Owners of private houses often face the choice of which type of home heating to give preference. There are only two types of heating systems traditionally used in everyday life: one-pipe and two-pipe. Each type has both advantages and disadvantages. The difference between both systems lies in the different way of delivering the coolant to the heating devices. Which heating structure for your own home is better, one-pipe or two-pipe — choose directly to the owner of the house, taking into account their own domestic needs, the estimated heated area and the availability of finances.
In the first version, heat is distributed throughout the house through one pipe, sequentially heating each room of the house. In the second case, the complex is equipped with two pipes. One is a direct supply of coolant to the radiators. Another pipe serves to drain the cooled liquid back to the boiler for subsequent heating. A correct assessment of one’s own financial capabilities, an accurate calculation of the optimal parameters of the coolant in each individual case, will help not only determine the type of heating system, but also correctly install the heating.
You can understand and figure out what is best for you, a one-pipe or two-pipe heating system, only after a thorough study of the technical nuances.
Single pipe heating system. General representations
A single-pipe heating system can work both with a pump and with natural circulation of the coolant. Considering the second type, you should delve a little into the existing laws of physics. It is based on the principle of expansion of a liquid when heated. During operation, the heating boiler heats the coolant, which, due to the temperature difference and the pressure created, rises through the riser to the highest point of the system. The movement of the coolant upwards is carried out along one pipe, reaching the expansion tank. Accumulating there, hot water fills all series-connected batteries through a descending pipe.
Accordingly, the first connection points along the course of the coolant will receive maximum heat, while partially cooled liquid will already enter the radiators located further.
For large, multi-storey buildings, such a scheme is extremely inefficient, although in terms of installation and maintenance costs, a single-pipe system looks attractive. For private one-story houses, residential buildings with two floors, a similar principle of heat distribution is acceptable. Heating residential premises using a single-pipe scheme in a one-story house is quite effective. With a small heated area, the temperature in the radiators is almost the same. The use of the pump in longer systems also has a positive effect on the uniformity of heat distribution.
The quality of heating and the cost of installation in this case may depend on the type of connection. Diagonal connection of radiators gives greater heat transfer, but is used less often, due to the larger number of pipes needed to connect all heating appliances in residential premises.
The scheme with the lower connection of radiators looks more economical due to the lower consumption of materials. From an aesthetic point of view, this type of connection looks preferable.
Advantages of a single-pipe heating system and its disadvantages
For owners of small residential buildings, a single-pipe heating system looks tempting, especially if you pay attention to its following advantages:
- has stable hydrodynamics;
- convenience and ease of design and installation;
- low costs for equipment and materials.
The indirect advantages of a single-pipe system include the safety of the supply of coolant, which diverges through the pipeline through natural circulation.
The most common problems that owners of a single-pipe heating system have to face include the following aspects:
- technical difficulties in eliminating miscalculations in the work made during the design;
- close relationship of all elements;
- high hydrodynamic resistance of the system;
- technological limitations associated with the impossibility of independent adjustment of the coolant flow.
Despite the listed disadvantages of this type of heating, a well-designed heating system will avoid many difficulties even at the installation stage. In view of the listed advantages and the economic component, single-pipe schemes have become quite widespread. Both a single-pipe and another type, a two-pipe heating system, have real advantages. What can you win and what can you lose by choosing one of the types for your home?
Technology for connecting and locating a single-pipe heating system
Single-pipe systems are divided into vertical and horizontal. In most cases, vertical wiring is used for multi-storey buildings. In this case, all radiators are connected in series from top to bottom. With horizontal wiring, the batteries are connected one after the other horizontally. The main disadvantage of both options is frequent air jams, due to the accumulation of air in the radiators. The proposed scheme makes it possible to get an idea of some wiring options.
Connection methods in this case are selected at the discretion of the owner. Heating radiators can be connected via side connection, diagonal or bottom connection. The figure shows similar connection options.
For the owner of the house, the economic feasibility of the equipment installed in the house and the effect obtained are always an important aspect. Do not underestimate the option with a single-pipe heating system. Today, in practice, quite effective measures are being taken to improve heating schemes of this type.
For example: there is a technical solution that allows you to independently adjust the heating of individual radiators connected to the same line. For this purpose, bypasses are created in the system — a pipe segment that creates a bypass movement of the coolant from a straight pipe to the return, bypassing the circuit of a certain battery.
Valves and valves are placed on the bypasses, blocking the flow of the coolant. You can install thermostats on radiators that allow you to control the heating temperature in each radiator or throughout the system as a whole. A competent specialist will be able to calculate and install bypasses to achieve maximum efficiency. In the diagram you can see the principle of operation of bypasses.
Two-pipe heating system. Operating principle
Having become acquainted with the first type of heating system, a single-pipe, it’s time to deal with the features and principle of operation of a two-pipe heating scheme. A thorough analysis of the technological and technical parameters of heating of this type allows consumers to make an independent choice — which heating is more efficient in a particular case, one-pipe or two-pipe.
The basic principle is the presence of two circuits along which the coolant diverges through the system. One pipe provides the coolant supply to the heating radiators. The second branch is designed so that the already cooled coolant, after passing through the radiator, returns back to the boiler. And so constantly, in a circle, while the heating is on. At first glance, the very presence of two pipelines in the scheme can repel consumers. The long length of highways, the complexity of wiring are factors that often scare owners of private houses away from a two-pipe heating system.
This is at first glance. Like single-pipe systems, two-pipe systems are divided into closed and open. The difference in this case lies in the design of the expansion tank.
Closed two-pipe heating systems of a private house with a membrane expansion tank are the most practical, convenient and safe to use. The obvious benefits are confirmed by:
- even at the design stage, it is possible to equip heating devices with thermostats;
- parallel, independent connection of radiators;
- the technical possibility of adding heating devices after the installation is completed;
- ease of use of hidden gaskets;
- the ability to turn off individual radiators or branches;
- ease of adjustment of the system.
Based on the foregoing, one unambiguous conclusion can be drawn. A two-pipe heating system is much more flexible and more technologically advanced than a single-pipe one.
For comparison, the following diagram is presented:
The two-pipe System is very convenient for operation in a house in which it is planned to increase the living space, extension options are possible, both up and along the perimeter of the building. Already at the stage of work, technical errors made during the design can be easily eliminated. Such a scheme is more stable and reliable than a single-pipe one.
With all the obvious advantages, before choosing this type of heating, it is appropriate to recall the disadvantages of a two-pipe system.
It’s important to know! The system is characterized by a higher complexity and cost of installation and rather cumbersome connection options.
If you have a competent specialist at hand, the necessary technical calculations have been carried out, then the listed disadvantages are easily compensated by the advantages of a two-pipe heating scheme.
As in the case of a single-pipe system, the two-pipe option involves the use of a vertical or horizontal arrangement of pipelines. Vertical system — radiators are connected to a vertical riser. This type is convenient for two-story private houses and cottages. Air congestion is not terrible for you. In the case of the horizontal option, the radiators in each room or room are connected to a pipeline located horizontally. Two-pipe horizontal heating schemes are mainly designed for heating one-story buildings and large residential buildings with the need for floor-by-floor adjustment. Arising air jams are easily eliminated by installing Mayevsky cranes on radiators.
The figure shows a vertical two-pipe heating system. Below you can see what a two-pipe horizontal type system looks like.
Traditionally, radiators can be connected using bottom and top wiring. Depending on the technical conditions and the project, the choice of wiring option depends on the owner of the house. The top wiring is more convenient. All highways can be hidden in the attic space. The system creates the circulation necessary for a good distribution of the coolant. The main disadvantage of a two-pipe heating scheme with an upper wiring option is the need to install a membrane tank outside the heated premises. The upper wiring does not allow the intake of technical water for domestic needs, as well as connecting the expansion tank to the tank for hot water used in everyday life. This scheme is not suitable for flat-roofed residential properties.
The selected type of heating for a private house should provide all the inhabitants of the residential building with the necessary comfort. Save on heating is not worth it. By installing a heating system in your house that does not meet the parameters of a residential facility and domestic needs, you run the risk of spending a lot of money on refurbishment in the future.
Two-pipe or one-pipe heating system — the choice should always be justified, both from a technical point of view and from an economic one.