For the private sector, an autonomous water supply and heating system is used.
Home heating is often carried out by a water-type heating system, which consists of a heat generator (boiler), pipelines and radiators.
Heat transfer depends on the power of the boiler and the material of the elements of the heating system.
Heating system compatibility
The coolant is supplied from the boiler to the radiators by the natural circulation method (when heated, the water is distributed independently through the pipeline) or by the forced (mechanical) method using a circulation pump.
The rate of fluid movement during natural circulation is slowerrespectively, by the time the coolant reaches the last element in the system, its temperature drops significantly.
With this circulation scheme, heaters with high heat dissipation, such as steel or cast iron, which cool slowly should be installed.which means they stay warm longer. The installation of the battery to the pipeline is carried out mainly in a diagonal way, which will allow it to warm up evenly.
This principle of choosing radiators also applies to the type of heating system — open or closed, which differ in the type of expansion tank: open or membrane (closed). An open heating system is due to the low velocity of the coolant, in contrast to a closed one.
For a water-type heating system, electric, solid fuel, gas and pyrolysis boilers are used.. For optimal functioning of the heating system, the boiler output must correspond to the heat output of the radiators.
It is not advisable to use gas boilers with a copper heat exchanger and aluminum batteries together, since copper enhances the corrosive properties of aluminum. The same principle should be considered when choosing pipes: copper pipes cannot be used with aluminum batteries.
When choosing pipes, preference should be given to copper or steel, they will additionally create efficiency, since they themselves tend to heat up.
Another characteristic of radiators is the working pressure.which indicates the maximum allowable water pressure in the device.
- Aluminum 10–15 atmospheres
- Cast iron 6–9
- Bimetallic 20–30
- Steel 6–15
- Copper 10–16
The table shows the data that should be relied upon when choosing the power of the radiotor, taking into account different combinations:
Heating radiators are made from various metals, which have their own advantages and disadvantages.
Cast iron batteries are located in most apartments of multi-storey old buildings built in the post-war period.. Today, heaters made of cast iron of a new type are produced, which differ in external design, do not need priming and painting.
The power is 0.15 kW per section, which is in line with the average.
Advantages: retain heat for a long time, large wall thickness, corrosion resistance, durability (up to 100 years).
- Over time, tend to clogi, as the operation progresses, the heat transfer coefficient decreases;
- Difficulty of installation;
- Old style cast iron needs primer and paint;
- big weight, which does not allow them to be installed on plasterboard and aerated concrete walls.
They have an aesthetic appearance, high heat transfer coefficient (0.2 kW per section), low weight, which facilitates their installation.. Produced, mainly, sectional type. They have increased inertia: they heat up quickly, but also cool down quickly.
Disadvantages include their susceptibility to corrosiontherefore, before installing them, it is necessary to check the quality of the coolant for the content of alkaline and acidic compounds.
It is undesirable to use aluminum radiators in conjunction with copper pipes or a boiler with a copper heat exchanger, as this metal increases corrosion.
Widespread in the private sector, thanks to the aesthetic design and the possibility of a built-in temperature control function. Available in three types: panel, tubular and sectional, the most common — panel type, low cost and low operating pressure.
They have a small power up to 0.15 kW per section, but able to keep warm for a long time.
Flaws: short service life, low resistance to pressure drops, susceptibility to corrosion.
Made of two types of metal: the outer box is made of aluminum and the core is made of steel or copper. Advantages:
- Good heat transfer (0.2 kW per section);
- Corrosion resistance, since the coolant is in contact with a copper or steel core;
- High working pressure;
- Light weight;
- Aesthetic design;
- Long service life.
The disadvantage is the higher price, but due to good heat dissipation, fewer heating sections will be required.
In terms of technical characteristics, they are the best, but have the only drawback — high cost, which is offset by their quality and reliability.
- High efficiency;
- High working pressure;
- Resistance to corrosion, chemical compounds;
- Aesthetic design;
- Long service life;
- Environmental friendliness;
Prices for radiators
Copper radiators are expensive, but this is offset by their quality and long service life.. Cheaper options are aluminum and steel panel heat exchangers, but they have a limited lifespan.
Approximate cost of radiators for 1 section in rubles:
Cast iron — 400;
Aluminum — 500;
Steel — 900, panel — 4.000;
Bimetallic — 800;
Copper — 25.000 (price for one heat exchanger, 830 mm wide)
“I have a small house of 60 m², I installed steel panel radiators, I heat them with an electric boiler, they heat normally, I don’t complain. At the first start, I artificially increased the pressure in the pipes to check — they survived.
“I put 85 aluminum sections on a house of 100 m², I am heated by a gas boiler. At a temperature of ‑150C I set 60 degrees in the boiler, the batteries do an excellent job, it’s hot at home.
“We have a house on two floors, the pressure in the pipes is low, an electric pump is connected. Installed inexpensive bimetallic radiators. We survived one winter in comfortable conditions, but after 1.5 years a leak was discovered in one of the batteries, and I could not understand what it was connected with.
“I have all the wiring in the house on two floors of copper, the radiators are also copper, the system has been functioning without failures for 7 years. I am a supporter of acquiring the highest quality materials, because we only live once! But I save on installation, I do everything with my own hands.
Summing up: what to choose?
The undoubted leader in terms of technical characteristics among heating radiators is a copper heat exchanger, but it also has the highest cost.. However, with its long service life, you can install a heating system once and for life.
Bimetal heaters are the best option for a private house, they are distinguished by good technical characteristics, relative to their low price.
Cast iron batteries have a long service life and are ideal for private homes. with an open heating system, due to their property to retain heat for a long time. The same quality is possessed by steel radiators of sectional type, but they have a short service life.
For closed heating systems, any heat exchangers are suitable. For houses with a large area, a good option would be aluminum batteries, which tend to heat up quickly and are of low cost.
Watch the video instruction on how to replace the heating radiator: