning of the premises is facilitated and the probability of the appearance of a fungus on the surfaces of walls and floors, which is often found in damp places at home, is practically eliminated.
Varieties of floor heating systems
Today in EU the systems of electric and water floor heating are the most popular. They are installed both in urban high-rise buildings and in country houses.- there would be plenty of electricity and funds to pay for utilities. For a small bathroom of 2–4m2 separate wiring is required with its own machine and RCD, with a power of about 0.2–0.5kW. ATresidential buildings that were built more than 10 years ago and where substations and connections are designed according to old standards (approximately 2.5kW per apartment), floor heating can only be considered as additional heating. And even then it should be used carefully, since there is a possibility of overloading the supply cable (if all neighbors turn on numerous household appliances at the same time). But even when the power necessary to connect the electric heating is available (in modern apartments it is 7kW), it is necessary to check whether the existing wiring allows the connection of a warm floor according to the current load. If not, we can recommend installing a system with a capacity of more than 2kW through separate wiring and a separate machine.
As for the water system, this type of floor heating requires a source of hot water: a boiler for gas, diesel fuel, coal, electricity (in regions with a warm climate, solar collectors and heat pumps can be added to this list). Therefore, it is more often used in cottages with an autonomous water heating system, where, in addition to the bathroom, floor heating is also provided in other rooms. To install a water-heated floor in a standard city apartment, you must obtain permission from the DEZ to connect to a hot water supply network or install a small electric boiler specifically to feed the heating system, which is unnecessarily expensive.
ATin line with GOELRO
The heat source in the electric bathroom heating system is a heating cable laid in the floor mass, which turns the surface into a large heating panel that radiates heat evenly. The cable is connected to an automatic thermostat, due to which the system is controlled. The thermostat is fixed on the wall (if it has a waterproof design, then right in the bathroom, if not- something outside it, for example on the panel of light switches) and is the only visible part of the system. Temperature readings come to it from a temperature sensor installed, as a rule, in a special corrugated tube in the cable termination plane (so that it can be changed in case of a breakdown).
All the necessary equipment for the electric floor heating system is sold in a kit consisting of a heating cable, a thermostat, a temperature sensor and a corrugated pipe. Kits are available for mounting in thick or thin screed. When choosing equipment, one must proceed from the level to which the floor in the bathroom can be raised, how urgently it is necessary to put the system into operation and how burdensome the economic aspect of its use is for the customer. You can install a warm floor during the repair of a bathroom on your own or using the services of specialists (whom to contact, the sellers of the equipment will tell you). In this case, it is necessary to strictly follow the manufacturer’s technological recommendations. BUTconnect the system to the mains and ground only with the help of a qualified electrician.
The thickness of the concrete screed depends on the expected mechanical loads. For uniform temperature distribution over the floor surface German DIN standards4725 recommend to perform a screed with a thickness of at least 65mm. According to the requirements of European joint ventures41–102-98 its thickness must be at least 30mm. ATceramic tiles, marble or other material with a thermal resistance index R should be used as flooring in the bathroom=0.02m2
Mounting in a thick screed
When there are no significant restrictions on the height of the ceiling in the room, you can resort to the traditional scheme, which involves the most efficient energy-saving conversion of electricity into heat for the bathroom,- installation of a heating system in a thick screed. If the floor in the bathroom is earthen (in cottages it is often located in the basement), then a pillow of carefully compacted gravel and waterproofing are laid on it. Naturally, gravel is not used on a ready-made concrete base; in this case, a well-cleaned and leveled floor slab serves as a “lining” for the system. A layer of rigid heat-insulating material with a thickness of 50–100mm, on which the first screed is made. On the concrete surface that has not yet completely solidified, pieces of mounting tape or a reinforcing wire structure are attached, which greatly facilitate the laying of the cable (along a pre-planned route). Next comes the second concrete screed, its thickness with direct heating is from 30 to 50–70mm. Along the perimeter of the room, in the lower part of the walls, shock absorbers are arranged- strips of thermal insulation that prevent deformation of the floor when heated as a result of thermal expansion of concrete. A floor built with cement mixtures dries for at least 28 days, made using self-leveling mixtures- 2–3 days. Finally, a topcoat, such as ceramic tiles, is laid on the screed.
When buying a set of equipment for mounting an electrical heating system in a thick screed, you need to keep in mind some features of the base element- heating cable. There are no restrictions on the diameter and linear power of the cable (that is, on its ability to give off one or another amount of heat to the surrounding space, expressed in watts per meter of length). For laying in a thick screed, cables with a diameter of 5–10 can be used.mm with linear power from 17 to 21W / m, as well as “thin” 2–3 mm cables with a power of 5–12W/m Coils of cable with a lower power unit are arranged closer to each other, in strict accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations. It is important that the power of the entire cable is enough for comfortable heating of a particular room (you can roughly determine the required power by multiplying the footage of the room by 100W).
It doesn’t matter which cable is included.- one- or two-core (the difference between them is that two-core practically do not create an electromagnetic background and cost 10–20% more). The presence of an electromagnetic background in single-core systems, which in any case is no more than that of a hair dryer or hidden electrical wiring, is not dangerous, moreover, a person enters the bathroom several times a day, and even then not for long.
When choosing a heating cable for a “wet” area, it is necessary to pay attention to the fact that it must have a screen made of steel or copper wire, aluminum foil or lead, which primarily serves for safety purposes. ATIf the cable is damaged or water gets on it, the screen plays the role of a “lightning rod”, in addition, it significantly reduces the electromagnetic radiation generated by the cable. ATIn some systems with a shielded single-core cable, the shield is also used as a supply (return) wire, but only located coaxially with the heating core, due to which the resulting electromagnetic radiation is significantly reduced.
It is characteristic that the cable in the floor heating system kit is presented not as a piece of wire, but as a finished product.- sections with a certain length of the heating core and heat output. For ease of installation and increase in the service life of the entire structure, the so-called cold ends are attached to the section of the heating cable at the factory.- copper power conductors, which, unlike the cable itself, can be lengthened or shortened if necessary. A section of a solid cable contains two sleeves and two cold ends, while a section of a two-core cable is reinforced with an end cap at one end, and at the other- a coupling and two cold ends for connecting to the network (thanks to such a device, laying sections of a two-core cable is easier).
The quality of the coupling is one of the most important criteria for successful system selection. The coupling must provide reliable electrical contact for many years of cable operation and the tightness of the connecting node. Different companies use different options for connections (soldering, welding, crimping) and sealing (using heat-shrinkable plastic, pouring with polymerizing compounds). Reliability and durability are determined by both the perfection of technology and the quality of the assembly, so the best indicator here- a long experience of the manufacturer in the market of warm floors and a period of free warranty service.
Dozens of companies are engaged in the production of heating sections based on one- and two-core cables, including CEILHIT (Spain), ALCATEL (Norway), KIMA (Sweden), DEVI (Denmark), SIEMENS (Germany), ENSTO (Finland), as well as European companies “SST”, “CHUVASHKABEL”, “TERMA” and “ELTEC ELECTRONICS”.
Recently, for floor heating in the bathroom, it has been practiced to install a cable in a thin screed (0.5–1.5cm)- directly over the old tile or concrete floor. In this case, as a rule, they refuse to use thermal insulation. Without it, heating the bathroom will not be as economical as with a thick screed, but you won’t need to sacrifice 5–10cm of the height of the room, which is especially true for a larger number of city apartments. Yes, and the launch time of the system is reduced several times. The cable is laid out in a snake or spiral and fixed on the previous tiled lining. On top, instead of a screed, a layer of glue is applied, which (depending on the technology offered by the cable manufacturer) is allowed to dry for 1–2 days, and then the finish coating is already mounted. Or they lay a new tile immediately, on the newly applied glue.
Thin one- and two-wire heating sections can be supplied to the customer in coils or in the form of mats, which are a serpentine cable attached to load-bearing fiberglass meshes 50 or 90 wide.cm and length from 1 to 10m (length is proportional to power). If a thin cable, as already noted above, is quite suitable for installation in both thick and thin screeds, then heating mats are produced specifically for rooms where it is impossible to raise the floor level by more than 0.6–1cm without taking into account the finish coating (that is, they are intended only for a thin screed). The mesh can be easily cut into fragments without violating the integrity of the cable, which allows you to lay out the mats on an area of any configuration (including bypassing an obstacle).
Heating mats and sections based on pinch-protected thin single-core and two-core cables are produced by CEILHIT (Spain), DEVI (Denmark), CST (Europe), ALCATEL (Norway), ENSTO (Finland), SIEMENS, ARNOLD RAK and STIEBEL ELTRON (Germany), KIMA (Sweden).
The thermostat with floor sensor, along with the heating cable, is the most important element of the electric heating system. Such devices are manufactured by OJ MICROLINE (Denmark), EBERLE (Germany), DEVI (Denmark), ENSTO (Finland), SST and ELTEK ELECTRONICS (Europe) and others.
It is hardly justified to buy a set of equipment with a programmable thermostat for heating the floor of a small bathroom in a city apartment. Here, a traditional non-programmable model costing from $40 to $120. Such a thermostat can easily cope with maintaining a fixed temperature for a long time- until the next adjustment of the parameters by the user. FROMlowering the floor temperature to a mark that is lower than the set value by 0.1–2
Of course, if the bathroom is similar in size to the throne room of the royal palace, then you can buy a more expensive (2–3 times), but at the same time more economical programmable thermostat. He is able not only to maintain the set temperature, but also to change it according to the algorithm set by the user: for example, heat the floor to a certain temperature only in the morning from 7 to 9 o’clock and in the evening from 18 to 23 o’clock. ATthe rest of the time the system will be in a disabled state. Such devices allow you to get the most out of the two-tariff electricity payment scheme by automatically turning on heating and accumulating heat during the cheap tariff.
Permissible electrical wiring loads (according to PES)
|Number of cores
|Maximum load current, A
|Maximum total power, kW
It’s all about warmth
According to most experts, the right choice of thermal insulation leads to significant energy savings in the operation of the floor heating system, while its initial cost increases slightly. Thermal insulation reduces the waste of heat for heating floors, ground and other structures lying below the heated room. When the floor is arranged in the basement floors and on the ground, it is recommended to use solid types of expanded polystyrene with a thickness of 50–100mm. Often used heat-insulating boards with a layer of foil with a polymer coating. The foil, if it comes into contact with a concrete screed, redistributes heat from the cable over the entire floor surface due to thermal conductivity, and also reflects part of the heat radiation back into the heated room. In addition, foil- a good vapor barrier. The polymer film protects it from alkaline destruction as a result of interaction with the concrete screed.
A very effective heat insulator for a floor heating device in a thick screed is cork slabs with a thickness of 2 to 10mm.
The choice of heat-insulating materials is quite wide. Among the manufacturers it should be noted LLC PKP “STROY-PLAST”, DOW CHEMICAL BASF, (polystyrene foam boards of high hardness Floormate), HANALON (South Korea), BUBBLE
How much does comfort cost?
The minimum cost of a set of equipment and materials (for a device in a thick screed) for underfloor heating in a bathroom with an area of 3m2- order
The price of the set (mat or section, thermostat with floor sensor, corrugated tube for the sensor) for a bathroom of 3m2 is about
The system of water floor heating in the bathroom is environmentally friendly (no radiation at all) and economical (heating the floor with hot water is usually cheaper than electricity, except when an electric boiler is used as a heat generator). The main heat transfer elements in the water system are durable and easy-to-install polymer pipes (from cross-linked polyethylene, metal-polymer andetc.). Sections of pipes (they are also called contours) do not have joints (whole pieces cut off from the bay). They are located in the form of coils in the body of the cement floor screed and are connected to the supply and return manifolds of the heating system. ATIn the general case, there may be several circuits (one, two or three per room) connected to one collector. The collectors, in turn, are mounted in a collector cabinet mounted on the wall or flush with the wall in the bathroom or outside it (if water heating is arranged in several rooms).
When hot water circulates through pipes laid in the floor, the surface of the floor radiates heat. Since, as noted above, in city houses with central heating, water cannot be directly taken from either the heating system or the DHW system, this installation is recommended to be installed in suburban housing. There, in addition to the equipment for underfloor heating (a cut of a polymer pipe, a manifold kit, thermal insulation, fasteners and other elements), a boiler, circulation pumps and an expansion tank, as well as a control device are used.
The main control unit of the water system is a multi-way valve with a thermostat. It regulates the heating of the floor, mixing in the required proportions the water coming from the boiler or other source of heating and returning from the underfloor heating system with a water temperature in the circuit of 35–50
It is hardly advisable to carry out the selection and installation of equipment for water floor heating in the bathroom on your own.- this requires computer calculations, specific knowledge and tools. It is better to resort to the services of companies that officially represent the products and technologies of leading manufacturers of underfloor heating water systems on the European market.- companies OVENTROP, REHAU, UNICOR, AQUATHERM (Germany), HENCO (Belgium), PURMO, PEXEP (Finland), WIRSBO (Sweden), GENTA (Europe) and others. The cost of arranging water heating in a bathroom with an area of 3–4m2 can easily exceed the amount
According to many experts, the environmental safety of electric heating is beyond doubt. According to the sanitary norms and rules of Europe (SANPiN2971–84), the electric field strength in residential premises cannot exceed 500V / m, and the level of induction of the magnetic field of industrial frequency (according to SANPiN22.214.171.1242–00) should not reach 10 µT. The actual values of these parameters of electromagnetic fields above the floors with shielded cables are several times lower than those given. Manufacturers indicate the electric field strength from 10 to 300V/m. BUTAccording to the employees of the Center for Electromagnetic Safety of the Ministry of Health of the EU, measurements made by them in residential premises showed that the values of tension and induction created by the floors do not exceed the background values. It is also important that the materials used in the construction of the heating system are less susceptible to fire than conventional electrical wiring.
Leaving outside the scope of this article the conversation about the arrangement of the heat supply system and the pairing of the heat source with the floor heating system in the bathroom, let’s consider the actual installation of pipes in the floor structure. At this stage of the work, the masters often make mistakes, but the customer may well control the process and express their comments.
The most common technology used today involves the so-called wet installation, when heating pipes are laid in the body of a concrete screed. A similar system can be arranged in a bathroom, the floors of which can withstand an additional load of 250–300kg per 1m2 premises. Ateach manufacturer of equipment for water floor heating has its own developments in the wet installation procedure, but there are probably no fundamental technological differences.
The actual installation of the system is often preceded by a rather long preparatory period, during which the base surface for the water heating device is made strictly horizontal and even. If necessary, it is covered with a thin concrete screed, minor potholes (no more than 0.5cm) in some cases can be sealed with dry sand.
If the leveled base slab is in contact with the ground, a waterproofing layer of waterproofing or other material is laid on it. Next comes a layer of thermal insulation, the thickness of which is calculated when designing the system. When installing water heating, thermal insulation is used not only in bathrooms bordering the ground and cold undergrounds, but also in the rooms of the upper floors. ATsystem kits suppliers include ready-made sheet and roll thermal insulation materials. Sheet thermal insulation is a slab or panel made of polystyrene, basalt fiber or foamed polyurethane with a thickness of 30 to 70mm. They can be covered with heat-reflecting foil with grid-like markings or provided with bosses for laying and fixing pipes. It is recommended to lay a polyethylene film on top of the thermal insulation layer so that the cement mortar does not penetrate between the slabs and does not create thermal and acoustic bridges.
In order to prevent deformation, cracks and swelling of the floor covering as a result of the thermal expansion of concrete, as well as to protect against the appearance of thermal and sound bridges, after installing the thermal insulation, it is necessary to make an edging for the future heated screed. It is performed with an edge tape made of expanded polystyrene foam or other material, which is laid along walls and other building elements. It is necessary to arrange expansion joints in rooms of complex shape and in the case when one of the dimensions of the floor slab exceeds 8m.
After laying auxiliary materials (thermal insulation, vapor barrier, edging, expansion joints andt.e) you can proceed to the main phase of work. The first step is to install the supply and return manifolds. The pipe is connected to the supply manifold, after which they begin to unwind the coil and form a heating circuit on the prepared surface. When installing water floor heating, one of the three main pipe laying options is used. The “single coil” scheme provides easy installation and the most uniform temperature distribution over the surface. This technology can be applied to heating inclined areas. The parallel arrangement of the supply and return pipes guarantees a uniform average temperature. Well, a parallel spiral is recommended for bathrooms with large heat losses.
When choosing a pipe laying method, it should be remembered that heat losses are distributed unevenly over the area of u200bu200bthe room. For example, they are higher at the outer walls. ATthese places should arrange pipes closer to each other than in other areas.
Fixation of pipes on the prepared base is carried out using reinforcing mesh and wire, using mounting brackets, rails, between the elements of profiled thermal insulation (lugs) andt.The first option is simple, since the reinforcing mesh is also graphic, which means that you do not have to spend time marking the floor, and the concrete screed is more durable due to reinforcement. In addition, thanks to the grid, the heating pipe is completely (with its entire surface) in contact with the floor screed material, guaranteeing maximum heat transfer. The grid is made of a metal bar with a diameter of 3 to 6mm. The cell size is typically 150
Installation must be carried out at an air temperature of at least +10
Next stage- pouring heating circuits with concrete, which aims to ensure uniform heating of the floor surface. However, before forever hiding polymer pipes under a layer of concrete, it is necessary to conduct hydraulic tests of the system. According to building regulations, underfloor heating is tested for leaks at a pressure 1.5 times higher than the working one (but not less than 0.6 MPa) and at a constant water temperature. The pipe must be under working pressure even at the time of filling.- this will reduce the likelihood of unwanted mechanical stresses in the system.
Typically, companies that supply professional equipment and materials for the installation of water-heated floors give the exact proportions for the preparation of a screed mortar, on compliance with which the fulfillment of warranty obligations by suppliers depends. Summarizing the data of various manufacturers, we can say that a cement-sand mixture of a grade of at least 400 should be used for the screed device.the solution is often added with a so-called plasticizer that improves fluidity. Due to this, the pipes are covered with concrete more densely, the thermal conductivity and strength of the screed increase. To prevent air pockets from remaining in the floor, the concrete around the pipes must be carefully compacted. When concreting, it is important to avoid displacement and vertical bending of the pipes.
Hot water should be supplied to the system no earlier than 3 weeks later. During this time, the concrete screed will gain the necessary strength. In no case should hot water with a design temperature be allowed into the underfloor heating system until the screed has hardened, because its heating will lead to the formation of cracks. After the specified period, you can supply a coolant with a temperature of +25